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of the 
State Department of Archives and History 


Printed by 
Christian Printing Company 
Durham, North Carolina 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 

Willie Person Mangum. From an oil portrait ( c. 1859), by William Garl Browne, in the possession 
of the Dialectic Society, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

North Carolina State Library 




Volume Five 

State Department of Archives and History 


Worfh Carolina State Libn 

^ F ( 


McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 
Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne 

Fletcher M. Green William Thomas Laprade 

Clarence W. Griffin Mrs. Sadie Smathers Patton 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 



Preface vii 

List of Illustrations ix 

A Calendar of Manuscripts in The Mangum Papers (1847-1894) 

Omitted in This Volume xi 

A Chronological List of Mangum Papers Included in 

This Volume xxv 

A Chronological List of Mangum Speeches Included in 

This Volume xxxv 

Symbols Used to Designate The Location of Mangum Papers xxxvi 

Errata xxxvii 

The Mangum Papers 1 

Speeches of Willie P. Mangum 485 

Reminiscences of Mangum Descendants 746 

Index 765 


The fifth and last volume of the Mangum Papers contains 
the letters for the years 1847-1894. Although Mangum died in 
1861, I am including manuscripts for the years 1861-1894 which 
relate directly to Mangum. Other manuscripts for these years 
which are deposited in the several collections of Mangum papers 
and which are omitted from this publication are carried in a 
descriptive calendar in the introductory section of this volume. 

In addition to the manuscripts for 1847-1894, I am adding 
those for the years prior to 1847 that were located after the 
publications of the volume for the dates in which they logically 
belonged. I am including the reminiscences of two of the de- 
scendants as well as the long speeches of Senator Mangum. I 
have omitted numerous brief speeches which appear in the pub- 
lications of the debates of Congress. On page xxxvii of this vol- 
ume are added a few corrections of errors discovered in earlier 
volumes, although no effort is made to correct misspelled words, 
typographical errors and other minor mistakes. 

As editor of these five volumes, I have been disappointed 
that several gaps in the Mangum papers, especially for the years 
of volume V, could not be filled. I also regret that, despite a 
careful search, more of Mangum's own letters were not dis- 
covered. They would add much to the publication. Even so, I 
feel that the papers have real value to the historian. A "mag- 
nificent collection" is the way Professor Arthur Charles Cole 
in The Whig Party in the South (Washington, D. C, 1913), 
p. 346, describes the Mangum collection which is now in the 
Library of Congress and from which most of the papers in these 
published volumes have come. It compares, he adds, "very 
favorably with the Crittenden collection." 

Again I wish to express my appreciation to several persons 
who have assisted me in preparing these volumes. Mrs. Margaret 
F. Johnson of the Alabama Power Company, Birmingham, Ala- 
bama, has generously allowed me to use her Company's com- 
plete set of the Register of Debates and Congressional Globe 
for checking the speeches included in the fifth volume. I owe a 
special debt of gratitude to Dr. Frank Monaghan, Washington, 
D. C, for furnishing me the typescript of several of Mangum's 
letters which were never located in the original. I am indebted 

viii Preface 

to Miss Anne Leach Turner and Miss Marie Alma Turner of 
Raleigh, North Carolina, for numerous helpful suggestions and 
for providing the family reminiscences of Judge Mangum. Miss 
Sallie Preston Weeks of Washington, D. C, has provided many 
illustrations, family letters, and other papers which greatly en- 
rich the volumes. To her and to Mr. Mangum Turner of Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, who has also provided illustrations, 
family letters, his own reminiscences, and a drawing of the 
Walnut Hall grounds, I owe a special debt of gratitude. Mr. 
Mangum Weeks, of Alexandria, Virginia, has furnished or lo- 
cated numerous illustrations; he wrote the legends for most of 
the illustrations in the several volumes. He has also carefully 
read the entire manuscript of the five volumes, has offered in- 
numerable suggestions for improvement and in various other 
ways has provided unique services. His continuing assistances 
and advice have been invaluable. For all of these services I am, 
therefore, particularly indebted. Finally to Mr. D. L. Corbitt 
of the State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, North 
Carolina, and his staff I am sincerely thankful for constant co- 
operation, valuable advice, and patient assistance. 


Birmingham, Alabama 
May 1, 1956 


1. Willie Person Mangum Frontispiece 

2. Letter of Abraham Lincoln to Willie Person Mangum 153 

3. "The United States Senate, A.D. 1850" 178 

4. Key to "The United States Senate, A.D. 1850" 178 

5. "Webster at Franklin: The Home of his Childhood." 185 

6. Lieutenant General Winfield Scott 225 

7. Willie Person Mangum 264 

8. Pocket Bible of Lieutenant William Preston Mangum 405 

9. (a) Marker of the Spot where Lieutenant William Preston 

Mangum fell 410 

(b) View of First Manassas Battlefield 410 

10. (a) William Preston Leach 420 

(b) Annie Preston Leach 420 

11. (a) Sallie Mangum Leach 428 

(b) Marie Alma Leach 428 

12. Mahogany Secretary of Willie Person Mangum 438 

13. Walnut Tea Table of Willie Person Mangum 467 

14. Pieces of Furniture of Willie Person Mangum 518 

15. (a) Money Belt and Bellows used by Willie Person Mangum .. 540 
(b) Mahogany Sofa of Willie Person Mangum 540 

16. Plan of the Grounds of Willie Person Mangum's Country Estate 650 

17. Key to the Grounds of Willie Person Mangum's Estate 650 

18. (a) North Carolina Historical Marker 695 

(b) The Willie P. Mangum Medal of Oratory 695 




1. January 5, 1847. Hugh Waddell, Raleigh, to W. P. Mangum asking 
his support for the appointment of Dr. John W. Hutchings, of 
Murfreesboro, as assistant surgeon in the Navy. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

2. January 21, 1847. James Norcom, Edenton, to W. P. Mangum ask- 
ing his support for the application of his son, Casper W. Norcom, 
for a commission in the United States Army. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

3. February 12, 1847. Edward Stanly, New Bern, to W. P. Mangum 
recommending Guion Scott, of New Bern, for a commission in 
one of the regiments to be raised to fight Mexico. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

4. February 15, 1847. James H. R. Taylor, Camp Aqua Nuava, 
Mexico, to W. P. Mangum asking his aid in obtaining for Dr. 
L. M. Allen a commission of assistant surgeon. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

5. February 22, 1847. Thomas J. Lemay, Raleigh, to W. P. Mangum 
asking Mangum's aid in helping H. S. Smith, son of B. B. Smith, 
of Raleigh, in his application for a Federal appointment. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

6. February 27, 1847. E. Ivy Morris and others, Philadelphia, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a dinner on March 5 in honor of 
Andrew Stewart, of Pennsylvania. MS in the Library of Congress. 

7. February 29, 1847. T. L. Smith to W. P. Mangum enclosing 
papers and asking his assistance in support of Mr. Myerle's claims 
before the Senate. (The "enclosed papers" were not found.) MS 
in the Duke University Library. 

8. May 6, 1847. Asbury Dickins, Washington, to W. P. Mangum 
enclosing (the enclosure was not found) a letter from a servant 
of Mangum. Asks about Mangum's family. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

9. September 1, 1847. Charles Phillips and others, University of 
North Carolina, to P. H. Mangum asking for a donation for a 
monument for former President Joseph Caldwell. This is a 
duplicate of the one to W. P. Mangum which is included in this 
volume. MS in the Library of Congress. 

10. August 21, 1848. Printed circular of a Committee of Invitation of 
the Rough and Ready Club of Atlanta inviting Mangum to a 
"Grand Mass Meeting" September 14. MS in the Library of 


xii Manuscript Omitted 

11. August 21, 1848. C. P. Dorman, Lexington, Virginia, to W. P. 
Mangum inviting Mangum to attend the State Whig Convention 
September 19 at Lexington. MS in the Library of Congress. 

12. September 7, 1848. A. A. Brown, of Wilmington, to W. P. Mangum 
inviting him to a mass meeting at Warsaw between the fourth 
and fifteenth of October. MS in the Library of Congress. 

13. September 28, 1848. J. Winecoff and others, Concord, N. C, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting of the Taylor 
Club of Cabarrus County at Rocky River October 14, 1848. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

14. October 7, 1848. J. M. Leach and others to W. P. Mangum inviting 
Mangum to a mass meeting of friends of Taylor at Eli Harris' 
November 3, 1848. MS in the Library of Congress. 

15. October 7, 1848. John M. Morehead and others, Greensboro, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Taylor mass meeting at Greens- 
boro October 27, 1848. MS in the Library of Congress. 

16. October 14, 1848. F. H. Hawks and others, Greenville, North 
Carolina, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Taylor mass meeting 
November 4, 1848. MS in the Library of Congress. 

17. October 23, 1848. N. Dimock, Washington, N. C, to W. P. Mangum 
urging him to attend the Taylor mass meeting at Greenville 
November 4. MS in the Library of Congress. 

18. April 9, 1849. John Burgwyn, Halifax, to requesting 

an introduction to Secretary of the Treasury Meredith because 
he is being sued on an "old Custom House Bond given in Wil- 
mington in 1819." MS in the Library of Congress. 

19. May 14, 1849. Daniel S. Lee, Strassburg, Virginia, to W. P. 
Mangum asking his aid in obtaining a Federal appointment. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

20. May 19, 1849. Augustus Moore, Edenton, to W. P. Mangum, 
asking for letters of introduction to Mangum's friends in Ohio, 
Kentucky, and Missouri where Moore hopes to settle. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

21. June 15, 1849. Quarterly Scholarship Report from Wake Forest 
College for P. H. Mangum's son. MS in the Library of Congress. 

22. October 25, 1849. J. A. Spencer, Utica, N. Y., to W. P. Mangum 
asking him to send "the enclosed" (the enclosed is not in the 
Mangum Papers) to John B. Fry. MS in the Library of Congress. 

23. October 29, 1849. Robert Ransom, Warrenton, to W. P. Mangum 
asking Mangum to assist him in being appointed as one of the 
visitors to West Point in June, 1850. His son graduated at that 
time. MS in the Library of Congress. 

24. March 15, 1850. N. T. Green and others, of Warrenton, to the 
Misses Mangum inviting them «to a cotillion party at Goodloe's 
Hotel, Warrenton, April 11 and 12. MS in the Library of Con- 

Manuscript Omitted xiii 

25. April 7, 1850. James W. Bryan, New Bern, to W. P. Mangum 
introducing George W. Howard, of New Bern, who was on his 
way north. MS in the Library of Congress. 

26. September 9, 1850. Iley Dezene, Hillsboro, to P. H. Mangum 
asking him to obtain his release from jail for the non-payment 
of a bill and court costs. MS in the Library of Congress. 

27. October 11, 1850. James D. Usher, Norfolk, Virginia, to W. P. 
Mangum asking his assistance to obtain an appointment as a 
lieutenant in the Dragoon Corps. MS in the Library of Congress. 

28. March 13, 1851. W. P. Mangum, Senate Chamber, to W. A. 
Graham introducing "Mr. Wilson," who wishes to see Graham. 
MS in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North 

29. March 20, 1851. W. P. Mangum to W. A. Graham introducing 
"Mr. Gamage," of South Carolina, a Union man who desired 
to "make your acquaintance." MS in the William A. Graham 
Papers, University of North Carolina. 

30. March 28, 1851. W. P. Mangum, Washington, to W. A. Graham 
introducing midshipman S. Bassett, son of a former officer of 
the Senate, who wished to talk to Graham about his professional 
duties. MS in the William A. Graham Papers, University of 
North Carolina. 

31. April 24, 1851. W. P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin introducing 
John M. Waterhouse, of New York City, who "desires to have 
an interview with you upon matters of interest to the public 
service." MS in the Thomas Corwin Papers, Library of Congress. 

32. May 14, 1851. Robert Ransom, Warrenton, to W. P. Mangum ask- 
ing assistance to obtain a pension for the son of Thomas Eaton 
for Thomas Eaton's Revolutionary service. MS in the Library of 

33. June 28, 1851. E. T. Montgomery and others, Canton, Mississippi, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting and barbecue 
at Canton August 1-2, 1851, in support of the Union. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

34. September 25, 1851. J. A. Dean and J. P. Bailey, South Lowell, 
Orange County, to Charity A. Mangum giving the monthly 
scholastic grades for William Preston Mangum. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

35. February 19, 1852. W. P. Mangum, Senate Chamber, to W. A. 
Graham recommending A. L. Yerby for appointment in the 
executive departments. MS in the William A. Graham Papers, 
University of North Carolina. 

36. September 14, 1852. Hugh Waddell and others, Hillsboro, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to participate in the public demon- 
stration "on Friday next" for the Whig candidates. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

xiv Manuscript Omitted 

37. September 27, 1852. Thomas P. Atkinson and others, Danville, 
Virginia, to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a barbecue at 
Thompson's Grove October 8. MS in the Library of Congress. 

38. September 28, 1852. William H. Haigh and others, Fayetteville, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a "mass meeting" at Fayette- 
ville October 21. MS in the Library of Congress. 

39. October 1, 1852. C. A. Harrison and others, Clinton, North 
Carolina, to W. P. Mangum inviting Mangum to address the 
Whigs of Sampson, Johnson, Wayne, and Cumberland counties 
October 29. MS in the Library of Congress. 

40. October 4, 1852. E. J. Warren and others, Washington, N. C, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to speak at a mass meeting in 
Beaufort County October 20-21. MS in the Library of Congress. 

41. October 4, 1852. Ralph Gorrell and others, Greensboro, N. C, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting at Ramsborough 
October 19. MS in the Library of Congress. 

42. October 4, 1852. F. B. McMillan and others, Hamptonville, N. C, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig mass meeting October 
14 and 15. MS in the Library of Congress. 

43. October 5, 1852. George Davis and others, Wilmington, N. C, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to speak for Scott and Graham 
at Wilmington within the next fifteen days. Asks if Mangum's 
nephew, Cain, is to vote for Pierce as reported. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

44. October 7, 1852. W. J. Baker and others, Gatesville, N. C, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting at Warrell's 
Mineral Spring, October 23. MS in the Library of Congress. 

45. October 11, 1852. F. J. Hill and others, Pittsboro, N. C, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig mass meeting at Pittsboro 
the last Friday and Saturday of the month. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

46. October 11, 1852. William C. Warren and others, Edenton, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting at Edenton 
October 26. MS in the Library of Congress. 

47. October 12, 1852. Robert B. Gilliam and others, Oxford, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a "Scott and Graham" barbecue 
at Henderson October 22. MS in the Library of Congress. 

48. October 12, 1852. Samuel J. Calvert and others, Jackson, N. C, 
to W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig mass meeting at 
Jackson October 29. MS in the Library of Congress. 

49. October 20, 1852. R. B. Gilliam and others, Franklinton, to 
W. P. Mangum inviting him to a Whig meeting at Brassfields 
in Granville County October 30. MS in the Library of Congress. 

50. November 6, 1852. A printed letter from Nathan Sargent, Wash- 
ington, to suggesting that it was an appropriate time 

to erect a national monument for Henry Clay. On the printed 

Manuscript Omitted xv 

sheet is a letter from W. P. Mangum and other Whig Congress- 
men, August 27, 1852, to N. Sargent suggesting that the time 
was inappropriate. MS in the Library of Congress. 

51. Fall, 1852. Newspaper clipping from the Raleigh Register (the 
date is not given) explaining Kenneth Rayner's failure to work 
for the Whig candidates, Scott and Graham, in the recent elec- 
tion. MS in Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, N. C. 

52. C. 1853. No date listed. School report card of William Preston 
Mangum in his fifth semester at South Lowell Male Academy. 
MS in the Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, N. C. 

53. February 7, 1853. N. B. Buckley, Wilmington, Delaware, to 

asking for a copy of the "Extra Globe and Index." 

MS in the Library of Congress. 

54. February 10, 1853. William B. Rose, Washington, Pa., formerly 
of N. C, to W. P. Mangum asking for the "24th Vol. of the 
Congressional Globe (in 3 parts)." MS in the Library of Con- 

55. March, 1853. Attached to other letters about witnesses sent to 
New Jersey in a case involving the Duncan Cameron estate, is 
one from W. P. Mangum certifying that Philip Sutherland was 
of "honest & trustworthy people." MS in the Duncan Cameron 
Papers, University of North Carolina. 

56. April 26, 1853. Joseph S. Jones, Edenton, to W. P. Mangum ask- 
ing his assistance to secure his appointment as disburser of 
funds for the opening of Nag's Head. MS in the Library of Con- 

57. November 15, 1853. Printed circular announcing the school 
program of South Lowell Male Academy. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

58. April 7, 1854. James A. Dean, South Lowell Academy, to W. P. 
Mangum including William Preston Mangum' s monthly school 
report. MS in the Library of Congress. 

59. September 26, 1854. Sworn statement of Sally Ashly that her 
husband, Robert Ashly, deceased, had just claims for a Revolu- 
tionary pension. MS in the Library of Congress. 

60. November 13, 1854. Invitation from B. A. Lockhart and others 
to inviting to a party at the Red Moun- 
tain Female Academy, December 6, 1854. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

61. March 22, 1855. Sally A. (Mangum) Leach, Hillsboro, to Charity 
A. Mangum about family and inconsequential personal matters. 
The letter is badly torn and in places is illegible. It is, therefore, 
omitted. MS in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

62. August 29, 1855. N. W. Woodfin and others, Asheville, to W. P. 
Mangum inviting him to a mass meeting of the American Party 
October 18. MS in the Library of Congress. 

xvi Manuscript Omitted 

63. January 7, 1856. H. L. Smith to W. P. Mangum informing him of 
his election as a member of the board of trustees of the York 
College Institute and thereby an honorary member of the 
Society. MS in the Library of Congress. 

64. January, 1856. R. Tompkins, Clarksville, Tennessee, to W. P. 
Mangum asking information that would help him obtain land 
in Kentucky for a family of Allisons for the land granted to 
their ancestor, Colonel John Allison, a Revolutionary soldier. 
The letter includes much on the family connections. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

65. January 5, 1858. L. G. McMillian, Elyton, Alabama, to W. P. 
Mangum about the pension claims of William Speer, formerly 
of Surry County, North Carolina. MS in the Library of Con- 

66. March 30, 1858. F. M. Hubbard to Willie P. Mangum explaining 
why William M. Cozart could not be readmitted to the Univer- 
sity. Letter in MS is pinned in the front of the copy of Lives of 
William R. Davie and Samuel Kirkland in the North Carolina 
Room, University of North Carolina. 

67. August 30, 1858. Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 
about the weather, crops, her children, and sickness. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

68. November 24, 1858. A rough draft in Martha Mangum's hand- 
writing of the copy of a letter from W. P. Mangum to M. H. 
Pinnix and others. (This is, with a few changes in wording, 
the same as the original copy printed in this volume.) MS 
in possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

69. July 4, 1859. Printed announcement of military entertainment 
of the Hillsborough Military Academy July 4, 1859. "With the 
compliment of W. Cain" (the future professor of mathematics 
at the University). MS in the Library of Congress. 

70. February 15, 1860. Anna L. Davis (Charity A. Mangum's sister) 
to Martha P. Mangum about different members of her family — 
their health, marriages, children, and education. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

71. October 4, 1861. Leonard H. Mangum, Point Pleasant, Missouri, 
to P. H. Mangum, II, telling him about the maneuvers and 
prospects of his military organization in Missouri. He adds this 
sentence: "The death of William and Uncle Willie, was indeed 
sad, I deeply sympathize with Aunt Charity cousin Pattie & 
Mary." MS in the Library of Congress. 

72. October 5, 1861. Allen Tilley to Martha P. Mangum explaining 
how "lieutenant William Preston Mangum was taken from the 
field after he was wounded." MS in the Library of Congress. 

73. October 14, 1861. A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum de- 
scribing his life and the happenings in camp. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

Manuscript Omitted xvii 

74. November 16, 1861. Robert F. Webb to Martha P. Mangum en- 
closing the certificate of pay for William Preston Mangum. He 
relates the events connected with William Preston Mangum's 
being wounded. He also describes his personal feelings about the 
boy. MS in the Library of Congress. 

75. November 29, 1861. to Charity A. Mangum inform- 
ing her that the Treasurer of the Confederate States would 
remit to her $120.33 due her son when he was killed. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

76. December 26, 1861. L. H. Mangum, Bowling Green, Ky., to P. H. 
Mangum, II, describing his feelings about the war, camp life, 
and his disappointment at W. P. Mangum, Jr. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

77. January, 1862. Printed circular or advertisement of the "Select 
Boarding and Day School of the Misses Nash and Miss Pollock," 
Hillsboro. The course of study, fees, and academic regulations. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

78. January 5, 1862. A. S. Carrington, Camp Fisher, to Martha P. 
Mangum informing her that he was sending "Preston's uniform 
coat." MS in the Library of Congress. 

79. January 9, 1862. A. W. Mangum, Salisbury, to Martha P. Man- 
gum describing his work with the Federal prisoners. He also 
writes about a letter he had received from Mrs. V/aggoner. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

80. February 8, 1862. L. H. Mangum, camp near Bowling Green, to 
P. H. Mangum, II, speculating on what Albert Sidney Johnston 
would do. News about members of the family is also included. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

81. March 16, 1862. M. E. and Ella Wadsworth, Core Creek, N. C, 
to Marth P. Mangum describing the Federal capture and pillage 
of New Bern. MS in the Library of Congress. 

82. (probably March or April, 1862) Ella Wadsworth, 

Mount Preston, to Martha P. Mangum telling of Federal pillage 
and atrocities to the people of the occupied section of North 
Carolina. MS in the Library of Congress. 

83. April 8, 1862. L. H. Mangum, Corinth, Miss., to P. H. Mangum, 
II, about his wounds at Shiloh. MS in the Library of Congress. 

84. April 11, 1862. L. H. Mangum, camp near Corinth, Miss., to 
P. H. Mangum, II, about the maneuvers of the forces under Gen- 
eral Albert Sidney Johnston. MS in the Library of Congress. 

85. April 12, 1862. R. T. Williams, Helena, Arkansas, to P. H. 
Mangum, II, about the wounds of L. H. Mangum and the battle 
to Shiloh. MS in the Library of Congress. 

86. April 12, 1862. Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 
about family matters, war hardships, and the wisdom of selling 
the Mangum plantation and slaves. MS in the possession of 
Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

xviii Manuscript Omitted 

87. May 4, 1862. L. H. Mangum, Helena, Ark., to P. H. Mangum, 
II, about his wounds at Shiloh. He says that the Federal gun- 
boats will soon be "here" and he will have to flee. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

88. May 4, 1862. R. T. Williams, "Home," Arkansas, to Martha P. 
Mangum about L. H. Mangum's wounds at Shiloh and many 
bits of family news. MS in the Library of Congress. 

89. May 15, 1862. L. H. Mangum, Corinth, Miss., to P. H. Mangum, 
II. He left Helena because the Federals were near. He is not yet 
well and is afraid he will not be well enough to fight again 
soon. MS in the Library of Congress. 

90. May 18, 1862. M. J. Holliday, Forestville, N. C, to Martha P. 
Mangum informing her about L. H. Mangum's wounds. Included 
are several items of news about her family and relatives. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

91. May 21, 1862. M. E. Wadsworth to Martha P. Mangum inform- 
ing her that Dr. Cain and her mother would send to Abingdon 
for salt. MS in the Library of Congress. 

92. June 26, 1862. M. E. Wadsworth to Martha and Mary Mangum 
informing them about salt and several items of family news. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

93. July 2, 1862. Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum about the 
battle near Richmond and the persons wounded. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

94. December 8, 1862. O. N. Allen, Danville, Va., to Martha P. 
Mangum asking if her servant, Edmond, could live with him 
another year for $75. MS in the Library of Congress. 

95. December 18, 1862. Emma Graves to Martha P. Mangum 
explaining what she should do to establish a school. She en- 
closes a circular of R. H. Graves' school at Belmont, Granville 
County. MS in the Library of Congress. 

96. December 21, 1862. O. N. Allen, Danville, Va., to Martha P. 
Mangum replying to her letter and offering to hire her servant, 
Edmond, for the next year. Two paragraphs on prices. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

97. February 12, 1863. W. L. Pomeroy, Raleigh, to Martha P. Man- 
gum enclosing a bill of goods. He states that since books are 
very scarce, he hopes that she will return the ones she does 
not need. MS in the Library of Congress. 

98. February 16, 1863. Annie Parrish to Martha P. Mangum explain- 
ing that she has been unable to find many school books for 
her. MS in the Library of Congress. 

99. April 14, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, Tullahoma, Tennessee, to 
Martha P. Mangum. He is in Bragg's army ready for battle. 
Relates much family news. He is disgusted that four women 
of Helena, Arkansas, have married "Yankees." MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

Manuscript Omitted xix 

100. May 1, 1863. George W. Jones, Orange County, to Martha P. 
Mangum about his effort to buy corn and the high prices. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

101. June 4, 1863. Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Man- 
gum about the scarcity of salt, wounded friends, family matters, 
and depressed conditions. MS in the possession of Miss Preston 
Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

102. July 12, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum about 
Bragg's retreat and his failure to go to J. E. Johnston's support 
in Mississippi. Family news. MS in the Library of Congress. 

103. August 24, 1863. Receipt of Thomas Webb, administrator of 
Willie P. Mangum estate, to Charity A. Mangum for $431.25 
for the purchase of the personal estate of Willie P. Mangum. 
On the reverse side is the amount of the 1864 taxes. MS in the 
possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

104. September 25, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, "In front of Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn.," to Martha P. Mangum about the fight at Chicka- 
mauga. MS in the Library of Congress. 

105. October 24, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, Chattanooga, to Martha 
P. Mangum about the opposition to Bragg. Family matters. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

106. November 7, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, Chattanooga, to Martha 
P. Mangum about the Federal relations with the inhabitants of 
Helena, Arkansas. MS in the Library of Congress. 

107. November 18, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, "Headquarters 
Cleburne's Division Before Chattanooga Tenn.," to Martha P. 
Mangum about the death of a friend, Captain Kinsey, and the 
misery the "Yankees" bring by "urging on" the war. Family 
matters. MS in the Library of Congress. 

108. December 2, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, Tunnell Hill, Ga., to 
Martha P. Mangum describing the battles of Missionary Ridge 
and Ringgold. At Missionary Ridge the "enemy in our immediate 
front showed a courage and an indifference to death worthy of 
a better cause." MS in the Library of Congress. 

109. December 4, 1863. Leonard H. Mangum, Tunnel Hill, Ga., to 
Priestley H. Mangum, II, about his low pay, slow promotions, 
and the mistakes of Bragg at Missionary Ridge. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

110. 1863 or 1864. A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum explaining 
that he is preparing a new edition of his Myrtle Leaves for the 
press. It includes "The Holy Shield," an account of William 
Preston Mangum's death on the battlefield in 1861. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

111. January 21, 1864. Nathan Ivey, Lt. Col., "Headquarters 38th 

Regt. N. C. M." to Capt. ordering him to requisition 

slaves of S. S. Biddle and J. W. Forte and to take them to Wil- 
mington, N. C. MS in the Library of Congress. 

xx Manuscript Omitted 

112. January 23, 1864. John P. Lockhart, camp near Milford Station, 
Va., to Martha P. Mangum asking her to have her school girls 
prepare gloves for his Company K, 2nd N. C. Regt. Troops 
"fareing tolerable well now" in rations. MS in the Library of 

113. February 21, 1864. J. M. Leach, Lexington, to Mrs. M. W. Leach, 
explaining that he has recently handled several cases involving 
substitutes, that he has left his crops to the "unprincipled & 
desperate Yankees" but he has moved his slaves to Alabama. 
On his trip from west of the Mississippi he encountered Walter 
Mangum. Family news. MS in the Library of Congress. 

114. April 6, 1864. Leonard H. Mangum, Dalton, Ga., to Martha P. 
Mangum. Family news. Johnston's army ready for a fight. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

115. June 16, 1864. Tuition bill of James Carrington due M. P. 
Carrington. MS in the Library of Congress. 

116. 1864. Tuition bill of Luna Bobbitt due Martha P. Mangum. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

117. June 18, 1864. James F. Cain, Hillsboro, to Martha P. Mangum 
about the sale and shipment of flour and the exchange of corn 
to the Confederate government. He has distributed her adver- 
tisements for her school. MS in the Library of Congress. 

118. July 14, 1864. Leonard H. Mangum, near Atlanta, Ga., to P. H. 
Mangum, II. Family news, weather, crops, army incidents. MS 
in the Library of Congress. 

119. August 24, 1864. James F. Cain to Martha P. Mangum enclosing 
(1) a promissory note of Martha Mangum, James F. Cain, and 
Mary A. White to Thomas Webb, administrator of the Mangum 
estate, for "2385, dated January 3, 1863, and (2) a receipt of 
Thomas Webb dated September 14, 1863, for $530." In the letter 
Cain comments on the price of bacon and Addison Mangum's de- 
feat for a local office. MS in the possession of Mangum Turner, 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 

120. September 25, 1864. Leonard H. Mangum to P. H. Mangum, II. 
He expresses his opinion of Hood, Johnston, and Sherman. Asks 
Priestley for financial assistance to buy a uniform and equip- 
ment. MS in the Library of Congress. 

121. October 15, 1864. Martha P. Mangum to Governor Z. B. Vance 
appealing to him to have the community's only doctor, E. M. 
Holt, released from the last "call" for military service. MS in 
the Library of Congress. 

122. November 1, 1864. James F. Cain to Martha P. Mangum offering 
to sell her ten barrels of flour at $100 a barrel. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

123. December 4, 1864. John P. Lockhart, Company K, 2nd N. C. 
Cavalry to Martha P. Mangum describing an attack of the 
Federals at Stony Creek, near Petersburg. "Patriotism is nearly 

Manuscript Omitted xxi 

played out and men will (as a general thing) have to be made 
to fight by stern dicipline." He is still determined in his opposi- 
tion to reconstruction. MS in the Library of Congress. 

124. December 16, 1864. Report of Anne Carrington at "Miss Man- 
gum's Private School." MS in the Library of Congress. 

125. December 21, 1864. M. J. Holliday, Wake Forest, to Martha P. 
Mangum rejoicing that they have a minister, Dr. John T. Wheat, 
formerly on the University faculty. Family news. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

126. 1864 or 1865. Miss S. K. Nash, Hillsboro, to Martha P. Mangum 
explaining fees and regulations of her school. MS in the Library 
of Congress. 

127. January 2, 1865. Printed advertising circular of St. Mary's 
School in Raleigh. MS in the Library of Congress. 

128. January 27, 1865. Martha P. Mangum to Sally A. (Mangum) 
Leach. Family news. She expresses her faith in ultimate success of 
the Confederates. MS in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, 
Washington, D. C. 

129. Early 1865. Printed advertising circular of "Miss Mangum's 
Private School." MS in the Library of Congress. 

130. March 22, 1865. Rowena R. Hawkins to Martha P. Mangum. 
Family matters. MS in the Library of Congress. 

131. April 8, 1865. Receipt of the Confederate States to Mrs. W. P. 
Mangum for eighteen bushels of corn. At the bottom is a form 
of a receipt which is not filled out. MS in the Library of Con- 

132. Summer, 1865. Printed advertising circular of "Miss Mangum's 
School." MS in the Library of Congress. 

133. October 20, 1865. Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Man- 
gum. Family news. Desertion of her slaves at the close of the war. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

134. November 20, TB65. James F. Cain to Martha P. Mangum about 
her freed slaves. Because of the depressed conditions he states 
that he looks forward to death of all his "kin." MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

135. November 20, 1865. Lieutenant W. H. Crockett, Freedman's 
Bureau, to Charity A. Mangum explaining what she should pay 
her former slave, Anderson, for the time he worked for her 
after Johnston's surrender. MS in the Library of Congress. 

136. January 1, 1866. Indenture between Priestley H. Mangum, II, 
and free laborers under which the laborers agree to do faithfully 
all kinds of common labor on the farms and P. H. Mangum, II, to 
furnish them with quarters, rations, and certain designated 
amounts of money. MS in the Library of Congress. 

xxii Manuscript Omitted 

137. July 1, 1866. James F. Cain to Martha P. Mangum. Compliments 
her for her garden, her school, and her kindnesses. Urges her 
to raise her fees for her school. Family news. Complains of the 
"imposed" government. MS in the Library of Congress. 

138. November 20, 1866. J. W. McKee, Caldwell, N. C, to Martha P. 
Mangum. He desires to send one or both of his daughters to 
her school. Asks her to recommend Little River Academy to 
her friends. MS in the Library of Congress. 

139. December 4, 1866. William H. Owen, Lexington, N. C, to Martha 
P. Mangum proposing that she transfer her school to him and 
she run it, the profits to be divided. MS in the Library of Con- 

140. 1866-1867. Printed advertising circular of the Little River Select 
School, Orange County, N. C. MS in the Library of Congress. 

141. January 18, 1867. James F. Cain, to Martha P. Mangum. Family 
matters. Hard times for schools. Advises her on investments. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

142. October 21, 1867. H. C. Vogell, Freedman's Bureau, Raleigh, 
N. C, to Martha P. Mangum. Asks her to call at his office to 
give her opinion on Anderson Ray's complaint that he does 
not get his rightful share of the crop. MS in the Library of Con- 

143. October 26, 1867. George W. Mordecai, Raleigh, to James F. 
Cain. He "waited on Dr. Vogell and received the communica- 
tion" listed as number 141. He wishes no intercourse with "our 
rulers." MS in the Library of Congress. 

144. October 26, 1867. H. C. Vogell, Raleigh, to Martha P. Mangum 
asserting that her explanation of Anderson's complaint was 
entirely satisfactory. He apologizes for the concern his com- 
munication gave her. MS in the Library of Congress. 

145. November 18, 1867. M. J. Holliday, Northampton County, N. C, 
to Martha P. Mangum. Depressed conditions of business. The 
"arrogance" of the Negroes. Family news. MS in the Library of 

146. May 2, 1869. Josiah Turner, Jr., Hillsboro, to Martha P. Man- 
gum. Explains his failure to write but rejoices that she likes the 
Raleigh Sentinel. MS in the Library of Congress. 

147. February, 1871. A statement of the tuition rates at "Miss Man- 
gum's School." MS in the Library of Congress. 

148. July 7, 1871. Mrs. John B. Burwell, Charlotte, N. C, to Martha 
P. Mangum. Tells of her mother's death. She and her father will 
continue the school. MS in the Library of Congress. 

149. March 20, 1878. Thomas Ruffin to Martha P. Mangum explain- 
ing that he had straightened out the claims of Thomas Webb 
against the Willie P. Mangum estate and that the estate was 
now clear of all debts. MS in the possession of Mangum Turner, 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Manuscript Omitted xxiii 

150. May 23, 1878. P. Bouldin, Danville, Va., to Martha P. Man- 
gum. Thanks her for her praise of his book. He will send her 
the picture he has. MS in the Library of Congress. 

151. Summer, 1878. Printed advertising circular of Flat River 
Academy. MS in the Library of Congress. 

152. April 28, 1881. P. H. Mangum, II, Wake Forest, to Martha P. 
Mangum. An account of the death at Tientsin, China, of his 
brother, Willie P. Mangum, Jr. MS in the Library of Congress. 

153. June 9, 1881. A. W. Mangum, Chapel Hill, N. C, to Martha P. 
Mangum, explaining that he would raise the money to endow 
a chair in moral philosophy at the University of North Caro- 
lina. The Mangum Medal, he said, was won at the recent com- 
mencement by J. M. Leach. It was presented by Robert B. 
Vance. General Mallett, of New York, addressed the graduates. 
MS in the Library of Congress. 

154. July 6, 1894. R. F. Lewis to Julian S. Carr, enclosing Con- 
federate Tract No. 96 "The Holy Shield," taken from A. W. 
Mangum's Myrtle Leaves. (This is the story of William Preston 
Mangum's wound at the Battle of First Manassas. The tract is 
not in the Mangum Papers.) MS in the Library of Congress. 

155. May 17, 1897. Thomas Hume, Chapel Hill, N. C, to Martha P. 
Mangum about the awarding of the Mangum Medal. MS in the 
Library of Congress. 

156. No date. About twenty-five loose newspaper clippings about 
Mangum. MSS in the Duke University Library. 

157. No date. Newspaper clipping on "Life at the Springs" about a 
hotel attendant who posed as Willie P. Mangum, Jr., at Saratoga 
Springs. MS in the Library of Congress. 

158. No date. Invitation from Mr. Taylor, President's Square, to 
Willie P. Mangum to call. The date was probably 1843 or 1848. 
MS in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks. 

159. No date. Invitations to dinner from Hamilton Fish, James 
Iredell, J. K. Preuss, Henry Clay, Asbury Dickins, J. P. Van 
Ness, the President of the United States, and Madame Pageot. 
MSS in the Duke University Library and in the possession of 
Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

160. No date. Invitation of the Managers of the Washington Assem- 
blies (Mangum was one of the managers) to Miss Decima Preuss 
to a dance. MS in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston- 
Salem, N. C. 

161. No date. Many personal visiting cards. MSS in the Duke Uni- 
versity Library and in the possession of Mangum Weeks, Winston- 
Salem, N. C. 

162. No date. Rough notes in Mangum's handwriting for a speech. 
Apparently they are the notes for a speech in the early part of 
Tyler's administration. The notes are torn and illegible. MS in 
the Duke University Library. 

xxiv Manuscript Omitted 

163. Several of Mangum's speeches copied by A. W. Mangum. They 
were apparently taken from the Register of Debates and the 
Congressional Globe. MSS in the Southern Collection, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

164. "Trial Causes" for the February and November terms of the 
North Carolina Supreme Court in 1822. They included the list 
of cases, the attorneys, dates of the court decisions. MS in the 
Duke University Library. 

165. No date. Six brief papers apparently written by William Preston 
Mangum as a part of his school work at the University. MSS 
in the Duke University Library. 

166. Willie P. Mangum's Bible which includes a list of children of 
his slaves. In the Duke University Library. 

(The remainder of the omitted papers were discovered after the 
volumes in which they logically belonged were published.) 

167. April 5, 1828. Report of the survey of the line between Walter 
A. Mangum and William Lunsford's son. MS in the possession 
of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 

168. June 20, 1831. School report of Sally A. Mangum from Hills- 
borough Female Academy. MS in the possession of Miss Preston 
Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

169. Probably March 9, 1840. Indenture of Willie N. White and Mary 
Cain Sutherland. MS in the possession of Mangum Turner, 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 

170. November 6, 1844. Draft on the Bank of Metropoly, Washington, 
D. C, for $150 by James Webb. MS in the possession of Man- 
gum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 













[1847,] Jan. 
1847, Jan. 







































[1847,] Feb. 
1847, Feb. 






















































, Mar. 



of the 



William H. Morrell to Willie P. Mangum 1 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 3 

Rush Peters to Willie P. Mangum 5 

J. H. Watters to Willie P. Mangum 7 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum 9 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 9 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum 11 

P. H. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 12 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 13 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum 15 

Richard Hines to Willie P. Mangum 15 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 16 

Harman Blennarhassett & Jos. Lewis 

Blennerhassett to Willie P. Mangum 17 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 18 

John D. Amis to Willie P. Mangum 20 

Silas E. Burrows to Willie P. Mangum 21 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 22 

John McLean to Willie P. Mangum 23 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 23 

Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum 26 

to Willie P. Mangum 28 

William A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum and 

enclosures 28 

William A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum 34 

E. J. Foster to Willie P. Mangum 37 

Lewis Cass to Willie P. Mangum 38 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 39 

Jeremiah Pearsall to Willie P. Mangum 40 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 42 

Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. Mangum 44 

John Kerr to Priestley Mangum 45 

Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. Mangum 47 

S. R. Hobbin to Willie P. Mangum 47 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 48 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 50 

John Witherspoon to George E. Badger 50 

E. Ivy Morris & others to Willie P. Mangum 52 

William H. Thomas to Willie P. Mangum 53 

Addison Mangum to Willie P. Mangum, Jr 53 

William Hickey to Willie P. Mangum 55 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 56 


Chronological List of Papers 



































































































[1848,] Mar. 










































F. H. Davidge to Willie P. Mangum 58 

James Stone & others to Willie P. Mangum 60 

Laurie to Willie P. Mangum and enclosure 60 

Peter Skew Smith to Willie P. Mangum 62 

James M. Crane to Willie P. Mangum 63 

W. W. Seaton to Willie P. Mangum 64 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum 65 

Daniel D. Phillips to Willie P. Mangum 68 

C. H. Wiley to Willie P. Mangum 68 

William Preston Mangum's School Report 70 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 70 

C. H. Wiley to Willie P. Mangum 71 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 73 

N. P. Tallmadge to Willie P. Mangum 74 

F. H. Davidge to Willie P. Mangum 75 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum 77 

Charles Phillips & others to Willie P. Mangum .. 80 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 81 

H. H. Clements to Willie P. Mangum 82 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 83 

Waddy Thompson to Willie P. Mangum 85 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 86 

Willie P. Mangum & others to Bishop Hughes .... 86 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 88 

Willie P. Mangum to James K. Polk 88 

Corcoran & Riggs to Willie P. Mangum and 

enclosure 89 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 90 

Willie P. Mangum to David L. Swain 91 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 92 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 97 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 97 

P. H. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum, Jr 99 

Hamilton Fish to Willie P. Mangum 100 

Robert C. Winthrop to Willie P. Mangum 102 

William Piper to Willie P. Mangum 102 

Paul C. Cameron to Charity A. Mangum 103 

Willie P. Mangum to James F. Simmons 104 

Willie P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum 106 
Louis Thompson to William Preston Mangum .... 106 

Gales & Seaton to Willie P. Mangum 108 

Willie P. Mangum to John S. Pendleton 108 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum 109 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum Ill 

Louis Thompson to William Preston Mangum .. 112 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 113 

Thomas D. Tilford to Willie P. Mangum 114 

Prospectus for National Whig 115 

Chronological List of Papers 























































































, June 






, June 






, June 



, June 






, Sept. 



, Sept. 



, Sept. 



, Sept. 



, Oct. 









, Nov. 



Catherine Mangum to Sallie A. Mangum 117 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 118 

A Circular Letter of the Central Whig Committee 

of North Carolina 119 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 121 

William L. Hodge to Lemuel Sawyer 122 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 123 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 125 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 128 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 130 

George W. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 131 

John B. White to Willie P. Mangum, Jr 132 

Hugh Waddell to Willie P. Mangum 132 

Asbury Dickins to Willie P. Mangum 134 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 135 

Thomas Cain to Martha P. Mangum 136 

M. L. Davis & others to Willie P. Mangum 137 

Sion H. Rogers to Willie P. Mangum 138 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 139 

John Minge to 139 

William J. Alexander to Willie P. Mangum 140 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 141 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 142 

W. S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 143 

J. W. Hall to Willie P. Mangum 144 

John Pendleton to Willie P. Mangum 145 

Committee of Memphis to Willie P. Mangum .... 146 

John Hogan to Willie P. Mangum 147 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 149 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 151 

Abraham Lincoln to Willie P. Mangum 153 

Circular of the Sedgwick Female Seminary .... 153 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 155 

Thomas G. Holt to Willie P. Mangum 156 

J. M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum 156 

Robt. T. Paine to Willie P. Mangum 157 

Caleb Atwater to Willie P. Mangum 158 

John T. Trezevant & others to Willie P. Mangum 

and enclosure 160 

Duncan McAlpin to Willie P. Mangum 162 

Charles Manly to J. B. White, W. H. Owen 

& Willie P. Mangum, Jr 164 

P. H. Mangum to [John Southerland Lewis] .... 164 

Willie P. Mangum to William L. Long 166 

William A. Graham to [Willie P. Mangum] .... 169 
Abner Parker's Contract to take Negroes to 

Georgia 169 

J. B. Jones to Priestley H. Mangum 170 


Chronological List of Papers 






























































































Feb. [ 











































Whigs of Norfolk to Whig Senators 171 

Abner Stith to Willie P. Mangum 172 

Asher Ayers to Col. Abner Parker 174 

C. L. Hinton to Charity A. Mangum 174 

Kittie Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 175 

P. H. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 177 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum 178 

D. R. Atchison to Willie P. Mangum 179 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 179 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 180 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Martha P. Mangum .... 182 
William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 184 
Willie P. Mangum & others to President Fillmore 185 

Willie P. Mangum to Millard Fillmore 186 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin 187 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 187 

James Graham to Willie P. Mangum and George 

E. Badger 188 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 190 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin 191 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 191 

General Winfield Scott to Willie P. Mangum .... 192 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 192 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 193 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 194 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 195 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 196 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum 198 

Willie P. Mangum to Sallie & Patty Mangum .... 198 
J. A. Dean and B. F. Larrabee to Charity A. 

Mangum 199 

Willie P. Mangum to Sallie & Patty Mangum .... 200 
Willie P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum 201 

Willie P. Mangum to Francis Markoe 202 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 203 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 203 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin 205 

Willie P. Mangum to Sandy Harris 206 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 207 

Circular of Oxford Female College 208 

J. H. Horner to Willie P. Mangum 210 

A. Nesbit to Walter A. Mangum 211 

Kinchen Mayo to Walter A. Mangum 213 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 215 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 216 

Samuel D. Morgan to Willie P. Mangum 217 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 219 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 219 

Chronological List of Papers 


































































































































Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 221 

Dennis Heartt to 221 

David Outlaw to Willie P. Mangum 223 

Letter from Willie P. Mangum, read at the Clay 

Festival at the Apollo 224 

Henry W. Miller to Willie P. Mangum 225 

Hamilton Fish to Willie P. Mangum 226 

Report of Whig Congressional Caucus 226 

Newspaper Clipping: Mangum's Position 

Denned 227 

Sallie A. (Mangum) Leach to Willie P. Mangum 229 
Sallie A. (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. 

Mangum 231 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 233 

Willie P. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 234 

Poe, Nesbit & Poe to Willie P. Mangum 234 

William Schouler to Willie P. Mangum 235 

Leroy Pope, Jr., & others to Willie P. Mangum 236 

F. H. Davidge to Willie P. Mangum 237 

W. J. Madeira to Willie P. Mangum 239 

Norman Miller to Willie P. Mangum 240 

W. T. G. Alston to Willie P. Mangum 240 

E. F. Lilly to E. J. Hale 241 

Seaton Gales to Willie P. Mangum 242 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum 243 

Martha Person Mangum to Mary S. Mangum .... 244 

Carolina R. Wade to Willie P. Mangum 245 

Truman Smith to Willie P. Mangum 246 

W. J. Madeira to Willie P. Mangum 248 

James Cooper to Willie P. Mangum 249 

Dennis Heartt & others to Willie P. Mangum .... 250 

George Peckham to Willie P. Mangum 251 

Lemuel Draper to Willie P. Mangum 252 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 252 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 253 

P. D. Swain to Willie P. Mangum 255 

Winfield Scott's Campaign Sheet 255 

John M. Crane to Willie P. Mangum 255 

John Livingston to Willie P. Mangum 257 

Jas. W. Schaumburg to [Willie P. Mangum] .... 259 

James B. Clay to Willie P. Mangum 260 

Sam D. Morgan to Willie P. Mangum and 

enclosure 261 

Benjamin Tappan to Willie P. Mangum 262 

William Preston Mangum to Martha Person 

Mangum 263 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 264 

William S. Gregory to Willie P. Mangum 265 


Chronological List of Papers 











































































Apr. 28. 


























I Dec. 


























Charles W. Phifer to Willie P. Mangum 266 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 266 

Walter Lowrie to Willie P. Mangum 268 

Martha Person Mangum to William Preston 

Mangum 269 

John Livingston to Willie P. Mangum 269 

Willie P. Mangum to Robert P. Anderson 271 

Horace Bigelow to Willie P. Mangum 272 

William J. Fowler to Willie P. Mangum 272 

R. P. Anderson to Willie P. Mangum 272 

Asbury Dickins to Willie P. Mangum 273 

Martha P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum 275 

William S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 276 

William S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 278 

Rufus P. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 279 

Louis Thompson to Willie P. Mangum 280 

William S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 281 

J. J. Williams to Willie P. Mangum 282 

Walter A. Thompson to Willie P. Mangum 282 

David R. Atchison to Willie P. Mangum 284 

S. D. Morgan to Willie P. Mangum 284 

Caroline F. King to Willie P. Mangum 285 

Giles Mebane to Willie P. Mangum 286 

A. H. Belo to Willie P. Mangum 287 

M. H. Pinnix to Willie P. Mangum 287 

Plot of Land given by Willie P. Mangum for 

Red Mountain Academy 288 

Frederick J. Hill & others to Willie P. Mangum- 

Circular 288 

William C. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 290 

Thomas C. Johnston to Willie P. Mangum 290 

C. C. Norton to Willie P. Mangum 292 

James A. Dean to Willie P. Mangum 293 

Printed Circular of South Lowell Male Academy 294 

James A. Dean to Willie P. Mangum 297 

Walter A. Mangum to Willie P. & Charity A. 

Mangum 298 

Allen Gunn & others to Willie P. Mangum 299 

Thomas C. Johnston to Willie P. Mangum 300 

William Preston Mangum to [Martha P. 

Mangum] 301 

Willie Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 302 

Benjamin Hester & others to General Assembly 303 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum .... 304 

Nancy N. Scott to Willie P. Mangum 305 

J. P. M. Davis to Charity A. Mangum 306 

J. P. Bagby to Willie P. Mangum 308 

Willie P. Mangum to Col. Martin W. Leach .... 308 

Chronological List of Papers 


1855, Aug. 20. 

1855, Aug. 22. 

1855, Sept. 20. 

1855, Sept. 27. 

1855, Oct. 3. 

1855, Oct. 4. 

1855, Oct. 19. 

1855, Nov. 14. 

1856, Jan. 26. 
1856, Feb. 20. 
1856, Feb. 23. 

[1856, Spring] 
1856, May 15. 

[1856,] Aug. 23. 
1856, Aug. 3. 
1856, Aug. 20. 

1856, Sept. 20. 

[1856, Autumn] 
[1856, Autumn] 

1857, Jan. 31. 






















































C. L. Mosby & others to Willie P. Mangum .... 309 

William C. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 310 

Willie P. Mangum to Martin W. Leach 311 

Willie P. Mangum to Sallie A. (Mangum) Leach 311 

to Walter A. Mangum 312 

Martha Person Mangum to Sallie A. (Mangum) 

Leach 314 

J. W. Hicks to Willie P. Mangum 315 

Sallie A. (Mangum) Leach to Mary Sutherland 

Mangum 316 

William Preston Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 317 

Kenneth Rayner to Edward Crudup 318 

William Preston Mangum to Martha Person 

Mangum 321 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 323 
William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 323 

Henry E. Colton to Willie P. Mangum 324 

James C. Jones to Willie P. Mangum 325 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum .... 325 
Sallie Alston (Mangum) Leach to Martha 

Person Mangum 326 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 327 

William P. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 328 

Sallie A. (Mangum) Leach to Martha Person 

Mangum 329 

David L. Swain 331 

Edward Davis to Willie P. Mangum , 333 

Martha Person Mangum to Sallie A. (Mangum) 

Leach 336 

John D. Hyman to Willie P. Mangum 338 

Printed Circular Letter of David L. Swain to 

Willie P. Mangum 339 

John B. Fry to Willie P. Mangum 342 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 343 

Martha P. Mangum to Fannie Vaulx (Ladd) 

Mangum 345 

Martha P. Mangum to Fannie Vaulx (Ladd) 

Mangum 345 

William C. Preston to Willie P. Mangum 347 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum .... 348 

Josiah Turner, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum 350 

A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 351 

M. H. Pinnix & others to Willie P. Mangum .... 352 
Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum .... 353 

Alfred Norman to Willie P. Mangum 355 

Willie P. Mangum to M. H. Pinnix & others .... 355 
Sallie Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. 
Mangum 356 


Chronological List of Papers 



























Jan. 23. 





























Jan. 1.] 






















I June 



































L. H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 358 

M. W. Leach to Charity A. Mangum 359 

Edward Davis to Charity A. Mangum 360 

Sallie Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. 

Mangum 362 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum .... 363 
Sallie Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. 

Mangum 365 

Katherine Mangum Davis to Martha P. Mangum 366 
Sallie Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. 

Mangum 368 

Willie P. Mangum's deed for two slaves to his 

daughter 369 

Charity A. Mangum to Sallie A. (Mangum) 

Leach 370 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 370 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 372 

C. F. Dowd & others to Willie P. Mangum 373 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 373 

J. Hendebert to Willie P. Mangum 374 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum .... 375 
William D. Lunsford to Martha P. Mangum .... 377 
Martha P. Mangum to Sallie Alston (Mangum) 

Leach 377 

Horner's Oxford Classical and Mathematical 

School 378 

An Agreement of O. N. Allen with William 

Preston Mangum 381 

A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 382 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum .... 383 

L. H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 385 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Martha P. Mangum .... 386 

E. S. White to Martha P. Mangum 386 

C. F. Fisher to Captain Burton Craige 387 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 388 
William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 389 
William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 390 

Robt. F. Webb to Martha P. Mangum 391 

Wharton J. Green to Willie P. Mangum 392 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 393 
Willie P. Mangum to Col. Wharton J. Green .... 395 
William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 396 

Robert F. Webb to Willie P. Mangum 396 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 397 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 398 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 399 

Martha P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum 399 
[Simeon Carrington] to Martha P. Mangum .... 400 

Chronological List of Papers 




























































































Undated Mai 



[C. 1823] 

[Before 1833] 










William D. Lunsford to Martha P. Mangum .... 401 

J. P. Moore to Willie P. Mangum 402 

A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 402 

Josiah Turner, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum 403 

Martha Person Mangum to William Preston 

Mangum 404 

A. W. Mangum to Martha and Mary Mangum .. 405 

Paul C. Cameron to Martha P. Mangum 406 

Telegram of John Jarratt & brother to B. F. 

Moore 407 

P. C. Cameron to Martha P. Mangum 407 

M. E. Wadsworth to Martha P. Mangum 408 

The Battle of Manassas 410 

L. H. Mangum to John 414 

Death of Hon. Willie P. Mangum 416 

The Resolutions of the North Carolina Legisla- 
ture on the death of Willie P. Mangum 419 

Remarks of Mr. Turner on the death of Willie P. 

Mangum 420 

Remarks of Col. Brown on the death of Willie P. 

Mangum 422 

Martha P. Mangum to Mrs. Waggoner 423 

David L. Swain to Paul C. Cameron and 

enclosure 424 

Charity A. Mangum's Tax List for 1864 427 

A. F. Moses to A. W. Mangum 428 

Jno. H. Bryan to A. W. Mangum 429 

M. E. Manly to A. W. Mangum 429 

D. M. Barringer to A. W. Mangum 430 

Robert B. Gilliam to A. W. Mangum 431 

Reverdy Johnson to A. W. Mangum 432 

E. G. Reade to Martha P. Mangum 432 

Newspaper Clipping 437 

A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 437 

E. G. Reade to Martha & Mary Mangum 438 

Kemp P. Battle to Martha and Mary Mangum ..439 
Josiah Turner to Martha P. Mangum 440 

M. Dillard to Charity Cain 441 

Willie P. Mangum's Statement on a Controversy 

between Cameron and Royster 442 

Willie P. Mangum to F. P. Blair 444 

to Willie P. Mangum 444 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum 448 

Robert C. Wetmore to Willie P. Mangum 448 

Wm. C. Preston to Willie P. Mangum 449 

P. C. Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 449 

Call for a Whig Caucus 451 


Chronological List of Papers 

[1841, Dec] 


[1841 or 1842] 

[1842,] June 1. 



Apr. 2. 

1809, Nov. 11. 

1815, June 16. 

1819, Sept. 30. 

[1820,] Aug. 
1829, Mar. 
[1830, Dec. 
[1842, May 

























W. S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 451 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum 452 

N. P. Tallmadge to Willie P. Mangum 452 

Doggerel for Willie P. Mangum 453 

Henry Clay's campaign card of 1844 453 

H. R. Pierce & others to Willie P. Mangum .... 454 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum 454 

W. W. Seaton to Willie P. Mangum 455 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum 455 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum 456 

Sketch of Willie P. Mangum by A. W. Mangum 457 

Willie P. Mangum's Polemic Society 

Certificate 460 

Honorary Dismissal of Willie P. Mangum from 

the University of North Carolina 461 

Marriage Bond of Willie P. Mangum and 

Charity A. Cain 461 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 461 

Willie P. Mangum to Rufus Yancey 463 

Willie P. Mangum's Certificate to the Senate 463 
Willie P. Mangum's Memorandum on the Wise- 
Stanly Controversy 464 

Willie P. Mangum to 465 

Willie P. Mangum to Henry A. Wise 466 

Willie P. Mangum to Henry A. Wise 466 

Sallie A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 467 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 469 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 471 

Willie P. Mangum to [J. Watson Webb] 473 

J. T. Morehead to Charity A. Mangum 476 

Willie P. Mangum to [J. Watson Webb] 476 

A. J. Davie to Willie P. Mangum 478 

George L. Lowden to Willie P. Mangum 479 

Newspaper Clipping 480 

Willie P. Mangum to William H. Morrell 482 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 483 

Recollections of Mangum Turner 746 

Reminiscences of Marie Alma Turner 758 





1825, Feb. 3, 7. On the Election of 1824 487 

1826, Jan. 10. On the Judicial Bill 500 

1832, Feb. 7, 8. On the Tariff 519 

1834, Feb. 25. On the North Carolina Memorial 562 

1836, Feb. 3. On National Defense 586 

1841, Jan. 11. On the Pre-Emption Bill 612 

1841, Dec. 30. On the Bank 632 

1845, Dec. 15. On National Defense 649 

1848, July 3. On the Democratic Platform 658 

1850, Feb. 6. On the Slavery Controversy 690 

1851, Jan. 6. On Removals from Office 695 

1852, Apr. 15. On Explaining Mangum's Support of Scott 725 


(The location of papers from other collections is indicated by footnotes) 

WPM-D Willie P. Mangum Papers at Duke University, Durham, 

North Carolina. 

WPM-LC Willie P. Mangum Papers in the Library of Congress, 
Washington, District of Columbia. 

WPM-NC Willie P. Mangum Papers in the State Department of 
Archives and History, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

WPM-UNC Willie P. Mangum Papers, Southern Collection, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

Errata 1 

Vol. I, preface, p. vii. In the first line the date "1902" should be 

Vol. I, p. xiii. In the List of Illustrations "W. P. Mangum, Jr.," 
should read "William Preston Mangum." 

Vol. I, xxxi. The last sentence of the first new paragraph should 
read: "On December 18, 1834, Tyler, the reporter, made the report," 

Vol. I, p. xli. In the fourth line from the bottom of the page the 
date should be changed from "February 28, 1861," to "July 28, 1861." 

Vol. I, p. 5, n. 26. The last four lines of the footnote should read: 
"In 1840, replaced by Mangum, Brown moved to Missouri, returned to 
North Carolina, and then to Maryland. Subsequently he returned 
again to his native state. He was elected to the state legislature in 

Vol. I, p. 13, footnote 56. Next to the last line should read: "He 
practiced law in Raleigh and New York until his death in 1837. He 
married Mary L. Glenn. S. A. Ashe, 'Bedford Brown,' Biog. Hist, of 
N. C, I, 181-185." 

Vol. I, p. 21, footnote 6 should read: "Probably Salem Academy at 
Salem, North Carolina, where Charity Alston Cain was a student from 
1810 to 1811." 

Vol. I, p. 189, footnote 36. Sally Mangum attended the Burwell 
Female School in Hillsboro rather than the Hillsboro Female Academy. 

Vol. I, p. 332, footnote 25, "Addison W. Mangum" should read 
"Adolphus W. Mangum." 

Vol. Ill, p. 10, footnote 11. The Burwell Female Academy and the 
Hillsboro Female Academy are confused in this note. Mrs. Burwell 
was principal of the Burwell Female Academy which Sally Mangum 

Vol. Ill, p. 96. In the fourth line from the bottom of the letter, the 
date should be 1793. 

Vol. Ill, p. 497. In the fourth line of the first column after "chair 
of," should be inserted "opposite p. 150;" 

Vol. IV , opposite p. 155. The portrait of Mordecai Manuel Noah 
should have appeared in volume III where there are several letters 
and numerous references to Noah. 

Vol. IV, p. 169, n. 238. The note should read: "Thomas Loring 
was at this time editor of the Raleigh Independent which he established 
after he gave up the North Carolina Standard in 1843." 

Vol. IV, p. 475, n. 151. In the second line "McGrane" should be in- 
serted after "Reginald C." 

included here are corrections for errors discovered in Volumes I-IV of The Mangum Papers. 




William H. Morrell 1 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Equinuck, Wayne Co. Pa 
Jany 1—1847— 
Hon: W. P. Mangum 
Washington D. C. 


This is from Wm H. Morell, a person under so many 
obligations to you that he is unwilling to add to the number of 
them by compelling you to look to the bottom of this epistle 
to ascertain who is addressing you from a place having as bar- 
barous a name as that at which this letter is dated. 

Equinuck is in back woods of Pa. on the Deleware River 
&, I need not add, Locofoco, as is also the region on the op- 
posite side of the river in New York, which is also the chief 
seet of Anti-rentism. On that side of the river my time is chief- 
ly spent, being engaged in the service of the N. Y. & Erie Rl. 
Rd. as C. Engineer, my old profession. This is much more agree- 
able to me than the business of noting the doings of the rep- 
resentatives of the people at Washington, & watching & ex- 
posing the machinations of intriaguing & dishonest politicians. 
Nevertheless I feel anxious to know somewhat of what is being 
acted behind the curtain, & which does not meet the public 
eye through the ordinary channel; I mean the press. I am 
particularly anxious to know what are the objects & designs of 
this Administration in regard to the Mexican War. Is it to be 
a war of conquest? Is the area of freedom to be thus com- 
pulsorily extended? Are we to have in the Halls of Congress, 
men to legislate for us of the old thirteen, who must be the 
representatives of ignorance & barbarism, who can have no 
sympathy with the great mass of our people; who neither know 
our interests or would regard them if they did, & who may, & 

a See above, III, 40 In. 

2 State Department of Archives and History 

probably, will change the whole character of our institutions. 
I trust in God that such is not to be the result. I will not say- 
that Polk & his coadjutors design that it shall be, but they may 
have given to public sentiment a movement which they can- 
not control if they shall desire to do so. 

Our only safety is in a change of rulers. Can this be accom- 
plished? I do not put this question idly, for while I feel deeply 
the necessity of this change, I do not see, as clearly as I could 
wish, the probability of its accomplishment. The spirit of con- 
quest in a nation is identical with that of acquisition in an in- 
dividual, & like jealousy it grows on what it feeds - it is an ap- 
petite that has no surfeit. If this war is to be continued it can 
only be converted into an element of good by making it as 
burthensome to the people as possible - therefore, I say spend, 
spend, spend - levy taxes, impose contributions, preserve the 
subtreasury & make the people learn the truth that the govern- 
ment is taking money from their pockets at the same time 
that it is diminishing their ability to replace it. Vote the sup- 
plies asked, tax tea & coffee, & adhere to that greatest of demo- 
cratic measures, the subtreasury with the specie clause, pre- 
serve Mr. Walkers ad valorem tariff, & those administering the 
government are doomed to the eternal hatred of the people. 
These are the views of one in the woods, but one who knows 
his relative position too well to believe for an instant that his 
crudities will be received by him to whom they are thus vol- 
unteered otherwise than as an honest expression of the feelings 
of one who in truth loves the institution's of his country & de- 
sires to see them perpetuated in their purity. 

Permit me Sir, to congratulate you, as I do also the country 
on your reelection to the Senate of the U. S. & where I trust 
the last four years of the term for which you are elected will 
find you its presiding officer. 

I hope you will take some fitting opportunity to expose the 
feebleness as well as the wickedness of this administration, a 
task that can be done by no one of your brethren in the Senate 
as effectively as by yourself provided you shall determine to 
undertake it. 

Before closing I wish to say that I do not concur in the 
endorsement made by the Courier & enquirer of the Message. 2 

2 James Watson Webb, the editor of the New York Courier and Enquirer, maintained that the 
Whigs should support the war with enthusiasm in order that they might not be considered un- 
patriotic. See his letter to W. P. Mangum, January 6. 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 3 

To me it is perfectly clear that Polk made the war, & neither 
Mexico nor Congress did it. He, I am willing to admit, did not 
intend to do it, his imbecility blundered him into it, but he 
should be held responsible for his own folly. 

Will you do me the favor to occasionally send me a Senate 
document. I assure you any thing I may receive from you will 
be highly appreciated, &, if your leisure will permit, I shall be 
most happy to have your own views upon the present condition 
of the great party of which you are one of the honored heads. 

Respectfully your friend & 
Obdt. Servt. 
Wm. H. Morell 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 2d. January 1847. 

My dear Sir 

The compliments of the Season, are most respectfully pre- 
sented, to my worthy & much respected friend Mangum. I hope 
the old year left you, as the new one hath found you, in good 
health and happiness. I have long considered, that Mr. Clay's 
friends, would sooner or later, come to the conclusion, that 
they could not safely, bring him out again, as a candidate; or, 
that he would utterly refuse, to be a candidate in 48, as before 
the people: I am of the opinion, that the latter is now the fact. 
And perhaps, some of his old and ardent friends, think now, 
as Mr. Clayton did, last winter, in some degree, that the Whigs, 
must take up a military man, to ensure success. How can that 
distinguished, talented Senator, be so mistaken, (if indeed, he 
does think so now) I wish he would come North, and hear 
our people, every day exclaim. Mr. Clay, is our first choice, 
but, if we can't have Mr. Clay, our 2d. choice is, judge McLean, 
of Ohio. When asked, how they like Gen 1 . Scott, they frown at 
his name, he has very few advocates, in this quarter. We all 
say here, that we have had enough, and more than enough, of 
military misrule, and military usurpation. Besides Sir, How 
can Mr. Clay's friends, think of bringing forward, of all men 
in the U. S. Genl. Scott, whose friends, in 1840, prevented his 

4 State Department of Archives and History 

nomination. Let that fact, stare them fully in the face, every- 

I consider this grave question, to be in a very small com- 
pass. For, I am unwilling to believe, that either, Clayton, or 
Crittenden, are very serious, in bringing Scott forward, as a 
candidate, for the Presidy. in 48. And I also consider, that judge 
McLean, himself, in his own proper person, holds, in a power- 
ful degree, his own election. That is, if those confidential, 
bosom friends, of Mr. Clay, have any desire, or wish, to be 
satisfied, by the judge; (in the event, of his being the candi- 
date, and if elected.) He must do it, to their hearts content. 
They ought to be gratified. And they will be. I presume, each 
of the Gentlemen, would have no objection, to serve the peo- 
ple, in the Executive chair; but their time, has not arrived. It 
is for their interest to be his friend. It is for the success of the 
Whig party, and the Glory of the Nation; that this powerful 
strength, is added to his own. Who can speak peace, goodwill 
and reconciliation, more powerfully, than yourself? For, with 
an honorable understanding, (no half way measures,) the 
Whig party, in the U. S. is a tower of strength, which no earth- 
ly power, can destroy. Considering Mr. Clay, to be out of the 
way, I put it to any common sense, practical man, who has 
been an attentive observer, of passing events, and looks at the 
question, full in the face today, to name the man; other than 
John McLean of Ohio, that can secure as many Whig votes; 
and more democratic ones, than any name, known at this 
hour, in the U. S. To talk of a military name, with his 
drum & fife, while we have so distinguished a civilian, as the 
Gentleman just named, is sheer nonsense to me. It is my pur- 
pose, to have the Executive, of the U. S. from the civil walks of 
life; not from the field of Carnage. If the drum & fife, is so 
important, to take the rabble; The fiddle and the banjo, "hard- 
cider," and a plenty of whiskey, and good song, will be equal- 
ly as efficient, for those "men of a day." Away then, I say, with 
your military tinsel, (without saying any thing about the un- 
fitness of the man himself). I again declare, that with the 
name of John McLean, of Ohio, and Willie P. Mangum, of 
North Carolina, unites more good feeling, more solid strength, 
among the Whigs; and deranges the ranks of the democracy 
more, than any two names, that has, or can be put together, in 
the U. S. 

The Mangum Papers 5 

It is strange to me, that some men, do not appear to have, 
intuitive knowledge. 

America I mean the whig party — expects every man, to do 
his duty. 

I am Dear Sir, 

your friend. 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 


If any person wants to know how the Sub Treasury works 
hereabouts, let him visit our P. Office in the morning, when 
more than 1000 people O. & Young call for their letters & C. 
and hear the cursing prevailing about "American Gold & 
Silver" to be provided — you would not suppose that you stood 
on the Earth, but had just step'd down to Pandemonium - In 
our case, I am told that an outsider made the claret flow, from 
one of the delivery desks - alas - alas - how sorry I am. 

Rush Peters 8 to Willie P. Mangum 

Phila January 2. 1847. 

My dear Sir 

Before I enter upon the principal subject of this letter, al- 
low me to express to you my deep and acute regrets for the loss 
of our most estimable and regraded friend Mr Barrow — I unite 
with all his friends to sorrow for his loss, and in the expression 
of respect for his private and political virtues. How wide is the 
chasm in the circle of good men at Washington created by his 

Will you allow me to ask if there is any disposition among 
our political friends to act, on the subject of the nomination 
for the Presidential office, and for the Vice Presidency — The 
country is groaning under the sufferings from the measures and 
follies of the Administration. No promise of relief, during Mr 

3 Unable to identify. 

6 State Department of Archives and History 

Polks term can be encouraged — The war with Mexico is but 
one of the evils from which we are to be rescued — Another 
President of the same principles with the present, and the 
Union will not survive his term — 

Whether it is or is not too early to adopt initial measures 
preparatory to the election in 1848, can but be determined by 
the Whigs in Congress. The eminence on which you stand, en- 
ables you to look round with most advantage — 

It is the opinion of very many friends of Judge McLean in 
Pennsylvania, and particularly in the western part of the State, 
that a decided expression in his favour in Ohio, Indiana, and 
Illinois, should be obtained if possible — Can this be obtained? 

It is felt here and elsewhere that a great difficulty exists 
from the uncertainty which prevails as to the purpose of Mr 
Clay and his friends. Hopeless as I should consider our effort 
to elect Mr Clay would be, should his nomination be pressed 
upon the Whigs, the nomination will be made. Thousands, and 
Tens of thousands would support him, even in the face of cer- 
tain defeat. Ardently attached as I am to Mr Clay, I should 
deem his presentation as the candidate, a death blow to the 
salvation of the country. We can only succeed in 1848 by en- 
listing numbers from the united party which elected Mr Polk — 
This will not be, if Mr Clay is the candidate. 

There is full and wide conviction, extended every where 
that Judge McLean will unite in his favour the confidence of 
multitudes, who have hitherto been united in the parties which 
have divided us. It is universally felt that we should give to one, 
whose private virtues are all that can be desired- whose public 
principles are true to the constitution, the power to administer 
the government uninfluenced by the aspirations of party, and 
for the reward and benefit of partizans. 

I express to you the opinion of many here, and in other 
parts of the United States that the nomination of 

John McLean as President, 
and W. P. Mangum, as Vice President, 

would concentrate and fix the opinion of thousands who anx- 
iously look for a decided movement by the true friends of the 

May I ask from you confidentially, what are the views of 
Mr. Crittenden upon the Presidential question- If you do not 

The Mangum Papers 7 

know now, can you obtain them- If he is in favour of Judge 
McLean and yourself, so will go Kentucky- If he is against pre- 
senting Mr Clay again, no action of this kind will take place — 

What are the views of Mr Corwin? I have heard, and from 
apparently good authority, he thinks Judge McLean will carry 
the whole west- If action in Ohio can be obtained, Mr Cor- 
win, and the Ohio delegation can prompt & direct it. 

I have written freely to you on these subjects, and you will 
do in the matter what your superior judgment shall decide. 
Be assured I am prepared to acquiess in any opinions you may 
have, and think proper to communicate. 

I am with high personal respect & regards 


Rush Peters. 

J. H. Watters* to Willie P. Mangum 

Wilmington Jan'y 6 th 1847 
Hon 1 Wiley P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

I flatter myself your goodness will plead an apology 
(from a stranger) for the liberty of troubleing you with this 
communication — In the year 1835 I purchased the plantation 
on which I now reside, four or five miles below the Town of 
Wilmington, on the west [?] side of the Cape Fear River from 
a Mr. Marsden Campbell, during M r Campbells occupancy the 
Government in the attempt to improve the navigation of the 
River erected from the shore of my place as well as just above 
it jettees, which brings my plantation between the two, the 
effect produced from the jettees has been to fill up the River 
immediately in front of my place, and which is daily increas- 
ing, and will finally prevent a water communication to or 
from it, as well as the draining of my Rice lands- These facts 
have been laid before Congress by memorial from me through 
Genl. M c Kay the representative from this district, praying 
that some relief might be afforded me, together with an affadavit 

*J. H. Watters, a rice planter from near Wilmington, was a student at the University of North 
Carolina in 1801. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 650. 

8 State Department of Archives and History 

from a Mr Hinton James 5 the superintendent of the works at 
that time on the River, stating that by the order of Maj r Blaney 
the then Engineer of publick works, that he James did con- 
tribute to the filling up of the channel leading to my place by 
throwing the mud excavated from the River in front, and next 
to my plantation, with an understanding that Maj r Blaney 
would open a channel for M r Campbell- in the interim I be- 
came the purchaser, and Maj r Blaney died about the time he 
had instructed M r James to prepare and go to work to make 
said channel — 

Congress ordered a Lieuten* Swift to make examination, 
and report on the facts, which he did to the purpose that the 
jettees were produceing the effect complained of, but stated 
I could yet get to or from my place on high water, and as I had 
become the purchaser after the jettees were built, I had no 
right to call on Government for indemnification, but Mr. Camp- 
bell if still the owner would have the right and should be 
indemnified. This to me was strange argument, for after my 
purchase from Mr. Campbell I considered I became possess'd 
(or should) of all his title and privileges, and moreover the 
purchase was made on my part with entire ignorance as to any 
effect the jettees were producing, besides my application was 
made whilst the dredging Boat was in operation on the River, 
and at that time prepared to do the work - Now my Dear Sir, 
my motive for applying to you is to solicit your aid and in- 
fluence (if my demand is not deem'd intrusive) in obtaining 
some remuneration from Government, whereby I may be en- 
abled to place my plantation in the situation as regards the 
facility of geting to or from it by water, and the draining of 
my lands as they were before the jettees were placed on the 
River by Government — Gen 1 . McKay will I hope direct you 
to my memorial and other papers, I made application to him 
for their return, but have not been able to obtain them- 

I remain with every 
consideration rsp'y 
your Ob* Sev* 
J H Watters 

6 The first student to enroll in the University of North Carolina. For the background of this 
navigation project see above II, 233-235. For a brief sketch of J. G. Swift see above, I, 461n. 

The Mangum Papers 9 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Jany 6, 1846. [1847] 
My Dear Sir. 

Now if ever, is the time for the Whigs to put themselves 
strong before the country. They have voted against the Tea & 
Coffee Tax because they do not desire it. Now let them come 
forward & say — "We propose this as a War tax - not because 
we approve of it, but because the welfare of our country & the 
preservation of its credit, require it. We did not cause this 
War; but being in it, our arms & our name shall not be dis- 

Surely, surely this is sound policy; & what is more, it is 
right & patriotic. 

I shall be with you on tuesday night. I have written to 
Coleman for a Parlour &c. I would have been with you before, 
but feared to have it said I was seeking an army appointmt. 
That matter is now disposed of I believe. Whigs are not to be 
permitted to fight for this country - & therefore, I am free to 
visit the metropolis. 

Ever truly & sincerely 
Your friend 

J. Watson Webb. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum to William A Graham 6 

Washington City 7 th Jan: 1847. 
My dear Sir 

I have enclosed to you a petition in behalf of Mr. De Selden 
— I hope you will cause its receipt to be acknowledged in a 
note addressed to him — 

I am unable to give you any information in regard to the 
War & its results, which is not known as well by you, & every 
ordinarily well informed gentleman — nor indeed, do I believe, 
that the President & his Secretary of War could do much 
more. — 

^he original is in the William A. Graham Papers, Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

10 State Department of Archives and History 

The Admn. is in much trouble. — You will have seen the 
first reception of the proposition to create by law the office of 
Lieut. Gen. 7 — Extraordinary efforts brought a bare majority to 
reconsider — to save the President's feelings. — I do not think 
it will pass the Ho: & yet no one can estimate the power of 
the lash, when well applied to such a body of our Worthy 
Fellow-Citizens. — Nor do I think, that in the event it pass the 
House, it will pass the Senate. — The Vote will be very close 
& the result far from Certain. — 

The truth is the War is most distasteful — & all would be 
for a speedy termination of it, upon almost any terms — but 
for the fear of popular opinion — Congress has conjured up a 
factitious, & in my judgment, a most unsound public, or rather 
popular opinion, at which they are appalled. Our friends of 
the great Miss. Valley are almost as mad, as any others. — 

The finances are growing into the worst condition. — The 
Govt, may ask an issue of ten Millions of Treasury notes — If 
granted, that may keep them along for a time — they being 
reissuable. — 

The general opinion is, that a loan cannot be accomplished 
— unless The Sub. Treas. be modified, which I think, will not 
be done. As to the loan, I incline strongly to an opinion opposite 
to that of our friends. — If irredeemable for twenty or more 
years — they will get it. The Sub. Treas. crippling the operation 
of the banks & diminishing profits, will naturally incline capi- 
talists to a transfer of investment. — Money is in abundance, 
from all that I can learn. — 

I congratulate you & the Legislature upon the events of the 
session. — You have some extremely clever fellows among your 
Whigs. — 

I very much hope, that the proposition in regard to the 
Raleigh & Gaston railroad, will in some form be adopted. 8 

7 Ia January, 1847, Polk recommended the creation of the office of lieutenant general with the 
view to appointing Benton to the post Calhoun and Van Buren's friends were indignant because 
they felt ir would give Bcnron political advantages. The supporters of Scott and Taylor were also 
opposed to the recommendation. As a result Polk abandoned the idea. Smith, The War with 
Mexico. II, 75. 

8 When the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad failed to meet its obligations in 1844-1845, the 
legislature ordered foreclosure and directed Governor Graham to buy the road for the state. In 
1846 Graham recommended the sale of a part or all of the road. The Whigs were opposed to 
state ownership. Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C," 17 In. 

The Mangum Papers 11 

Be pleased to present my best respects to Mrs. Graham & 
accept for yourself the assurance of my best respect & mo. 
friendly sentiments. 

Willie P. Mangum 

Please present my best regards to the Treasurer. 

W. P. M. 

To Gov. Graham. 

J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum 

[Jany, 1847] 9 
My Dear Sir. 

After I parted with you on friday night, my Mother informed 
me that Capt Shrive was desirous I should call the attention of 
yourself and M r . Crittenden to his claims upon the Govern- 
ment. 10 You know Capt. Schrive too well by reputation to make 
it necessary for me to say one word in his favour; but I may 
say with truth, if ever there was a just claim upon the govern- 
ment and one which merits prompt action, it is his. Will you 
do me the favour to listen to its history, and then speak to M r . 
Crittenden in his behalf? 

My friend Hoffman 11 & a dozen others, have been with me 
all the morning. They all approve cordially of my letter. & de- 
nounce our friends in Congress who while they vote for war 
measures, they foolishly speak against the war, & thus keep us 
in a false position before the people. Corwin 12 is so dead that 
he cant be dug up by his friends; & as for your Schenck he 
is where every poor Devil should be. The feeling here still 
is, that Scott must & will do something to put him in posi- 
tion Neither Webster nor McLean can make much head way 

9 Compare this letter with the one from Webb to Mangum, January 6. 1847. The contents 
indicate that this date is approximately correct. 

10 On January 4, 1848, the commissioner of patents reported that in common with five pre- 
vious reports he felt that Captain Henry M. Shreve was the original inventor and rightful patentee 
of the steam snag-boat which the government had used in the western rivers since 1829. Shreve, 
who was at the time of the invention in the army, he continued, had obtained a patent and yet 
he had never received any compensation for the government's use. The House Committee, therefore, 
recommended that he be reimbursed $85,000. House Report, 30 Cong., 1 sess., Vol. I, No. 30, 3pp. 

1:L He probably refers to Josiah Hoffman. 

^Thomas Corwin, Senator, and Robert C Schenck, Congressman, from Ohio, were out- 
spoken in their opposition to the war. In a speech in the Senate Corwin asserted that "American 
soldiers in Mexico should be welcomed to hospitable graves." This shocked the nation. Smith, 
The War with Mexico, II, 278. 

12 State Department of Archives and History 

while there is a hope for Scott. Both are looked upon as men 
to be taken up as a dernier resort, but not from choice. 

As I have added much more to this than I intended, I will 
end it & give Shrives another letter of simple introduction. I 
send this through my brother. 

Ever your friend 
J. Watson Webb 
Sunday P.M. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

P. H. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 

Hillsboro' Jan: 11th. 1847. 
Dear Sir, 

My young friend, Edward M. Scott, 13 second son of our old 
friend John Scott Esq 1 '. dec d ., made several attempts to see 
you when you were at home last year- but failed, as he informs 
me- & therefore I take the liberty of addressing you, on his 

Mr. Scott is desirous of obtaining admission into the Military 
Academy at West Point. — 

He is poor & unable to complete his education, without 
means independently of his mother- who is keeping a boarding 
house & barely able thereby to live.- He has made some progress 
in a regular, classical education- has advanced as far as nearly 
half thro' the Sophomore class, at Chapel Hill. He has a good 
character for correct deportment- & what elevates him much 
in my estimation, he is unwilling to become a beneficiary to 
one of the Literary Societies at the Hill- who sometimes 
educate boys gratis.- In a word, Edward is not deficient in any 
of the elements that make up the character of an amiable, 
correct & deserving young Gentleman. Such a young man, I 
suppose, would present claims on the Government, far superior 
to those of many who have heretofore shared & are now enjoy- 
ing it, in the way Mr. Scott now desires to do.- 

13 A student at the University of North Carolina in 1844-1845, Edward M. Scott became a 
physician and served as " 'Demonstrator in the National Medical College.' " He was also prin- 
cipal of the medical division of the South Lowell Male Academy and Medical School before the 
Civil War. In the war he was a captain in the 22nd N. C regiment, C S. A. He died in 
service. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 550; Johnson, Ante-Bellum N. C, 1A9. 

The Mangum Papers 13 

I wish you to make an effort to secure the objects of Mr. 
Scott's wishes. And see Mr. Badger, & the Senators from Texas 
on the subject, who, I presume, knew Mr. Scott, the Father, in 
Texas- where, you know, the Father lived a few years, & died. 

I doubt not you will take pleasure to serve a worthy son 
of an old friend, if in your power- & in doing so, you will do 
nothing more than aid in giving a proper direction to the 
patronage of an institution, designed for the benefit of young 
men, similar, in condition & personal merit, to young Mr. 
Scott.- Will you write to Mr. Scott at Chapel Hill? He expects 

Your family are well- nothing in the shape of news. — 

We expect to run Jno. Kerr Esq r . 14 of Caswell, for this Con- 
gressional district. 

You will see in the Recorder, that our friends are requested 
to meet in convention at Hillsboro, on the week of our Sup r . 
Court. Some of us think that a bold & efficient advocate on the 
stump, may stand a fair chance, at this particular crisis, to 
carry the day. I think our true policy now is- to make war on 
the Administration & its partizan supporters, with all possible 
vigor & in the most unmeasured terms of denunciation & 
condemnation. I think the country is ripe for a perfect on- 

I expect to hear you on the policy of the administration in 
general, before the three million appropriation bill leaves the 

Yrs. respectfully 
P. H. Mangum 
N. B. Mr. Scott's age is just 18— 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City 

Tuesday, 12th. Jan: 1847. 
My dear Love,- 

We have had another stroke, upon the Senate. — Our small 
body seems to live in the very eye of death. Mr. Pennybacker 


14 He was defeated in 1847 by Abraham W. Venable. 

^Isaac Samuel Pennybacker, 1805-January 12, 1847, was in the Senate from 1845 to 1847. 
Biog. Dir, of Cong., 1400. 

14 State Department of Archives and History 

a Virginia Senator, died this morning at 4 o'clock. - Next to my 
friend Barrow, 10 he seemed, judging from appearance, as likely 
to live longer, or quite as long, as any one of our body. — 

The circumstance spreads gloom over the whole body. — 

I hope, My Love, you are all well. - My dear daughter Mary, 
must be attended to. - She must take exercise on foot & horse- 
back. - Send for "India rubber shoes," to go over those she 
usually wears. — Be sure to get them; & have her to walk one or 
two miles every day. — Have her underclothes, such, as we do 
not often wear, made & put on her. 

William must go to school, & lose no time. Tell him Father 
expects him to do his best, & learn to write. I thank God — 
My dear — that I have enjoyed good health — I have had no cold, 
the thing, I fear most. — I live carefully, & avoid exposure & 
especially what is here the most injurious - night air. - I refuse 
to go to Balls. — 

To my dear daughter Sally, give my best love. — She is our 
first, & best beloved, or ought to be. - & if I, or another, shall 
seem unkind to her, it is because, she is the head of our family 
- & must be responsible. — 

It is impossible, I could have a child better, - & if, we un- 
fortunately had one, (as I hope, & think, we have not,) that 
would desire a different state of things - I should scorn & 
despise him or her. — No such thing as I believe, & I thank God 
for it - can happen in our family. — 

To my dear daughter Pat. - the first that I saw enter the 
world - I send my Love - All of them - so far - deserve all our 
Love. — May God bless them & their dear Mother - is the prayer 

of your affectionate husband. 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Mrs Char. A. Mangum 

P. S. 

My respects to Mr Piper 17 - & say I will write to him, before 

W. P. M. 

"Alexander Barrow, Senator from Louisiana, died December 29, 1846. 
17 See above, IV, 308, 403, 452. 

The Mangum Papers 15 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum 

Asheville Jan 15th 1847 
My dear Sir 

I write to you to remind you of your promise to send me 
the Journals of the Senate for the last and present sessions &c 
I wrote to Barringer some time since for the House Journals 
but as I have heard nothing from him I fear he did not receive 
my letter. You will oblige me by reminding him of his promise 
lest his devotion to the ladies should cause him to forget an 
absent friend. 

I also wish to get a copy of the Act of Congress admitting 
Texas as a State passed I think in December 1845, and I will 
be obliged to you and Barringer for any other documents & 
speeches shedding light on the Annexation & War &c. If you 
have time to write anything in the way of political news I 
should be pleased to hear from you. I know that you have not 
time to read a long letter from me and will therefore conclude 
by requesting you to present my respects to Badger, Barringer 
& other friends 

Yours very sincerely 
T. L. Clingman 

Hon Wilie P. Mangum 

Richard Hines to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh 19 th . Jan: 1847 
My dear Sir, 

Agreeable to our understanding when I last had the honor 
of seeing you - I now inclose 18 an application for a cadet's 
appointment in the Military Academy at West Point for my 
son Peter E. Hines. 

For his character and qualifications I ask leave to refer 
you to the letters inclosed from Hon: J. H. Bryon to Hon: 
John Y. Mason, and from Gov: Swain and professors Mitchell 

18 This and the other enclosures mentioned in this letter are not in the Mangum Papers. 

16 State Department of Archives and History 

and Greene which I hope will be satisfactory and secure the 
appointment for my son — who is very anxious about the 
matter — He is a fine noble boy and every way qualified for the 
appointment — 

I have not written to Mr. Badger on the subject because 
he has not yet (judging from his late speech) acquired such in- 
fluence with the president as would probably secure the appoint- 
ment, But I am very sure he will render any service in his 
power to procure the object of the application. I shall write to 
Mr. Barringer on the subject by todays mail — 

Having the success of this application much at heart I hope 
you will pardon me for requesting your early and particular 
attention to it — 

For the doings of the Legislature I must refer you to the 
news papers- I am sorry to say I very much fear they have 
done little that will benefit the country or the Whig party- Mr. 
Rayner is the only member that I think has gained much in 
popularity- The prospect now is that he will be an acceptable 
Gubernatorial candidate at the next election to every section of 
the State. 

It is believed our Regiments of volunteers are now full nine 
companies having reported up to last night. With the exception 
of Fagg [?] the Governor's appointments of field officers to 
the Regiment has given general satisfaction to Whigs- 

Our friend Hinton is well and much as usual. With the hope 
of hearing from you soon I am very Respectfully 

and truly your friend 
and Obt. Servt: 
Richd : Hines 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh Jany 22 nd /47 
Dr Sir 

Mr Hines informed me that he had sent on to you some 
recommendations to get one of his sons a situation at West 
Point- He is very anxious about it and request [s] me to suggest 

North Carolina State Library 
The Mangum Papers 17 

to you that it might be accomplished by the Agency of Genl 
Jesse Speight — 

Our members are gone and the Town quiet — Rayner I 
think is about the only member that has made much political 
capital during the session — I consider it rather an inefficient 
body — 

The Northern mail is due for three days past — We have 
a light snow & hard freeze- Our citizens are very much pleased 
with Badgers speech, they speak of it as an able effort- 

Yrs truly 

C L Hinton 


Harman Blennerhassett & Jos. Lewis Blennerhassett 19 
to Willie P. Mangum. 

97 Cedar Street, New York 
January 23rd, 1847 

Honble Willie P. Mangum 


Our Petition for Compensation for destruction of our fathers 
property, on Blennerhassetts Island, by a party of Militia &c. 
acting under Authority of the Government of the United States 
in 1806 is again before Congress this Session 

Permit us to ask your kind support and the exercise of 
your great talents and high political influence in our favour; 
as, we feel assured that ours is a righteous claim and that (as 
the only heirs of the late Harman Blennerhassett) our Country 
ought to recompense us for the great pecuniary lossess our 

19 After Blennerhassett died, his wife was in destitute circumstances. In 1842 with her in- 
valid son she visited New York with the hope of obtaining Congressional reimbursement for the 
loss of her husband's property in the Burr Conspiracy. Clay presented her petition to the Senate 
and the Chairman of the Senate Committee, William Woodbridge, reported favorably on the pe- 
tition. She died before the Senate took action. Her children continued the petition without success. 
William H. Safford, The Life of Harman Blennerhassett Comprising the Authoritative Narrative 
of the Burr Expedition and Containing many Additional Facts not heretofore Published, Chillicothe, 
Ohio, 1850, pp. 203-210. 

18 State Department of Archives and History 

father unjustly sustained during a period of considerable poli- 
tical excitement. 

With sentiments of respect & esteem 

We remain 

Your most obedient humble Servts 
Harman Blennerhassett. 
Joseph Lewis Blennerhassett. 

P. S. 

We take the liberty to refer you to Senator William Wood- 
bridge who has our petition, and trust you will excuse our 
trespassing on your very valuable time. 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 23 d . Jany. 1847. 

My dear Sir 

(Private) I have sometime since, come to the conclusion, 
that Mr. Clay will not be brought again, for the Presi y . before 
the people, in 48, by his friends. I arrived at this opinion, from 
my own cogitations, sitting quite alone, in my "Elbow chair," 
with my "white goose quill, in my fingers," and from carefully 
noting, the things, that pass by me, every hour and every day. 
I see, that Elisha Whittlesey, 20 of Ohio, is on the ground. The 
especial friend, of judge McLean. And he professes also, the 
entire confidence, of the friends of Mr. Clay. And you Sir, being 
the great favorite, of each, and all concerned; it does appear to 
me, that you, of all men, of the Whig party, possessing, as I 
know you do, the very warmest kind, of good feelings & un- 
limited confidence, of those Gentlemen, above alluded to. I say 
Sir, that you & Mr. Whittlesey, can, if any power in Washing- 
ton, can accomplish it, you have it, in your own hands, with 
the concurrence, of the judge himself. I consider the judge, 

^A native of Connecticut, Elisha Whittlesey, 1783-1863, moved to Ohio in 1806 where he 
practiced law and taught school before he became the private secretary of William H. Harrison 
in the War of 1812. After serving in the state legislature he was elected to Congerss in 1822 and 
served from 1823 to 1838. One of the founders of the Whig party, he held an office in the 
treasury department under Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, and Lincoln. In 1847 he was appointed the 
general agent of the Washington Monument Association. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1696. 

The Mangum Papers 19 

just now, as the only difficulty in the way. I fear, he stands too 
far aloof. The judge, must not lack, in moral courage. He must 
not, wrap himself up in the mantle, of self importance too much, 
in his democratic strength. He must not, lean too heavy, on that 
democracy. For that, "band of brothers," are more clanish, 
more obedient, to the descipline & will, of their officers, than 
the Whigs; 33-1/3 pr. ct. Although I admit, that he will make 
greater inroads, into the ranks, of the democratic party, than 
any name, of the Whigs, that I know of. Is there not, some 
difference of opinion, among the old and young Whigs, the 
friends of Mr. Clay? Some leaning towards the judge, and some 
towards another and younger person, perhaps, Tom Corwin, 
of Ohio? Now Sir, I am of the opinion, that the moment, the 
judge puts forth, the right hand, of good fellowship, towards 
Clayton, Crittenden & others; that moment, the younger branch 
of the Whigs, must as a mother of course, fall in.* [sic] The judge, 
has been told, in the most emphatic language, and by his most 
confidential, bosom friends, in Ohio, and hereabout, I know, what 
he, in the opinion, of his said friends, ought to do, towards the 
friends, of Henry Clay. All these and those things, well taken 
care of, the Whig party, will present, such a formidable front, 
at the day of battle, that nothing, but the Almighty power, can 
break its ranks. There will nothing be heard, but union and 
victory, in the land. 

The good understanding, that must be, in the Whig ranks, 
at the coming election, will be, the selection, of the candidates, 
for the two, first offices, to be elected; if they are the ones, I 
have often named to you; you may be assured, and reassured, 
that New York, & all, the N. England States, may be put down, 
as giving the electoral vote, for John McLean, of Ohio, & Willie 
P. Mangum, of N. Carolina. 

The Whigs, have not it in their power, if they strive ever 
so hard, or ever so long, to combine, so much political strength, 
and suit so many different whims and interests, as the two 
names above. Every man, woman and child, know you by 
heart, each one, sings praise & good feelings to you. 

20 State Department of Archives and History 

The moment, the "affairs of State," are settled, I should 
like to hear from you Sir. 

I am Dear Sir, 

Your friend & Servant 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum ) 

U. S. Senate ) 

Washington ) 

John D. Amis 21 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Galveston 24th Jany 1847 
Wilie P. Mangum Esqr 

Dear Sir 

Having once had vanity to believe that you could be num- 
bered on the list of my friends induces me to write this letter. 
A gentleman by the name of Rhea 22 who for some time past 
has resided in this place will most likely be a candidate for the 
office of marshal of Texas which has lately been vacated by the 
death of Mr. Allen the late marshal. Mr Rhea is a man eminent- 
ly qualified to discharge the duties of that office, his apoint- 
ment will be a reward to merit: he is my friend and a gentle- 
man and should he receive your patronage it will be thankfully 
acknowledged by me. Mr. Calhouns speach on the war has been 
received hear with allmost universal applause. The censurs 
of the lower house on Genl Taylor has made him much more 
popular in this Country. 23 And the present administration has 
lost friends by it. Thos Texans who have been ingaged with 
Genl Houston in the late Mexican Wars think that there is no 
doubt about Genl. Houstons being elected for the next president. 

I am living in this place where I expect to remain the 
balance of my life. I am yet verry poor but have made som 

^See above, II, 434n. 

^John S. Rhea became the collector of customs at Brazos Santiago, Texas, in 1849. American 
Almanac, 1850, 108. 

^When Congress met in December, 1849, resolutions were introduced praising Taylor for 
his victories. Polk's friends in the House added an amendment: " 'Provided that nothing herein 
contained shall be construed into an approbation of the terms of the capitulation of Monterey.' " 
Brainerd Dyer, Zacbary Taylor, Baron Rouge, 1946. p. 209. 

The Mangum Papers 21 

property since I lost my whole estate by my unfortunate sun in 
law — Butterworth I should be pleased to hear from you 

I remain yours &C. 
John. D. Amis. 

[Written on the same sheet]. 

Galveston Texas 
February 25 1847 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

Should I be so fortunate as to obtain your influence for the 
appointment sought at the hands of the President, you will be 
good enough to cooperate with my friends Col Sevier 24 of 
Arkansas, Genl Houston & Hon Mr. Pillsbury of Texas, Hon Mr 
Chapman & Genl Houston of Alabama, Hon. Mr. Jarnagan of 
Ten, & Hon. Mr. Foote of Missi. 

Very Respectfully 
John S. Rhea 

Silas E. Burrows 25 to Willie P. Mangum 

Jany 30th 1847 
New York 
The Honorable 

Wm P Mangum U.S.S. 

My Dear Sir 

More than five years have passed since the evening I 
left you at Washington, when you were so good as to offer your 
services to me at any time, when I might require them. 

I have been residing at Montevideo, S. America, since my 
absence from the U States, and have been more successful, than 
I should have been in the Liverpool Consulate. 

^He refers to Ambrose T. Sevier, Senator from Arkansas; Sam Houston, Senator and Timothy 
Pillsbury, Congressman from Texas; Reuben Chapman and George Smith Houston, Congressmen 
from Alabama; Spencer Jarnagin, Senator from Tennessee; and Henry S. Foote, soon to enter the 
Senate from Mississippi. 

^Silas E. Burrows operated regular packets from New York to Carthagena and had other 
vessels on other seas. A great partisan of Clay, he traveled extensively in the days of the Na- 
tional Republican Party. J. Q. Adams, Memoirs, VIII, 258-259. 

22 State Department of Archives and History 

I am now making arrangements to visit St Petersburg in 
the Spring, with my son & daughter, where I have been in- 
vited by the Russian Government for the last seventeen years. 

I am anxious Mr Mangum that you should be placed as the 
second Whig candidate, on the Presidential ticket for the en- 
suing campaign and all that I can do to accomplish will be done. 

Will you be so obliging as to attend to the enclosed 26 for 
me, and obtain an answer from Mr. Walker. 

With the highest considerations of respect I remain dear 
Sir Your most Obt Servt, 

Silas E Burrows 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh Jany 30th. 1847— 

To Hon: Willie P. Mangum. 

You must excuse the apparent scrawling of this episle my 
dear & honored friend, as I know you certainly will, when I 
tell you that I am writing in bed, lying on my back, where I 
have been for the last week. I brought my men down here on 
Saturday last, & they are now in Wilmington, where I am sorry 
to say the Government has put itself to no trouble whatever, 
to provide for their accommodation. Unfortunately for them } & 
for me, I received a severe injury in my foot, on the way, which 
was so much aggravated by marching about here, that I have 
not left my bed since, & fear I shall not in some 8 or 10 days 
to come. It is on the mend however. While lying here I am 
anxious to make all the necessary arrangements for my de- 
parture, possible; & among other things I am desirous of getting 
the letters you promised me. Please direct to me at Wilmington 
to the care of Wm. E. Anderson Esq. 

My posture is a very awkward & fatiguing one so I must per- 
force conclude - you shall hear from me as soon as I get up. 

Very truly & Sincerely 
Yr frnd 

Jno. Cameron 

28 Not found in the Mangum Papers. 

The Mangum Papers 23 

John McLean to Willie P. Mangum 

[30 January, 1847.] 
My dear Sir, 

I enclose you the Pittsburgh paper containing an account 
of the late meeting at Pittsburgh. 27 I have rec d no letter except 
the one I sent you from Mr. Biddle. Of the reason why the 
ticket was not complete, I am not informed. From a letter re- 
ceived some days ago, now in the hands of Mr Harvey, 28 you 
are mentioned as a favorite at Pittsburgh. I sink or swim 
with you — 

Truly yours 

John McLean 

Hon. W P. Mangum 
30 Jan^. 1847. 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh Feby 1st. 1847 — 
Hon: Willie P. Mangum. 

My dear Sir. 

I hope you will not accuse me of taking up too much 
of your valuable time, but even if you do; when you consider 
how very much of a relief it is, to one stretched on a couch of 
suffering to be able to commune with those to whom he is at- 
tached — I know that you will immediately recall the sentence 
of condemnation. I am still flat on my back, but on the mend, 
& hope in the course of 10 days or a fortnight, to be once more 
afoot & at the head of my company: By the way you will have 
to give Flat River a rowing up! There is not one Flat River 
name on the muster roll from Orange. Poor Sally will be sadly 
disappointed! She had flattered herself that there was at least 

^Friends of John McLean arranged a meeting of the "Democratic Anti-Masonic and Whig 
Citizens" at Temperance Hall in Pittsburgh January 25, 1847. Mayor Adams presided. The 
meeting adopted resolutions endorsing the candidacy of McLean. Francis P. Weisenburger, 
The Life of John McLean: a Politician on the United States Supreme Court, Columbus, 1937, 
p. 111. 

^James E. Harvey. 

24 State Department of Archives and History 

one volunteer from Pa's district, & so there were 4 of them, 
until it came to the scratch, & then the rascals either ran out, 
sneaked out, or lied out. I am truly sorry to say that Addison 
Mangum 29 was one of the latter. He has behaved like a d - d cur; 
most shamefully! I regret to have to speak thus harshly of any 
thing near to Dial's Creek, but you have always encouraged 
me by your own course, to speak openly & above board, & I do 
so more frankly to you, than to any one else. I sent a posse 
down after Addison & others, with orders either to take them 
bodily, or to make them pledge their word & honour, for their 
appearance in Hillsboro: the next day at Eleven O. clock. 
Which pledge was accordingly given but never fulfilled. One 
chap by the name of Ashley, would not give the pledge, & was 
forthwith hampered. He traveled with us as far as Crabtree 
on our route to this place, where he gave us leg bail while the 
Guard had come in to make their morning's report.- When I 
sent the Guard down after those men I gave them a note to 
Mrs. Mangum requesting accommodation for them for the 
night, which of course was as cordially tendered as it was 
frankly requested, & you never saw fellows so well pleased in 
your life as they were when they came back; not even Blalock 
the night he came so near dancing — Mrs. M - s carpet out.- 
Maj. Hinton 30 comes to see me occasionally, & Alfred Jones has 
been here once. I gave him some Brandy Gales had sent me, 
and he pronounced it equal to the Virgin Juice you gave him 
at Dialia. Gales is hale well & canty. & Graham looks better 
than I ever saw him. The Gov: is very much put out on ac- 
count of the conduct of the War Department towards this 
State, as regards receiving officers, supplies for volunteers 
&c. My men are in Wilmington now, & have been for more 
than a week, living upon their own expenses, because there 
was no officer to receive them, & no supplies to be dealt out 
there. The impression is growing rapidly out here, that 
Marcy is a queralous old Granny, without either sense or 
principle, Walker a knave who has gotten over his depth; Polk 
a good sort of a critter, without sense enough either to under- 
stand his own dignity & proper position, or to prevent his 
being made a tool of, by unprincipled & ambitious advisers; 
& the entire Administration & its supporters, a set of reck- 

29 A cousin of Mangum. For Addison's story see below Addison Mangum to W. P. Man- 
gum, Jr., 1847. 

aoC. L. Hinton. 

The Mangum Papers 25 

less partisans, utterly regardless of the amount of life, blood, 
& treasure expounded, while a chance (however remote) re- 
mains of securing the Succession. The feeling among the right 
minded, & more thoughtful generally is, that active hostilities, 
(except so far as is necessary to secure the posts on the Gulf,) 
ought to cease, that we have done enough for honour's sake, 
showing ourselves preeminently their superiors in the field 
& having secured territory enough to indemnify us for all 
our demands. 31 That a mere war of ravage & extermina- 
tion, where no efficient resistance could be made, would be 
an inhuman & wasteful expenditure of human life, from 
which no possible good could result, but which would be cal- 
culated in the end, not only to lose us the sympathy, but 
give us the reprobation of the whole Christian world. Who 
are the principal "War to the knife" men in your body for in- 
stance? Arkansas & Texas. Sevier & Sam Houston, pretty file 
leaders they for the president of a Republic like ours, in this 
enlightened age! The one a bull headed Jackass - & the other 
a brute. In fact so positively aggressive is the course of our 
government, that many of us although we will do our duty, & 
that sternly too, yet still we will do it with anything but feel- 
ings of Satisfaction; for as God is my judge, with the excep- 
tion of Santa Anna I had rather blow up the White House with 
Jim Polk Old Marcy & the rest of his evil advisers in it, than 
to make one hearth in Mexico desolate. 

As for Santa a d - d cold blooded Scoundrel, if he ever 
comes in reach of my sabre, unless my right arm fails me, he'll 
never disturb another generation, unless he raises h - 1 down 
below. I wish if you can do so conveniently you would include 
a letter to Worth among those you promised me! 

31 The North Carolina Whigs were never enthusiastic about the war. In December, 1846, 
J. R. Gilliam proposed in the state senate the appropriation of $10,000 for the benefit of 
volunteers, but he included the following preamble: "by the action of the Executive and the 
subsequent sanction of Congress, this Republic is involved in a foreign war." This was a re- 
taliation for the preamble to the Congressional declaration of war which asserted that war had 
come by the action of Mexico. In their state convention in 1848, the Whigs declared that war 
had come " 'in a spirit of selfish ambition and persisted in with a view to party triumph.' " 
Probably more Whigs than Democrats from North Carolina fought in the war. Pegg, "Whig 
Party in N. C," 237-242. 

26 State Department of Archives and History 

Remember me kindly to Mr. Badger, & to Barringer & 
Jimmy Graham, & believe me ever my dear Sir 

Yrs truly & affectionately 
Jno. Cameron. 

Write to me if you have leisure 

not for other eyes, but only my own satisfaction! 

My Uncle's family are well. Mildred is 
better, can stand erect, & use her hands. 

Memucan Hunt to Willie P. Mangum 

Galveston, Texas, Feb. 3 rd 1847 


My Dear Sir 

I had intended to have written you a long letter by the 
present mail but the want of time to do so, before the departure 
of the steamer, denies me that pleasure. 

We are very anxious in Texas that a law should be passed, 
at this session of the congress, creating the necessary offices for 
the better management and control of the Indians in the territory 
of this State, namely, a Superintendent, Agents, and sub-agents. 
Many of us who exerted ourselves to effect the indepndence of 
Texas, and who are considered as having manifested some liber- 
ality during the struggle, have exhausted our estates with the ex- 
ception of the lands we own on the frontiers. The constant depre- 
dations of the Indians make it hazardous to form settlements on 
them, and it is out of our power to make them available by sale 
or otherwise, so long as the Indian hostilities and thefts con- 
tinue. The passage of a law creating the office refered to, would, 
doubtless, speedily, to a great extent, obviate this disadvantage 
under which we at present labor; and would also, save the 
lives and property of numbers who will suffer before the next 
congress convenes. It is probable, moreover, that the President 
with the consent of the Senate will appoint me the Superin- 
tendent of the Indian tribes in Texas. It is an appointment that 
I should be gratified to receive under the circumstances, but at 

The Mangum Papers 27 

the same time I should not think of asking you, or any friend 
I have in congress, to aid in getting the bill through at this 
Session, on that account, were it not coupled with the benefits, 
above alluded to; to a very large number of the citizens of this 
State. You will very greatly oblige me and numerous other 
citizens in Texas by using your influence in causing the law to 
be passed at this session of Congress creating the offices refered 

I have written a letter by this mail to a friend who is a 
member of the H. of Reps., and have desired him to show it to 
you. It is more diffuse than the want of time enables me to 
make this, and I beg leave most respectfully to refer you to 
that letter, should the gentleman to whom I addressed it submit 
it to you for your perusal. 

It afforded me great pleasure on the return of my friend 
Gen'l. Houston from Washington, last summer, to hear him 
express the gratification he had enjoyed in again meeting you. 
He remarked to me that, although of different politics from 
yourself, there was no gentleman he met with at Washington 
whose society and intercourse afforded him more pleasure and 
gratification than yours did. 

Be pleased to present my kind regards to Mr. Badger, and 
to Generals Houston and Rusk. 32 

Be pleased to let me hear from you at your earliest con- 
venience, after you receive this, and accept my assurances of 
the warm friendship with which it always affords me so much 
gratification to subscribe myself yours most truly, 

Memucan Hunt 

(In haste) 


Hon. Wilie P. Mangum, 
United States Senator, 
Washington City. 

a2 Thomas Jefferson Rusk was Senator from Texas from 1846 to 1857. Biog. Dir. of 
Cong., 1485. 

28 State Department of Archives and History 

to Willie P. Mangum 33 

Feb 5 [, 1847] 

The Whigs of East Florida are waiting with anxious hope 
but firm reliance in the justice of the Whigs of the Senate; in 
the case of Joseph Simeon Sanchez 34 the re-appointed Locofoco 
Marshal of E. Florida. 


St. Augustine, 
Feb. 5 

William A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosures 85 

Executive Office 
Raleigh Feb. 6th, 1847. 

My Dear Sir 

In reply to your favor of the 4th inst. requesting a state- 
ment of the circumstances, pertaining to a company of volun- 
teers from the County of Mecklenburg, tendered through their 
Captain Green W. Caldwell, to the Executive, as part of the 
Regiment required from this State, for the prosecution of the 
War with Mexico, their being accepted as such, and their sub- 
sequent refusal to be mustered into the service of the United 
States, I have the honor to enclose herewith 

No 1. A general order calling for volunteers. 

2. A letter of Capt Caldwell tendering his Company & 
asking Commissions for officers dated Jany. 11th, 

3. An order from the Adjutant Generals office (which 
accompanied Commissions issued by the Executive), 
directing Captain Caldwell to repair to Charlotte with 
his company & report them to Lieut Fremont or other 
mustering of U. S. dated Jany 14th. '47. 

:!3 The first part of the letter is missing. 

^See above, III, 336n. 

^See below another letter from W. A. Graham to W. P. Mangum, February 6. 1847 and 
one from Lewis Cass to Willie P. Mangum, February 10, 1847. The first enclosure is a printed 

The Mangum Papers 29 

4. Letter from Capt Caldwell saying commissions were 
not accepted dated Jany 25th '47. 
No 5. Letter from Capt Caldwell to Lieut Fremont refusing 
to be mustered into service dated Jany 27th '47. 
6. Letter of Lieut. Fremont to Gov. Graham enclosing 
the preceding. 
These documents are all that pertain to this subject in the 
public offices at the Capitol. Certain Resolutions are alleged to 
have been adopted, at a meeting of this Company, which will 
be found in the Charlotte Journal a newspaper sent herewith. 

I remain with high regard 
Your Friend & Servt. 
Will A. Graham 

Hon Willie P. Mangum. 


Executive Department, ) 

Raleigh, December 7th, 1846. ) 


Several of the Military Companies, who volunteered for the 
prosecution of the War with Mexico, under the Proclamation of 
the Governor, dated 22d of May last, having declined to enter 
the service of the United States, according to the terms pre- 
scribed in the late requisition of the President : Notice is hereby 
given, That a Regiment of Volunteer Infantry is now required, 
to serve "during the War with Mexico, unless sooner dis- 

The Companies composing the former Regiment, and those 
who then volunteered, but were not allotted for service, have, 
by a General Order, dated November 19th, been informed of 
the new requisition, and have been allowed a preference in 
forming the present one; and any of these Companies, who shall 
report themselves ready for duty in a reasonable time, will now 
be accepted. But, to provide against delay or disappointment, 
every Colonel in Command of a Regiment in the State, will, 

Field and Staff. 

Non-Commissioned Staff. 

30 State Department of Archives and History 

as soon as practicable, after the receipt of this Order, convene 
the men of such Regiment, and call for Volunteers according 
to the requisition now made. 
The Regiment will consist of 

1 Colonel, 

1 Lieutenant Colonel, 
1 Major, 

1 Adjutant, a Lieutenant of 
one of the Companies, 
but not in addition. 
1 Sergeant Major, 

1 Quarter Master Sergeant, 

2 Principal Musicians. 

10 Companies, each to consist of 
1 Captain, 

1 First Lieutenant, 

2 Second Lieutenants, 
4 Sergeants, 

4 Corporals, 
2 Musicians, 
80 Privates. 
The Company Officers will be appointed in the manner here- 
tofore made known, and the Field Officers, either by the Gov- 
ernor, or in such other mode as the Legislature may prescribe. 

The Officers of any Company which may be completed as 
above, will immediately report the fact, certified by a Colonel 
of their County, to the Adjutant General, and will cause their 
men to be in readiness, for marching to Wilmington, the place 
of rendezvous appointed by the War Department, at the earliest 
day practicable. The first ten Companies which shall comply 
with the requisition, and report themselves accordingly, will be 
received, and the Officers of each will take Seniority, according 
to the date of its organization. 

A prompt execution of this Order is enjoined on all whom it 
may concern, that the State may fulfil the requirement of the 
constituted authorities of the Union without delay, and that 
the Regiment may be in readiness for embarkment at the 
earliest practicable period. 

By order of his Excellency, 
Will: A. Graham. 

Rob't W. Haywood, Adjutant General. 

The Mangum Papers 



Charlotte No Ca 
January 11th 1847 


The undersigned as Captain, has the honor to report to the 
Adjt. General of the State, that a Company of volunteers has 
been formed in Mecklenburg County, to serve during the War 
with Mexico, unless sooner discharged, composed of the follow- 
ing officers, non-commissioned officers & privates. I have there- 
fore to request that commissions be sent for the officers. 

G. W. Caldwell, Captain. 

Names of officers. 

G. W. Caldwell, Captain, 

E. C. Davidson, 1st Lieut, 

John K. Harrison ) 

Alf . Norment ) 2nd Lieuts. 

W. L. Davidson, 1st Sergeant 

James Brian, 2nd Sergt 

E. A. McKee, 3d. Sergt 
J. G. Queany, 4th Sergt 
J R Warwick, 1st Corporal 
R M Normant 2nd do 
A Overman, 3d do 

Austin Moss, 4th do 

Washington Alexander 
Chas F Alexander 
Thomas Alexander 
Chas. G Alexander 
Junius Alexander 
Esau Alexander 
Samuel E Belk 
W L Beatty 
John Booth 
J G Blair 
J. H. Barber 
Jeremiah Crenshaw 
Andrew Cathey 
William Cross 
John R Daniel 
Joseph Daniel 
Chas R Doherty 
Robt H Ewings 
Wm. Fulwood 
And Fowler 
Thomas D Griffith 
Ransom S Gray 
Wm. F. Griffith 

Names of Privates 

John Harkey 
W. A. Houston 
Wm R Harkey 
Joseph W Hampton. 
P H Johnston 
S D McKees 
T N. C. Kirkpatrick 
Wm Long 
Nathan Lyles 
A F McRee 
Samuel McKeachen 
James McCoy 
John A McCall 
James McCall 
H A Mathews 
John G Muline 
Edw. Moss 
T L Moss 
T D Massey 
T M Miller 
T T Normant 
J J Prater 
Henry Parks 

W. W Quinn 
Jas N Rhine 
J R Rieves 
D J Robinson 
Mason Richardson 
R C Robinson 
John F Stevens 
Allen Stewart 
Adam Stamy 
James M Scott 
John A Stewart 
Thos F Swan 
H. W. Smith 
C D Smith 
Robt R Taylor 
James A Todd 
Wm W Walker 
David Weard 
Richd Weaver 
Thos G Williamson 
Jas G Weaver 
Wm Wilson 
John R Glover 

32 State Department of Archives and History 


Adjutant Generals Office 
Raleigh January 14th 1847 

Captain G. W. Caldwell commanding the volunteers Com- 
pany G. in the Regiment destined to be mustered into the serv- 
ice of the United States, will muster his Company as early as 
his convenience will allow, and proceed to Charlotte, the place 
of rendezvous, for the Western portion of said Regiment, and 
there report the arrival of his Company, to Lieut S. L. Fre- 
mont, or some other Officer, who may be authorized to muster 
them into service. 

Capt. Caldwell is invested with discretion as to the day of 
setting out, and of the arrival of his Company at Charlotte. It 
is expected however that there will be but little delay beyond 
what may be required for making the necessary arrangements 
of the men for departure from their homes. 

Capt. Caldwell is requested to present to his Company the 
thanks of the Commander in chief, for the promptitude & gal- 
lantry, with which they have responded to the call of their 

R. W. Haywood 

Adjt. General. 
No Ca Ma. 


Charlotte No Ca 

January 25th 1847 


I beg to return the commissions forwarded for the Officers 
of Company G which were received by me a few days ago, as 
they refuse to accept them. 

I have the honor to be 
Yours Very Respectfully 
G. W Caldwell 
R W Haywood 
Adjt General 

The Mangum Papers 33 


Charlotte No. Ca. 
27th January 1847 


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of yesterdays date, informing me that in obedience to instruc- 
tions from the War Department, you are ready to muster into 
service the Company from the County of Mecklenburg of which 
I am Captain elect. 

My Company has refused to be mustered into the service 
under the requisition made upon this State, and has instructed 
me to report them to the War Department under the late law 
of Congress, for raising ten additional regiments, as a Company 
of Dragoons, which I have done, consequently cannot tender 
my Company to you. 

Very Respectfully 
Your obt. Servt. 
Sgd. G. W. Caldwell. 


Charlotte No. Ca. 
27th January 1847 

His Excellency W. A. Graham 

Governor &c. Raleigh No. Ca. 


I have the honor to inform your Excellency of my arrival 
at this place, and the condition of the volunteers who were 
ordered to rendezvous here. 

Immediately upon reaching the rendezvous, I addressed 
notes to Capts Long and Caldwell informing them of my arrival 
and readiness to muster into the service of the United States, 
their respective Companies, and have just received from them 
letters in reply, Copies of which are enclosed. 

Whatever may be your action in this matter I cannot think 
it possible that the War Department will listen to the proposi- 

34 State Department of Archives and History 

tion that is about to be made in behalf of one of these Com- 
panies, after its service has been tendered to, and accepted by 
the State as a Volunteer Company. The military impropriety 
of such a proceeding must preclude the possibility of its success. 

I am Sir, Very Respectfully 
Your mo. obdt. Servt. 

S. L. Fremont 
1st Lieut 3d. Artillery 
Mustering officer No Ca V. s 

William A. Graham to Willie P. Mangum 

Please show this to Mr Badger. 

Raleigh Feb y . 6 th 1847. 

My Dear Sir 

I sent you from my office today, copies of the docu- 
ments, relating to a tender of service by the company of G. W. 
Caldwell in Mecklenburg, their acceptance, & being ordered into 
service, and their subsquent mutiny & refusal to be mustered 
in. It is a case of gross mutiny, which if occurring in the regular 
service, under the articles of War, would be visited with the 
heaviest penalties. The anomalous condition of the volunteer, 
before being mustered into the service of the United States, 
rendering it doubtful what law governs the case, and the great 
body of the Regiment being at a distant rendezvous so as [to] 
render a Court Martial out of the question, without great delay 
in their departure for Mexico. I have taken no note of the 
matter further than to accept the service of another company- 
You will perceive that the case is simply this- Under a General 
order volunteers are called for- In compliance with that Capt 
Caldwell reports a company & asks for commissions- These 
are sent with all expedition, and when two more companies 
are received, the Regiment is announced to be full, and others 
offering their service are refused, unless the Sec. y of War, will 
take additional companies. Along with the commissions, goes an 

The Mangum Papers 35 

order to him to repair to Charlotte with his company & report 
to Lieut. Fremont. This order is dated 14 th Jan y . & no doubt 
reached him by the 17 th . From that time he exercised the func- 
tions of his office & under that commission, as I have no doubt, 
tho' he did not have indorsed on it that the oaths of qualifica- 
tion had been taken- On the 28th the commss: are returned in 
a letter dated 25th & saying they are not accepted. That week 
was no doubt employed in exciting a spirit of discontent- and 
it is very evident, that it was hoped the movement would be 
followed by other companies. The language of these resolutions 
is such gross vilification of the authorities of the state, that is 
Legislature, & by inference the Executive also, that it would 
cause the dismission from the Regular service of an officer in 
commission, under the articles of War; and to say nothing of 
the revolt from the State service, it would be singular, if the 
Senate will concur in conferring office on persons, guilty of 
conduct, which would cause their dismission, if they had been 
already in [listed] But What are their grievances- As set forth 
in the resolutions they are, 1 st The Preamble to the resolution 
making appropriations for the volunteers, 2 nd That this company 
were not allowed to choose Field officers & were not pleased 
with those appointed- Do these furnish any excuse for with- 
drawing their aid from the prosecution of a War? The Legisla- 
ture was not bound to appropriate any thing or upon any 
terms- If they offer a bounty attended with a declaration dis- 
pleasing to the volunteer, it may be a reason for refusing to 
take the money but none at all for withdrawing from the serv- 
ice- But 2 ndly What reasonable expectation had they, that 
they were to elect Field officers. At the time they volunteered 
the power to appoint these, was in the Executive, and the Gen- 
eral order, under which they offered their service & were ac- 
cepted, stated expressly, that "Field officers will be appointed 
by the Governor, or in such other mode as the Legislature shall 
prescribe." Their complaint on this point is, that the law was 
allowed to remain unaltered, as it was when they tendered 
their service- Their tender was unconditional- they do not 
complain of deficient qualifications in the officers but that they 
are "thrust on them against will" — that is that they were not 
consulted in their selection- The reasons thus publicly put 
forth, are such wretched pretexts, that every one must perceive 
they are not the true causes for the step to be taken. What 

36 State Department of Archives and History 

these were may not perfectly appear. But those alleged could 
not have influenced men of sense. Whether when the first 
effervescence had subsided, the parties repented the ardor of 
their patriotism, and wished to make the best of a bad bargain 
by getting on horse back (dragoons) instead of going on foot 
to Mexico, or to get out of the bargain by not going at all, or 
whether it was the effusion of rage, upon these officers finding 
they had not been elevated to places, for which their partisan 
friends in the Assembly did not recommend any of them, al- 
though they pressed the claims of others, I know not- But if 
the aid of the State authorities is to be expected in raising 
troops for the United States, the agents of the latter must not 
reward or encourage, revolt against them- Immediately on 
receiving the letter of Lieut. Fremont enclosing the reply of 
Capt Caldwell which is sent you, and containing his remark 
that 'The War department surely would not receive this com- 
pany- It would be a breach of Military propriety which pre- 
cludes its success-": I had the whole copied & sent to the 
Sec r . of War, saying to him that it would explain the reason 
of some more delay than I had hoped in furnishing the Regi- 
ment from this State- If therefore the nominations are made 
it will be with a knowledge of the insubordination- By every 
mail from the West, I am expecting to hear of the Yancey Co. 
At last accounts it was to be at Charlotte yesterday. I some- 
what apprehend the influences there may infect it, if the U. S. 
officer shall have left before it arrives, as he expected to do 
when he last wrote me- It is evident that, the Mecklenburg 
movement is anxious for countenance & is disappointed thus 
far- Nine companies are at Wilmington probably today & Col 
Paine in Command- Yancey affords the tenth- and under the 
assent of Sec r . of War I will take another, if offered soon- 
Rowan is greatly ashamed, and endeavoring to revive Longs 
Co- But my purpose was to give you a few hints on the topic 
of my communication of today. 

Very truly Yours 
Will. A. Graham 

Hon W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 37 

E. J. Foster to Willie P. Mangum. 

N. Orleans Feb. 8th 1847 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Dear Sir. - After an apology for requesting a small 
favor, I have just returned from Monterey, after being out 
since May last,. In my absence my Printing establishment was 
sold from me for Rent in Natchitoches, La. at a great sacrifice. 
If the Ten Regiment bill finally becomes a Law, I would be 
glad to obtain an appointment in the Quarter Master, or Com- 
missary's Department, you can doubtless by applying for me 
at the department under the circumstances obtain one for me 
- although I would not have you make any application for me 
if you should think it would place you under the slightest obli- 
gation to the present administration 

The Department of War, would be enabled to find my name 
on two Muster Rolls - one as attached to Col. Featherston's 
Regiment (6th. Reg. La. Vol.) as a staf officer, the other as a 
private in Capt. Ballow's company in Hey's Regiment Mounted 
Rangers. Nearly all of the Rangers who have applied have ob- 
tained offices from the Department. - this is the first time in 
my life I ever have manifested a wish for an appointment from 
any power upon earth. I make this request of you in con- 
sequence of the attachment of my entire connexion, to your 
character. — I am the son [of] John Foster late of Franklin N. C. 
where my mother yet lives. I would apply through Gov. John- 
son, but am not personally acquainted with him 

We have no news, Gen. Scott by placing Gen. Taylor at 
Monterey will destroy utterly his (Scotts) future chances for 
elevation, so far as the army at New Orleans may be concerned, 
and my impression is that it will be set down to the score of 
jealosy. 36 Gen. Taylor is extremely popular in New Orleans, 
while the "unterrified" are writhing under the effect of his letter 

^In December, 1946, Scott sent Taylor word that he was on his way to Mexico to take charge 
of the expedition to Vera Cruz and that he would need most of Taylor's troops. By the time 
he next heard from Scott, Taylor had captured Victoria. But when he started back to Monterey 
he learned that Scoct had already taken all of his troops except a small force to guard Monterey, 
Taylor was indignant and sent a protest to Crittenden and others in Congress. Dyer, Zachary 
Taylor, 220-223. 

38 State Department of Archives and History 

to Gen. Gaines 37 and the recommendation to the Whigs of the 
Union of his name for chief magistrate by members of Congress. 
My own private opinion in regard to the armistice, 38 is that 
two of the three Democratic Commissioners (Davis & Worth), 
should be made responsible for what was done, if it turns out 
to be injurious to the service; it will be recollected that Col. 
Davis was a son in law of Gen. Taylor, and the misfortune is 
that demagoguism is too frequently mistaken for genuine 
talent, - however at some future day, I will give you a correct 
history of every thing connected with that pice of military 
diplomacy, as possitively came under my observation - in the 
meantime you will be pleased to regard this as confidential. — 
Gen. Henderson's conversation with me on the subject at 
Montery and at Carnarge, went to exonerate Gen. Taylor per- 
sonally from all blame, and the hasty part (and doubtless un- 
authorized by Gen. T) that Col. Jef. Davis acted in the con- 
sultation, caused the result. 

Please write me an answer at an early day. 

I have the honor to be 
your obt. Servt. 
E. J. Foster. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 
U. S. S. 


Lewis Cass to Willie P. Mangum 

Feb. 10. 47 

My dear Sir, 

I intended to call on you this morning, but I find my- 
self so engaged that it is not possible. I wished to express the 
hope that on further reflection you could find it proper to assent 

^On November 5. 1847. Taylor wrote a long letter to General Edmund Pendleton Gaines 
which was published in the New York Herald, January 24, 1847, defending himself and ex- 
pressing his views of how the war should be conducted. It was apparently a bid for political 
power. Smith, The War with Mexico, I, 347, 507. 

^In the course of the battle over Monterey, the Mexican general offered to surrender the 
town. Generals William J. Worth, J. Pinkney Henderson and Colonel Jefferson Davis 
made the terms which permitted the Mexican troops to march out with their side arms. For 
making the terms this generous, Taylor was severely criticised. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 202-206; 
Holman, Hamilton, Zachary Taylor, Soldier of the Republic, Indianapolis, 1941, pp. 214-216. 

The Mangum Papers 39 

to the provision you mentioned, allowing the President to ap- 
point the company officers. This would obviate the difficulty 
in which the public service is placed. I do not indeed see how 
the law can be executed, certainly not for the purpose of the 
present campaign without such a provision. The Secretary of 
War, whom I saw last evening, told me he had caused an in- 
vestigation to be made, and found seventeen such grants of 
power on the statute book. 

It seems to me that if the power were granted there would 
be little danger of its being converted to any unworthy pur- 
pose. I do not believe you have anything to fear, on the subject 
of the company guilty of insubordination. 39 Certainly I shall 
state frankly to the President my opinion that such a step 
should not be taken, and I have just reason to believe, that it 
will not be taken. 

Much of course will depend upon your views in the passage 
of the law. Perhaps there may be some on your side of the 
House, who have doubts, and yet not decided ones, and who 
would therefore permit the matter to pass if they thought the 
public service demanded it, without their concurrence indeed, 
but without their opposition. 

I am my dear Sir 
Truly yours 
Lew Cass. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb* 

Thursday evening 11 th Feby 1847 

My Dear Sir. 

I heard this evening in a conversation with a person, 
(I hope of no high authority) that the idea is entertained & 
chuckled over, by some of the Democracy, that the President is 
merely amusing you, & will not ultimately confer the appoint- 
ment. 41 

^See above, 34-36. 

*°This is taken from the typed copy in the possession of Dr. Frank Monaghan, Washington, 
D. C. The original was not found. 

**See above, J. Watson Webb to Willie P. Mangum, January 6, 1847. 

40 State Department of Archives and History 

I think it is not at all impossible or improbable that he has 
given grounds for the opinion. Yet with his infirmities a 
decided push might fix him. That he has intended well, I do 
not doubt, yet that is the slightest possible evidence that he will 
do well. Have a push made and continued. 

I go to Pageots, where I hope to meet you, yet not remember- 
ing whether you have told me so, I write this note. 

Corwin's speech with all the bad taste, was somewhat 

Yrs truly 

W. P. Mangum 


Col. J. Watson Webb. 

Jeremiah PearsaW 2 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Duplin Co. Serecta P. O. N. C. 12th Feby. 1847 
Honble. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

A slight personal acquaintance formed some years 
ago in Raleigh, when I was there an humble member of the 
N. C. Legislature, and you on your way to Washington City as 
a representative from the Hilsboro district, together with our 
political relationship, since that time, emboldens me to write 
you, which if presumptuous, you will please pardon — 

First, Have you any influence with the head of the P. O. 
department? if so, I would ask for myself & neighbors your kind 
interference in making some alterations on the Post Route from 
Stricklands or Warsaw in Duplin, to Stantonsburg in Edge- 
comb. At present, the mails from Newbern, Wilmington & Fay- 
etteville arrives at Kenansville on every Friday; and the mail 
from Stricklands or Warsaw passes Kenansville on every Wed- 
nesday; therefore all the communications for the different 
offices to Stantonsburg, remains at Kenansville from Friday till 
Wednesday; a very great delay, and which may be corrected 

42 For a brief sketch of Pearsall see above, II, 253, 462. For the reply to this complaint 
see below S. R. Hobbin to W. P. Mangum, February 19, 1847. 

The Mangum Papers 41 

without any possible injury or inconvenience to the P. O. de- 
partment. For correction, it is proposed that the mail hereafter, 
leave Stricklands or Warsaw on Saturday instead of Wednesday 
as heretofore, which would afford facilities that we have here- 
tofore been deprived of, and no human being injured. The 
office for my neighborhood is styled Serecta, opened at a pri- 
vate residence (R. J. Pearsall's) four miles from Serecta. The 
present Post Master accepted the appointment entirely for the 
accommodation of his neighbors, and is very willing to surrender 
his appointment for their better accommodation. I have a Store 
near Goshen (a large stream) and many of my Customers cross 
the Stream by private conveyance; on the other side there are 
several clever men who want newspaper accommodations, which 
would be afforded by a change of the P. O. to my store, where 
there is almost a daily intercourse with that region; they there- 
fore propose that the Office be changed from Serecta to Pear- 
sail's Store, and if the department prefers it, the present Post 
Master will retain the office & the responsibility, only changing 
the name of the office & place of opening it; but if thought best, 
(as it is desired here) I will open the mail & be responsibile. 
This change would lengthen the route about one mile — This 
looks some like begging an Office, but when I inform you that 
less than ten dollars is the income, I trust you will not suspect 
me — I write for my neighbors, & not for Self — 

You may ask, why not write to Genl. McKay? I answer, he 
& myself are personally & political unfriendly, and I think he 
would oppose any thing he might think would oblige me, you 
probably saw our controversy noticed in the Prints — 

I left Home last August going North, with intent to pass 
some days with you, but when I got to Washington I met Mr. 
Barringer only from this State, and hearing that Congress 
would adjourn next day, and having some idea of a break up, 
I passed on to Baltimore without seeing you. Every thing tho 
as I predicted, turned out well — 

Have you read Mr. Rayner', second speech on the re-district- 
ing Bill? 43 If not, you must get it; you'll see a genteel rebuke, 
a severe flagellation, a most unmerciful excoriation — 

Will the Whig members of Congress at their present session 
take any action in reference to a National Convention for the 

^Kenneth Rayner led the fight in the legislature to redistrict the Congressional districts so 
as to increase the number of Whig Congressmen. See above, IV, 526n. 

42 State Department of Archives and History 

nomination of Candidates to the Presidency & V. Presidency. 
If so, I would with all deference suggest that Washington City 
be the place for meeting; and I would further take the liberty 
to suggest that you take but little part in said action (that is 
publicly) from the fact that your friends will doubtless present 
your name to the consideration of said Convention — 

I infer from the action of those in power that poor Taylor 
is doomed; but mark my prediction; a day of reckoning is near 
at hand; the present party in the ascendancy have been weighed 
in the scales of the State & found wanting, the hand writing 
on the wall will soon appear; and mark, a more glorious 
triumph awaits the Whigs than even that of 1840. 

I hope you will have a pleasant winding up and a prosperous 
journey through future life. 

I have the honor to be, most 
respectfully Sir, Your Obet. Servt. 
Jere. Pears all. 

P. S. What think you of our Capt. Caldwell? 44 Is not that 
great act intended to operate on the next Congressional 
election? I almost fear for our friend Barringer. 

J. P. 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York February 1847. 
My dear Sir 

I don't know, that what I can say, will make "one 
atom" of difference, in the great drama, that is now being acted, 
in and about the Capital. But this I know Sir, that it gives 
me infinite pleasure, to outpour my heart to you my dear Sir, 
and one too, whom I trust, will vouchsafe to be called by me, 
by that sweet and affectionate word — Friend. I am delighted 
to learn, that Mr. Clayton & Mr. Crittenden, are supposed to 
feel very friendly, towards the judge. Claytons path, to fame, 
lays through the elevation of judge M°Lean. Indeed, I may 

* 4 He probably refers to Green W. Caldwell's catering to his troops' wishes. See above, 28-36. 

The Mangum Papers 43 

say, that all you "pets," upward moves, lay directly through 
him. What I mean by you "pets" is this. Yourself, Clayton & 
Crittenden, are familiarly called here, by a few of us. "The 
great pets, of the Whig party." For 'tis most true, that never 
were men, more sincerely beloved, or more lavishly praised, 
than you three Gentlemen, now of the Senate, of the U. S. I 
am imformed, that Tom.Corwin & Schenck, are trying to make 
trouble, in Ohio. 45 Can't this be prevented? The Whigs, must 
be united, to secure success. What does Tom.Corwin want? 
He will only crush himself, in attempting to thwart the judge. 
Except a few, very respectable citizens, the avowed friends of 
Daniel Webster, 9/10 of our community (politically) are the 
friends of Mr Clay. He not being the candidate, the second 
choice, is as clear and distinct, as the Sun, at noon day, for judge 
M c Lean. Therefore, I hope and pray, that all the power and 
influence, that you possess, may be brought to bear successfully, 
on Tom Corwin & Co. It does appear to me, that if you, Clay- 
ton & Crittenden, bring out your big guns, those mighty pieces 
of artillery (for you are all Columbiads) you can silence, these 
young aspirants, Why can't the Whig party, once in its life 
time, be united, for in union, there is victory. There is time 
enough, and place enough, for all, who love their country; and 
desire to perpetuate its institutions. Just hear what one of our 
most distinguished editors, of Western N. York says to me, in 
a letter rec d , yesterday. 

"Mr. Clay is my favorite candidate. I consider Judge 
M c Lean, a capital candidate, Uniting eminent personal quali- 
fications, with many adventitious advantages, I should feel no 
scruples in advocating his nomination, unless Mr. C. should be 
again determined upon." 

Look at the Democracy, for a moment, and see what it is 
doing for the Whigs. Hear what a grave Senator, in his place 
says, in his loudest and strongest voice, that if Jim Polk, was 
this day a candidate for reelection, he could not obtain, one 
congressional district, in the V. S. These speeches, are read 
daily, throughout the Nation, by every man Woman & child, 
and those that can't read, it is read to them. 

We have had, two very pretty Samples, of accidental Presi- 
dents; that poor devil, John Tyler, deserted his friends and his 

* B See above, J. Watson Webb to W. P. Mangum, January, 1847. On February 11, 1847, 
Corwin made a "powerful speech" denouncing the war as "unjust." Cong. Globe, 29 Cong., 
2 sess., Appendix, 211-218. See also Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb, February 11, 1847. 

44 State Department of Archives and History 

party and went to the Devil- Jim Polk, is deserted by his friends 
and his party, and is this moment, astride of the old "Split foot" 
back, going jehu like, to the same place. 

I exhort you then, most grave and revered Senator, that 
you inspire all confidence, in each and every one, of your friends, 
teaching union and good fellowship, among all the brethren, 
calling themselves Whigs. 

I am Sir, 

with the highest respect 

Your friend & Servant 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate 

Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. Mangum. 

Morganton 17th Feby. 1847. 

Honl. W. P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir; I deem it my duty, as your personal and 
political friend, to apprise you of a report which has within the 
last few days been put in circulation hereabouts by Mr. William 
F. McKesson & which if true, your friends think very detri- 
mental to you. Mr. McKesson alleges that in a conversation of 
recent date in Washington City, relative to the course of the 
Whig members of the last legislature on the preamble to the 
resolution appropriating ten thousand dollars to the volunteers 
of the North Carolina regiment, 46 "that you condemned the 
vote of the whig members as unpatriotic, & that he, McK., de- 
served great credit for the vote he gave against the preamble 
on that occasion." As soon as I heard this matter convassed 
in our streets I unhestitatingly gave it a very flat contradiction; 

4G WiIliam F. McKesson was the Whig representative in the legislature from Burke County 
in 1846-1847 and 1854-1855. On January 19, 1846, he was active as a delegate in the Whig 
state convention in Raleigh. N. C. Manual, 522-523; Hillsborough Recorder, January 22, 1846. 

The Mangum Papers 45 

and told our Whig friends that it was a trick devised by its 
author to bolster up his course which was rendering him very- 
unpalatable to the Whigs of this county — I am glad to say that 
very few persons put any confidence in this story, but at the 
same time think that you should be apprised of its circulation, 
so that you may give it its quietus at once, lest frequent repeti- 
tions in different places may induce some to believe it — I do 
not conceive it necessary to assure you that it requires no denial 
from yourself to convince me that this whole matter is false, 
but I will be very much obliged if you will put it in my power 
to satisfy others beyond all question that there was not a shadow 
of a foundation for this little thing to rest upon. 

Minerva desires to be kindly remembered to you. Please 
to accept the best wishes of your friend & obt. Servt. 

Tod R. Caldwell. 

John Kerr to Priestley Mangum. 

Yanceyville Feb 17th 1847 
My dear Sir, 

I am in receipt of your letter of the 14th inst. and feel 
greatly obliged for the kindness and partiality which it be- 

I am of your opinion, that now is the time for a bold & 
fearless assault upon the abuses & corruption of the present 
administration, but I cannot at present consent to suffer myself 
to be placed before the district as the Whig Champion, in the 
unequal conflict which awaits us. 

Mr. Nash, if he desires to be the candidate, has my full 
consent to be so, and having been defeated heretofore in three 
of the counties now composing in part the district, it would 
seem to be due to him if he wishes it that his friends should 
give him another chance, when the auspices are more favor- 
able than formerly. 

I am by no means anxious to take the field. If I do so at 
all it will be in obedience to a sense of duty arising from the 
conviction that I would thus be enabled to render some service 
to the cause of truth and sound principles. But "Sparta has 

46 State Department of Archives and History 

many worthier sons than I" and to either or any of them I 
am ever ready to yield the preference. 

I am in principle opposed to Conventions, and will not if 
I can help it give any countenance to them. They are a modern 
invention of Yankee conception, designed to stifle & suppress 
the popular voice, - dangerous in my judgment to republican 
institutions - and almost always the instrument of foul play; 
(if I may use such an expression) — 

But in the present instance I wish it understood I have no 
fears of any other than the fairest treatment, were I to con- 
sent that my name should go before the one to be held in Hills- 
boro — Nevertheless I am firmly resolved upon this point, not 
to let my name go before it, in competition with Mr Nashs or 
that of any other whig gentleman — 

As to my strength in Caswell, I deem it proper to state, 
that any other whig could get just as many votes here as I 
could & perhaps more. I have no well grounded reason for 
believing that I could get more than two hundred & fifty or 
three hundred votes in this county. At least one prominent 
and active whig in the county would prefer Mr Nash - or Mr 
Maurice Waddell — 

Mr Gilliam, 47 and Mr Reade, have both done me the honor 
to assure me of the cordial support of our party in their respec- 
tive counties, and to them & yourself and all other kind friends 
who have indicated a favorable opinion of my humble ability 
to serve them, I am profoundly grateful, and only wish that 
it was in my power to fulfil their expectations. 

With sincere respect & 
regard I remain 
Your friend 

John Kerr. 

P. H. Mangum Esqr. 

47 He refers to Robert Gilliam, of Granville, and Edwin Godwin Reade, of Person. Gilliam 
was a leading Whig who served in the legislature in 1836-1841, 1846-1849 and who frequently 
wrote Mangum advising him on public sentiment in North Carolina. N. C. Manual, 623-624. 
Reade was later a member of the United States Congress in 1855-1857 and the Confederate 
Senate in 1863. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1448. 

The Mangum Papers 47 

Tod R. Caldwell to Willie P. Mangum 

Morganton 17th. Feby. 1847- 
Honl. W. P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir—. 

Allow me to introduce to your acquaintance Maj 
James S. Smyth of our town- You will find him a very clever, 
pleasant Irish gentleman, he wishes to spend two or three days 
in Washington City and having lately seen in the public papers 
that you are concerned in behalf of the sufferers of his native 
country he is very anxious to become acquainted with you — 
He is a merchant in this village; one of our leading Whigs & 
a very intelligent gentleman — Any courtesy shown him will 
be duly appreciated both by himself & by 

Your Most Obt. Sv*. 
Tod R. Caldwell 


Honl. W. P. Mangum 
Washington City 
D. C. 

Politeness of ) 

Maj. J. C. Smyth ) 

S. R. Hobbin to Willie P. Mangum* 8 

Post Office Department 
Contract Office 
Feb. 19: 1847. 


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of 17. inst., addressed to the Postmaster General, applying, on 

48 See above, Jeremiah Pearsall to W. P. Mangum, February 12, 1847. 

48 State Department of Archives and History 

behalf of J. Pearsall, of Sarecta N. C, for a change of the 
schedule on route No. 2838 ( Stantonsburg to Strickland's De- 
pot) so as to leave Stricklands Depot on Saturday, instead of 
Wednesday, and to inform you, that a similar application, made 
through the Hon. J. J. McKay, was declined on 12. inst. - it 
appearing that the proposed change would cause the mail to 
be carried, over part of the route, on the Sabbath; against which 
several Postmasters protested - saying they would resign rather 
than to open mails on that day. 

By leaving Strickland's Depot on Monday, the newspapers 
for Wilmington would be expedited by two days, without en- 
croaching on the Sabbath; and, if such a change would be ac- 
ceptable to your correspondent & others interested, this Depart- 
ment perceives no objections to ordering it. 

So much of your letter as relates to changing the site of 
the Post Office at Sarecta, will be referred for consideration in 
the Appointment Office. 

Very respectfully 
Yr. obt. Servt 

S. R. Hobbin. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senate. 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 

February th 25. 1847. 

My Dear Willie 

I have never desired more for your return home. I Do 
wish so much to know what you all are about. I think Mr 
Wescott 49 was not far wrong in thinking the Potomac was the 
proper place for the most of your lords of creation. I have 
thought something similar myself- 

I was reading Mr Wescott's expressions about the heads of 
department the other day; (to an old lady) she said I believe 

40 J. D. Westcott, Senator from Florida, who in the State Department under Jackson, had 
the reputation of being a good story teller and author of witty remarks. Stephen T. Miller, 
The Bench and Bar of Georgia: Memories and Sketches . . ., Philadelphia, 1858, I, 196. 

The Mangum Papers 49 

in my soul it is so and the people ought to know it, she desired 
to have the paper but I did not give it to her. 

I hope you are well and will soon be with us. Our Family 
are as well as usual, I think there is not much change in Mary 
she eats better and I hope is mending she complains mostly 
of her head — 

I Do desire so much for you to get home may kind heaven 
Guar [sic] and guard you safe that I may see you one more 
I shall not write much as I hope soon to see you William looks 
as well as you have ever seen him he never expresses a wish 
to stay from school but is the first to complain that he cannot 
start soon enough to get to his school in time. I have never 
seen a child go to school more cheerfully the Children all de- 
sire to be remembered to Father and wish so much to see him. 
May heaven direct all in the right course is the constant Prayer 
of your devoted Wife C. A. Mangum. 

W. P. Mangum- 

P. S. My Dear Father, 

Mr Piper wants you if you please to bring him as 
many Pumpkin seed as you can. None can be got here, no 
one made any last year, he wants to make as many, as he 
can get the seed to make. & my dear father, let me beg you a 
little please do not forget to bring us Homers Iliad. & do 
get us Tom Moor's works, a french grammar and dictionary. 
& half-dozen new tunes, we should like to have the Polka's 
very much. I have just read Kenilworth. I am perfectly de- 
lighted with it. I had no idea how much I was missing, in not 
reading it before We are delighted with expectation of seeing 
you soon. 

Your most affectionate daughter 
M. P. Mangum 

50 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 50 

Senate Chamber 26 th Feby. 1847 

My dear Sir. 

I write in the Senate, to acknowledge yours. The Yacht 
bill has passed the House, & come to the Senate. I shall use my 
best efforts to have it passed here. 

You have given it to Corwin & his friend, & have given in- 
expiable offence. 

We hear nothing new, in reference to you. I fear your 
brother will be disappointed. I went to see Cass in his behalf, 
who took up the case in his best spirit, & went to see the Presi- 
dent the next morning. Upon his return he felt great doubt of 
success. The 111. delegation who had recommended your 
brother, have since recommended a Mr. Wood, & as I suppose, 
privately expressed their preference for him. 

Cass informed me that he wont go again. I have heard 
nothing since. 

In great haste 

Most truly Yrs, 

Willie P. Mangum 

Col. J. Watson Webb. 

John Wither spoon 51 to George E. Badger 

Hillsboro. Feb 27th. 47. 
My Dear Sir, 

Our long & intimate acquaintance & I trust pure & 
holy friendship will be my apology for thus intruding on you 
& plead with you in behalf of the object for which I now ad- 
dress you 

I am very desirous that my Son George B. W- should obtain 
a commission in that part of our Army which is immediately 

50 This letter is taken from a typed copy, in the possession of Dr. Frank Monaghan, Washington, 
D. C. The orginal was not located. 

51 John Witherspoon, 1791-1853, graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1810. 
For several years thereafter he ran a private school in Hillsboro. At the same time he was a 
Presbyterian minister. Later he became president of Miami College. Grant, Alumni Hist, of 
U. N. C, 688; Ashe, Biog. Hist, of N. C, V, 487-493; Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 822, 836; 
Coon (ed.), N. C. Schools and Academies, 282-283, 310-312. 

The Mangum Papers 51 

to be raised & called into service; I must solicit earnestly your 
influence in his behalf- 
George was among the first of the Volunteers from this 
County - & was very active & did good service in inducing the 
young men to offer their services- Before the company was 
quite completed, he was sent on to Wilmington with them- 
Their Captain Mr John Cameron being unable to travel- 52 con- 
fined at Raleigh by an inflamation in one of his feet- after mak- 
ing Smith ville, George obtained a furlow (I follow Webster in 
this orthography- he says it is compounded of- fare, to go, & 
leave, permission & give Milton as authority for the use of the 
fare in this sense) from Col Paine, to return & fill up the Com- 
pany if practicable- on arriving here his friends told him the 
time was too short, for him to effect any thing, & advised him 
to apply to Gov. Graham who was then here, to extend his 
furlow a few days- This was done- & the week after he went 
home, taking with him sixteen men- which number would have 
completed the Company — George had been elected a Lieuten- 
ant & commissioned by Gov Graham & Sworn into office- 

In his absence, there arrived at Smithville, parts of com- 
panies from Caswell & Wayne- When Fremont the Adjutant, 
broke up the Orange Company, attaching its parts to others- And 
New officers were chosen in the absence of Capt Cameron & his 
Lieut nt - leaving them out. 

Graham & all our friends, are very indignant at this pro- 
cedure- Col Paine urged George to go on with them to Mexico, 
promising to provide a suitable berth for him on his arrival 
there, but his brother Henry, who had gone down with them, 
very properly advised him against it. 

The Governor, when George tendered his resignation to him, 
counseled him to retain it-adding that the whole procedure was 
illegal & that he might at the conclusion of the matter obtain 
his pay — 

But he is ardently desirous of entering the Service- and now 
My dear Sir may I solicit the influence of Mr Mangum & yourself 
in procuring a Captains or I s . Lieut nt Commission in the Infan- 
try, for my dear boy? 

He has for sometime, been the Captain of our town Com- 
pany, as it is called in the Militia & given great satisfaction- 
Whilst his brother Henry has been the Major of the Battalion 

62 See above, John Cameron to W. P. Mangum. January 30, February 1, 1847. 

52 State Department of Archives and History 

to which G. 8 Company is attached- for some time - They had 
the pleasure of falling in Company with Senator Preston and 
old acquaintance & a kind friend of my family when we resided 
in Columbia S. C. and he promised my dear boy that he would 
do all in his power to obtain a com- for George. 

I know no young man in our County who would be more 
likely speedily to recruit a company than he would, please to 
lay this hurried scrawl before our friends Mr Mangum & Mr 
Preston- & with your united influence, place the name of my 
dear boy, before the appointing officers. I had the pleasure this 
afternoon of a few moments conversation with Mr P. Mangum 
in the Court room; he was quite well: but there is much sick- 
ness in our county, & our citizens are falling daily on our right 
hand & left. 

I am, My Dear Sir with great regard, 
Your friend, 

Jn° Witherspoon 

E. Ivy Morris & Others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philada. Feby 27 1847 

The Whig young men of city & county of Philada. will on 
the 5th of March next give at the Columbia house a dinner to 
Hon. Andrew Stewart of Penna. as a slight testimonial of regard 
for his long continued and able services in our common cause. 

We have been directed to invite you to be present on this 
occasion, and hope Sir that you will be able to appear among 
[us]. You will find none but friends and those with warm 
hearts to welcome, so able and tried a member of our Party. 

The favor of an answer is requested by 

Sir your very obt sert 
E. Ivy Morris 
G. S. Kelly 
Townsend Ward 

by T. Ward. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 53 

William H. Thomas to Willie P. Mangum. 53 


March 2d. 1847. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Of the Senate, 


As you in part represent the State of No C I as one 
of her citizens beg leave to make known to you that it is con- 
templated to get the committee on Indian Affairs to add to 
the Indian Appropriation Bill now before the Senate, an amend- 
ment in favor of defraying the expenses of the present Board 
of Commissioners without which the claims for reservations in 
North Carolina can not be acted on, Which must I fear lead to 
much litigation as most of the valuable lands in Haywood and 
Macon counties, are embraced in reservations taken under the 
Cherokee treaties of 1817, & 19. Those treaties secured a life 
estate to the head of the family with remainder in fee to his 
children. In many cases the life estate reservees have died and 
their children now claim compensation which the treaty of 
1835 provides shall be paid upon awards of Commissioners by 
the United States. Hence the importance to the State to have 
the Board continued at least for a short time. You will pardon 
the suggestions above, when you take into consideration the 
fact that some of the claimants from No. C. have been detained 
here several years. 

Your Obt Servt 
Wm. H. Thomas. 



Addison Mangum to Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 5 * 

Orange March 3rd 1847. 
Dear Willie, 

You will no doubt be a little surprised, when you 
open this letter & see that it is from me, it being the first that 

63 See above, IV. 457. 

54 See above John Cameron to W. P. Mangum, February 1, 1847. W. P. Mangum, Jr., 
Priestley's son, was born in 1827. Addison Mangum was the son of Ellison G. Mangum. He 
was the second cousin of W. P. Mangum, Jr. 

54 State Department of Archives and History 

I have ever written to you, for indeed I am no letter writer 
either to gentlemen or ladies. You will perhaps readily suppose 
that something strange has taken place here upon Flat River 
& really you will not be far mistaken for recent events have 
more particularly caused me to write you & another reason is 
that I desire to open a correspondence with you not for the 
purpose of informing each other about the news & as if we were 
situated at a great distance from each other but simply for the 
sake of writing But sir I desire to say something about being 
a volunteer, I desire to give you my views upon that subject 
& to give you all the particulars connected with the matter; it 
is unnecessary to tell you that I have been very much vexed 
about this affair, for you readily suppose, I have been sorely 
plagued in regard to it. What first gave rise to my being con- 
sidered a volunteer is, that on Christmas day I made a partial 
demonstration in favour of volunteering as well as being a volun- 
teer myself, but unfortunately did not publicly make known 
the conditions that I came out upon but at every subsequent 
time when the subject was touched upon I informed the people 
that if Orange County could furnish a Company of herself 
alone. I, to save the honour of the County would become one 
of the no. but if she failed I did not consider myself either 
honour or legally bound, and from time to time I could learn 
that there was no probability that old Orange would be able 
to furnish a company & I therefore rested contented about the 
matter. I did not enroll my name upon Capt. Camerons list 
gave him no reasons to believe that I intended to belong to 
his Company as a volunteer. I kept myself entirely aloof from 
the whole business [torn] simply to have made a partial demon- 
stration without carrying the thing any farther; but Cameron's 
great desire to whip us into the harness originated from his 
having heard that we did not intend to march to Mexico under 
him giving as our reasons that he was not qualified for the 
office of Capt. this irritated him and he therefore intended to 
expose us if he could. 

Now sir I want you to look at the men composing that com- 
pany, look at the offices for example & say if there is one worthy 
& respectable man belonging to it if you say there is even one 
smart man in the crowd your taste and judgment will differ from 
every person that I have heard express their opinion in regard 
to the matter. I never could give my consent to go to Mexico with 

The Mangum Papers 55 

such a parcel of men, you saw us all when we passed Chapel 
Hill & they might be considered a fair specimen of the Orange 
troop, in truth to look at the thing coolly & deliberately it is 
all folly to go to battle in Mexico as a soldier hoping to distin- 
guish yourself as a brave & valiant man we must remember that 
all who go to do battle for their country cannot reach to the 
summit of fame or a great warrior such as a Napolien or a 

It would almost have been impossible for me to have gone 
the pecuniary sacrifice of my father would have been very 
great being engaged in so much complicated business I will 
admit that it is an unfortunate affair but public sentiment ap- 
pears to settle down in my favour. I hope you will not suppose 
that the Mangum name is disgraced by the act. 

Thus I have almost filled up this sheet with this dry subject 
many misapprehensions & misfortunes have grown out of the 

The next letter I write you I will endeavour to speak upon 
matters & things in general yet keep myself entirely aloof 
from the snairs & captivating influences of the feminine sex 
none of them have as yet caught me in their nette. I shall 
expect you to write me soon. 

(Round Hill P. O.) 

Addison Mangum. 

[Addressed:] Willie P. Mangum Jun. 
Chapel Hill 
N. C. 

William Hickey 55 to Willie P. Mangum 

Office sec. Senate, March 8.. 1847. 
My Dear Sir, 

As the second edition of my little book ordered by 
the Senate, 56 will have an extensive circulation over the whole 

B5 See above, IV, 314n. 

56 William Hickey, The Constitution of the United States of America, with an Alphabetical 

Analysis . . . & civil officers of government. 2nd edition Philadelphia, 1847. There were 

seven editions in all. The first was published in 1846 and the last in 1877. 

56 State Department of Archives and History 

country I am anxious and ambitious to obtain a few lines from 
you to print in the forepart of the book.- The Chief Justice of 
the supreme court, The Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and 
several others have been so kind as to write me letters of ap- 
probation.- The Judges of the supreme court U. S. have adopted 
my copy of the Constitution as a standard & have directed their 
Librarian to procure 24 copies of it in order that they may 
always have it by them.- 

I have another object in view in desiring a letter from you- 
I am anxious to disseminate your views regarding a spirit of 
compromise between the conflicting interests of the country 
and as regards the preservation of the Constitution and the 
Union, and I have thought that a letter from you couched in 
terms somewhat similar to the draught which I now beg leave 
to enclose 57 would do much good to a good cause, and if it be 
your good pleasure to favor me with such a letter in your own 
hand writing, I will have it printed in the forepart of my book.- 
The draught I send you is intended only to elicit your own 
views & sentiments upon those points & I thought that the 
friendship & confidence with which you have honored me would 
excuse the liberty. With these brief remarks I beg leave to 
place this rough draught entirely at your disposal and will en- 
deavour to call and see you tomorrow rnorning.- 

I understand that Plumbe's Dahgaratype Gallery near 
Brown's Hotel is among the best in the city — The light ought 
to be from the North and the instrument should be horizontal 
with the head & the impression ought to be good. — 

Most truly, My Dear Sir. 
Your friend & ob : s*- 
W. Hickey 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 12th. March 1847. 

My dear Sir 

Now, that you have gone to your home, where you 
can rest, from your arduous labours, and contemplate on the 

67 The enclosure was not found. 

The Mangum Papers 57 

affairs, that present themselves before you, I respectfully ask 
the favor, that you will give me your opinion, how matters & 
things, in general stand. For Sir, I feel well assured, there is 
no one, that can give me more accurate information; of the 
past, present and future, calculations, of the Whig party; but 
more particularly, what pertains, to the approaching Pres'*. 
question in 48. One important fact, I desire to know, will Mr. 
Clay, be a candidate, or will he not? For, if he is to be in the 
field, it is useless, for the friends of judge M c Lean, to move him, 
before the people. For Sir, in the state of N. York, and in the 
Legislature, now at Albany; the friends of Mr. Clay, are Legion 
and yet Sir, he cant be elected Pres*. of the U. S. But, if his 
name, is publicly withdrawn, as a candidate, we can and will 
move, for the judge & the N. C. Gentleman, although we have 
in this state, the elements, of as much violence; envy, hatred 
and malice, as any creature, "fresh reeking," from the "infernal 
regions," could desire. Yet, at the same time, where there is 
one violent man, we have seven, pure, intelligent ones, to over 
balance. But, the violent ones, are active and reckless, the 
others, are passive. We have Clay men among us, that swear 
everlasting confusion and destruction, to every body and every 
thing, that is not "Clay," that if, he's not elected, no Whig shall 
be. There is a great deal of rant about this. But this is some 
of their language. These same kind of violent people, swear 
vengeance against judge McLean, of Ohio, or any other judge, 
of the Sup. Court, of the U. S. being elected Pres*. of the U. S. 
That they will suffer a democrat, to be chosen first. First rate 
Whigs these, great consistency this. But violence, nor such 
violent men, thank God, don't elect Presidents yet, I hope. I 
suspect, that Mr. Crittenden of Ky. and perhaps Clayton of 
Del. are casting round, that in the event, of Mr. Clay's, not being 
the candidate, they may stand a chance to be one. Their time 
has not yet come. Just for one moment, look at the candidates, 
that have been before the people. Mr. Calhoun, has been a 
candidate, 24 years. Mr. Clay, about the same time, & three 
times, actually before the people, as a candidate. Daniel Web- 
ster, is a standing candidate. Judge M c ,Lean, has been looking, 
to the "White House," 18 years. General Scott, actually thought, 
he was elected, in 1840. 58 after his famous printed letter, to 

B8 In the Harrisburg Whig Convention in 1839, Scott received 68 votes against Clay's 95 
and Harrison's 91 on next to the last ballot. McMaster, Hist, of the People of the U. S., 
VI. 557. 

58 State Department of Archives and History 

the citizens of Penn a . & other places, was put forth. And for 
the gallant son, of Kentucky, or Delaware, or Tom Corwin; at 
the first jump, to put themselves, into the Executive chair, is 
very presumptuous. 

The Presidential question, may be turned, twisted & changed 
into as many shapes, as there are States; yet Sir, I defy any 
man, or set of men, to form a Whig ticket, that will call forth, 
as many electoral votes; as the Ohio judge, and the North Caro- 
lina, Gentleman. How shall this, this grave question, be settled. 
It does appear to me Sir, that it will not do, to trust a Conven- 
tion. The judges friends, have not seen, the devils pranks, and 
the turnings and twistings, and "log rollings," of members, who 
generally compose, those bodies of men. And although, his 
friends are of the highest respectability, in the West; will not, 
nor do not speak, write, nor are active for him. I repeat Sir, 
what is to be done? Pray let me hear from you. 

I am Dear Sir, 

Your friend & Servant 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Green [Red] mountain 
N. C. 

F. H. Davidge 59 to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington March 30 th 1847 
Hon ble W P Mangum 

My good friend 

I take up my pen more in compliance with the 
promise I made at parting with you than in the hope of telling 
you any thing of interest. The truth is that the metropolis is 
at this time the very centre of dullness, with the exception of 
the thousand and one groundless rumors which reach us from 
time to time from the seat of War. These rumors have doubt- 

69 A Baltimore lawyer who developed a reputation as a popular orator. J. Thomas Scharf, 
The Chronicles of Baltimore; Being a Complete History of "Baltimore Town" and Baltimore 
City from the Earliest Period to the Present Times. Baltimore, 1874, p. 469. 

The Mangum Papers 59 

less reached the Red Mountain in their devious flight and you 
already know in all probability all that can be known, until 
old Zack shall have escaped from the thraldom in which his 
superiours here have placed him. It seems to be conceded on 
all hands that a battle or battles have been fought attended by 
great loss on both sides and it is confidently hoped that an army 
has found shelter in Monterey Of this unfortunately however 
there is no certainty and it remains for Time the great tell tale 
to solve the doubts that hang about the matter. 

I send you a paper, 60 published in Philadelphia, which has 
a wide circulation and contains a brief notice of Judge M c Lean 
and yourself in connection with the offices of President & Vice 
President. The writer of the letter is Mr Filmore of whom 
I spoke to you when I last saw you and who is willing to oblige 
me in matters of the kind. I hope you will be satisfied with it 
short as it is. I thought it better to let it be done in an informal 
way more especially as it will be followed up by other notices 
of a more detailed character. You will see that the author 
recommends strongly the renomination of Mr Polk, as the 
person best qualified to carry out his own measures, and will 
at once perceive the irony hidden under the suggestion. The 
truth is Filmore hates Polk as the Devil does Hoi [y] water and 
would like to see him the candidate of the party because he feels 
certain that he would be beaten. I occasionally see D r Jo- who 
is hopping about in good spirits. The Committee will I learn 
close its labors, for the present, with the current month. It 
is probable that I shall visit Philadelphia in the course of a 
few days in search of employment and should I come across 
any thing of interest in my rambles I shall keep you advised. 
Steal a few moments from more agreeable pursuits and let me 
hear from you — 

Yrs truly 
F H Davidge 

60 The enclosure was not found. 

60 State Department of Archives and History 

James Stone 61 & Others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington March 1847 Capitol Square. 

Honoured Sir Permit the undersigned to approach you with 
the Most greatful acknowledgements of heartfelt thanks for 
the Favour and benefits your goodness has conferred on us it 
shall Be all of our desires to oblige you in any way it might 
ever lay In any of our Powers be assured Honoured Sir that it 
shall be our Humble prayer that you may be favoured with 
the continuance of your valuable health a long life and all 
worldly honour - This it does become us to do for the unmerrit- 
ed favour conferred upon us 

we are with respect honoured Sir your humble Servants 
J. B. Mockelen [?] Patrick Higgins 

James Stone James Forrestal 

Nicolaus Heff Patrick Toomey 

David Moren Denis Mitchel. 

Laurie to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure 

Washington, April 21, 1847. 

Dear Judge: 

I received the enclosed a day or two since with the request to 
give it your proper directing. The writer is an old friend of 
mine, whom you may probably recollect from the fact of his 
presiding in the Lodge in the evening upon which you took 
your degrees. He is a resident of New York & a member of 
the Grand Lodge of that State. I hope you may find it con- 
venient to comply with the request to officiate as the Orator on 
the day of the laying the corner-stone of their Hall. I am in- 
formed that several other communications to the same effect 
as the enclosed have been or will be forwarded to you, together 
with a formal invitation from the proper committee, and I 
trust when you see the value they attach to your services, 

61 Unable to identify. 

The Mangum Papers 61 

which will have a tendency to give the order a stamp of re- 
spectability, you will strain a point to accede to their wishes. 

I called several times to see Judge Douglass, but he was al- 
ways "out," and I afterwards understood that he was in attend- 
ance upon Mr Reid, who was confined to his bed by severe ill- 
ness. I did not know this fact until after the judge's departure 
from the city. If you should see him will you mention to him 
my wishes, and prepare him for a visit from me upon his return 
to this place — 

Dixon H. Lewis was initiated in Oriental Lodge last Thurs- 
day evening. 

My family join me in their warmest regards. 

Yours in F. L. & T. 
Laurie : 


I. O. O. F. 
Office C & Rec Secy. 
R. W. G. L. U. S. 
Ap 3. 47. 

To the Hon. 

Wilie P. Mangum 
D r Sir & Bro- 

At the request of several distinguished Brethren of the 
city of New York. I beg to submit to you the probability that 
you may be invited by the Grand Lodge of that State to deliver 
an address before the assembled Lodge of the State in June next, 
on the occasion of laying the corner stone of a New Hall about 
to be erected for the accommodation of our Fraternity in the 
city of New York- as the structure to be erected is to be a mag- 
nificent & costly one, the occasion one of great interest to the 
Fraternity throughout the country & calculated to assemble 
many thousands, a general desire prevails, that no ordinary in- 
dividual shall be chosen to deliver the oration- This therefore 
i9 very respectfully to ask whether in the event of such an in- 
vitation being extended to Senator Mangum, he will give to 
it, a favorable consideration. 

62 State Department of Archives and History 

It is proper for me to state, that I have been made the 
Channel of the preliminary communication simply from the 
fact that in the entire absence of the honor of a personal ac- 
quaintance on the part of the New York Committee with you, 
they have thought that the official position of the Cor Secy of 
the Order in the United States, might possible give some weight 
to the application — 

Very respectfully & 

Jas L Ridgely 
C. S. 

Peter Skew Smith 62 to Willie P. Mangum 

Philadelphia Apl. 16. 1847 

Dear Sir, 

At the instance of the Native American Executive Commit- 
tee of the State of Pennsylvania of which I have the honor to 
be chairman, I respectfully inquire whether if it be tendered to 
you and that unanimously, you are disposed to accept the nom- 
ination of President of the United States from the National Na- 
tive American Convention to assemble at Pittsburg on the sec- 
ond tuesday of May next, for the purpose of nominating candi- 
dates for President and Vice President? 

The candidate to be supported by the American party, as 
the standard bearer of the national principle that to preserve 
and perpetuate our Republican institutions, the American born 
must rule America. 

I am Sir very Respectfully your friend 
Peter Skew Smith 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

^Peter Skew Smith supported Taylor in 1848 but after he learned that Taylor would ignore 
the Native American Party, he turned against him. Hamilton, Zacbary Taylor; Soldier m the 
White House, 234. 

The Mangum Papers 63 

James M. Crane 63 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Richmond Virginia 

April 28th 1847 

Dear Sir 

I have been expecting to have from under your hand or 
from some friend of yours, a series of articles on the resources 
of North Carolina. If some able pen was directed to this mat- 
ter good results I think would follow. There is some little in- 
terest getting up at the north for emigrating to Virginia and 
North Carolina I should rejoice greatly if this feeling could be 
encouraged Our people are too indifferent on this subject and 
the papers unpardonably remiss I get but little through the pa- 
pers worth publishing My whole head and heart is bent on 
rousing the South if I can 

I am anxious to procure, a young, enterprising and in- 
telligent man to travel through North Carolina, to procure 
subscribers and give an account of the mineral, manufacturing 
and agricultural resources of your State. I would be willing to 
give him 25 cents on each cash subscriber, leaving me only 
75 cents. If he was an industrious and discerning man he 
would secure a reputation for himself of great value as a writer 
The information thus obtained would be of infinite service to 
the State. There are few men even in your noble state who 
know anything of its real strength and power A young man 
thus engaged having all the feelings of a true North Carolinian, 
and who would not be unwilling or ashamed to work would 
confer more value and service upon his whole state than your 
Legislature has done for the last 15 years. By travelling cheap, 
attending the courts and muster gatherings, in conversing with 
all classes from the highest to the humblest, he could not help 
making money, receiving an immense amount of information 
and in rendering a lasting service to the State 

Will you be so good as to use your good offices in procuring 
me if you can a young gentleman such as I have discribed. I 
have one in Virginia who is going good, and making money. 
Some of his letters are published at the North. If you succeed 

63 James M. Crane was editor of the Richmond Southerner from December 4. 1846, to its 
discontinuance in 1848. Checklist of Newspapers in the Duke Library, VI, 1066. 

64 State Department of Archives and History 

be so good as to address me. I have some idea of getting Hon. 
Abbott Lawrence or Mr. Hudson to address a series of letters 
to you on the growth [of] manufacture and commerce from cot- 

Our elections are just over and we have much to feel glad 
about The following Whigs are elected. Pendleton, 64 Botts, 
Flournoy, Goggin, & Preston and I think Boiling. We think we 
have carried also Fulton in Hopkins District and McComas in 
Johnsons. We have lost Irving in Hubbards district by a foolish 
and contemptible friend in Lynchburg. Jones in Baileys dis- 
trict by a religious excitement growing out of the Southern [?] 
Methodist clergymen in that county now adhere to the Church 
North. Many Whigs refused to vote for Newton in Hunters 
district because they believed him fishey. We have however 
done wonders under the circumstnaces. The Whigs have been 
as you were gerrymandered out of their rights. We have carried 
the lower house of the Legislature and will have a majority on 
first ballott. The popular vote is decidedly in favor of the 
Whigs Accept my good will for your health, happiness, pros- 
perity and future usefulness 

Your obt st 

James M. Crane. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Red Mountain N. C. 

W. W. Seaton to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington, May 16, 1847 

My dear Sir 

The Odd Fellows not hearing from you in reply to their let- 
ter which I forwarded to you some time since, Mr Stewart has 
arrived here on his way from N. York to North Carolina, to have 
a personal interview with you & to endeavor to prevail on you 
to accept their invitation. 05 Permit me earnestly to second their 
wishes. It will be a great occasion, which will draw together 

64 John S. Pendleton, John M. Botts, Thomas S. Flournoy, William L. Goggin, William B. 
Preston, and Andrew S. Fulton, were elected to Congress. 
65 See above, 61-62. 

The Mangum Papers 65 

many thousands of intelligent & respectable citizens from the 
northern & middle states, & I wish them to see & know & hear 
you. — To oblige such a body of men authorises you to make 
some sacrifices of convenience & inclination, if either stand in 
the way. If you will go, I will accompany you, if that will add 
any weight in the scale 

Very sincerely 
Your friend 

W. W. Seaton 

Hon W. P. Mangum 
N. Carolina 
Fav d by ) 

J. D. Stewart, Esq ) 

of N York ) 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 

Charleston, So. Ca 
June 3. 1847. 

My dear Sir, 

I was on the eve of writing you from Washington, 
three weeks ago, when I was suddenly summoned here by the 
alarming illness of my father, who still lies in a very critical 
state under the treatment of two eminent physicians, with con- 
sulting advice. The result is precarious, & my anxiety & watch- 
ing have almost disabled me for any sort of labor. This is the 
first respite, I have taken since my arrival, which is a moment 
of ease to my father. 

You have seen by the newspapers, the demonstrations in 
favor of Genl. Taylor, beginning with the ill-advised meeting 
In Philadelphia. 66 That affair, I am informed, was got up at the 
suggestion of gentlemen in Kentucky, of which I have taken the 

e6 As a result of Polk's treatment of Taylor a small presidential boom began in the winter of 
1846-1847 for Taylor. Crittenden, a relative, obtained Taylor's promise not to turn down a 
nomination if it were tendered him. Then on February 23, 1847, when Taylor won the battle 
of Buena Vista, his candidacy was pushed by various leaders and the press. Poage, Henry Clay 
and the Whig Party, 154; Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 268. 

66 State Department of Archives and History 

pains to inform Mr. Clay, in reply to a letter which I received 
from him on the eve of my departure from Washington. It 
seemed to me fair, that there should be no misunderstanding 
as to the dramatis personae, particularly when so important a 
play was to be performed. Jno. Sergeant, Chandler & other 
leading men were committed before they understood their real 
position and it was rendered absolutely necessary for the party 
to fall in or to stand in Meagre opposition. The rest you know, 
all the whig papers of Phila. have hoisted the Military flag 
save the North American, which I partially prevented upon the 
most urgent remonstrances. If you get the paper, you may 
have observed the course which I pursued and unless I am 
sadly mistaken, it is conformable to the opinion which I have 
frequently received from you. 

The movement in favor of Taylor has penetrated nearly 
every section as my letters from sources entertaining views 
similar to your own inform me. A few months ago, I was in- 
duced to believe that a succession of brilliant achievements by 
Scott, might lead to a division of the laurels and a contest for 
the palm. I am now satisfied, even a favorable Treaty, which 
is as remote as the North pole in my estimation, would not lead 
to such a result. There is a charm about the miraculous escapes 
of Taylor, that have fastened him with "hooks of steel" upon 
the popular mind and No military man can supersede his pres- 
ent power. 

I can see but one mode of escape from this threatened evil 
of a military despotism and that is in the prosecution of the 
war - even in this desperate remedy, I have but imperfect re- 
liance. The state of public feeling seems to be so excited against 
the administration & in favor of Taylor, that I should not be 
surprised to see him nominated while in Camp. It is the first 
step which costs, says a French proverb, and if the sobersided 
men of the Conservative party of the Country can bring them- 
selves to present Genl. Taylor as a Candidate, now, when at 
the head of a Division of an advancing army, by what new sense 
of delicacy would they be restrained from completing the Drama? 
Substantially, they are pledged to bring him forward, in or out 
of the field. 

Mr. Clay is greatly grieved at the indications of the times, 
but says as a last resort, to prostrate the party in power, he 

The Mangum Papers 67 

should not hesitate to support Genl. Taylor or any other candi- 
date whom the Convention considered available. 

Judge McLean writes me from Indianapolis where he is now 
holding Court, that the Mania has seized upon the people of 
that region far beyond his anticipations - the former has been 
somewhat increased by the Candidate for Congress ( in some in- 
stances of both parties) who have surpassed all precedent in 
shouting for the hero of Buena Vista. 

In this state of confusion I know not what to say, though 
I am strongly impressed with the opinion that Genl. Taylor 
will be the candidate if he holds out till '48. Events may occur 
to prevent it. He will never oppose any obstacle to a nomina- 
tion, as may be seen by his last letter. 67 The truth is, I know no 
man proof against that temptation and there is not much reason 
for surprise when we reflect upon it. 

I regretted very much to see by recent papers that you had 
been suffering from Bronchitis & threatened with a determina- 
tion of blood to the head. I trust you will find time to tell 
me you are improved in condition & out of any serious appre- 

It is my purpose to rest a day at Richmond returning North 
and as I have no personal acquaintance with Botts will you be 
kind enough to send me a note of introduction to him, naming 
my connection with the North American &c. After some reflec- 
tion, I think in view of some questions that are to arise next 
winter, it would be a great point if we could carry a Southern 
Speaker. There is another consideration. Connected with this 
idea, beyond the principle involved, which will strike you with 
some force, as a practical man. I suppose the clerk and Speaker 
will be apportioned to the North & South - they certainly ought 
to be. If we should elect a Southern man, of which there is 
some prospect, from the number of candidates from the Free 
States, then a northern man will be justly entitled to the Clerk- 
ship. In such an event a person of experience qualification & 
political influence should be selected. I know no one so well 
qualified in every respect as John C. Clark, formerly a member 
of Congress. You will recollect he conducted the canvass of 
1840 and had we had the good fortune in the last Campaign 

67 Taylor's great weakness as a candidate was his inclination to write letters. Seward and 
Crittenden tried to curb his letter writing, but in May he wrote a letter to the editor of the 
Cincinnati Signal expressing his views on political issues. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 271-272; 
Hamilton, Zachary Taylor; Soldier in the White House, 42-43. 

68 State Department of Archives and History 

to have secured his services, I candidly believe the result would 
have been different. It was bungled & butchered from begin- 
ning to end. That however is past & if experience is worth any- 
thing we ought to be warned for the future. We must carry 
the next election, no matter who is the candidate or prepare to 
abandon our party existence, in its present form. The services 
of Mr. Clark would be invaluable in organizing the details & 
machinery of the Canvass. By making him clerk we would 
secure a most competent & faithful officer & a political director 
without a superior. I speak for the good of the cause. 

Have you abandoned the idea of travelling North this sum- 
mer? If not when do you go and where? I know you are a 
culpable correspondent, but, I rely upon hearing from you, not- 
withstanding your faulty reputation in this respect. 

As Ever Your friend, 
Judge Mangum. James E. Harvey. 

Daniel D. Phillips to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hillsborough June 27th 1847 
Honor. W. P. Mangum 

Dr Sir I take this method to inform you that the 2 Laddies 
Saddles you ordered are now complete. I should like verry 
mutch to receive an order when you send for them for 2 good 
bridles & martingales (neat but plain) to Suit the saddles. 

With the greatest respect 
I am Sir your most 
Obt Servent 
D. D. Phillips 

C. H. Wiley to Willie P. Mangum 68 

Raleigh, June 29 th 1847- 
Dear Sir: 

I shall have to call on you to reclaim a promise which you 
made in sincerity but which, I hoped, you would not have to 

e8 This letter was previously published by Richard Walser in his "Letters of Young Novelist: 
Calvin Henderson Wiley." N. C. Hist. Rev., XXXI (July, 1954), 414. 

The Mangum Papers 69 

perform. The exigencies of my situation demand that I should 
go immediately North-ward, & it is important that I go under 
the most favorable auspices. — 

I did not when I was at your house reveal to you the full 
extent of the perils that environ me, & shall now merely glance 
at them by way, not of exciting your heart which needs no 
spur, but of conquering your laziness which stands in the way 
of your kindness. 

To begin at the beginning- When I finished my education 
I was in debt. My father's circumstances having begun to fail, 
I undertook to shift for myself & my standing was so fair that, 
altho' a boy, I was enabled to borrow money on the most ac- 
comodating terms. For this & another sum afterwards obtained 
I was in debt when I commenced the practice of the law. These 
debts were a millstone about my neck. As you know, no one 
can succeed at the Bar unless he is independent, or at last has 
a small capital to begin with. I have had to waste, for a bare 
existence, energies that might have made me eminent at the 
Bar or distinguished in politics. My old school-mates are all 
astonished at not hearing of me from the voice of the public, 
but they do not know that I have had to strive with a Hercules 
who has kept me down. My difficulties have latterly increased, 
but not by my own imprudence- My parents' circumstances 
have, at last, become so involved as to demand my immediate 
supervision for I have no brothers- This is not all. When I 
commenced the law Gov. Morehead, knowing my history proffer- 
ed me the use of his library until I could buy one- Thinking 
no doubt that I am now prospering he has made a call for his 
books- Thus will my very tools be taken away for I cannot 
ask him (the Gov.) to extend his favors- 
Anticipating these things I last winter ran for the Office 
of Solicitor, & the result you know. Still untiring I went home 
& commenced a literary production which I have now finished 
& wish to publish. I shall start North soon & must ask you to 
say all for me your conscience will permit. I shall rely mostly 
on your letters for altho' I get a few here, the two men best 
able to recommend me (Badger & Haywood) are men to whom 
I can not apply. With one I have only a speaking acquaintance 
& the other I never wish to ask for a favor. You will please 
give me a letter to Edward Johnson of Washington City: the 
man who writes the literary articles for the Intelligencer: to 

70 State Department of Archives and History 

Brooks 09 of New- York & Webb 70 of the same place, & to any- 
other influential or literary characters in New- York & Phil- 
adelphia, particularly the latter. I will call & see you as soon 
as I return & will also, of course, send you a copy of my book- 

I wish my letters to place me in a position to command the 
respect of publishers- 

I shall leave this place in a few days & send this letter by a 
Wishing you health & success, 

I remain, 

Yours very truly & sincerely, 
C. H. Wiley- 

William Preston Mangum's School Report. 

[8 July, 1847] 

Wm P. Mangum has done well. He has made great pro- 
gress in all his studies July 8th 1847. 

Thomas J. Horner. 

Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb 71 

Red Mountain, 12 th . July 1847 
My dear Sir: 

Permit me to take the liberty of introducing to you my friend 
C. H. Wiley esq r . of N°. Ca. - 

He goes to your City upon a literary enterprize, & as inci- 
dent to it, will seek an acquaintance with Some of your Pub- 
lishers. - 

69 He probably refers to Erastus and James Brooks, who edited the New York Express, a 
Whig paper. In 1835 Erastus Brooks had won considerable fame from his Washington letters 
for the New York Advertiser. Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism, New 
York. 1922, p. 156; Frank M. O'Brien, The Story of the Sun, New York, 1833-1928, New 
York, 1928, p. 85; Fox, New York City Newspapers, 1820-1850, 42. 

TO James Watson Webb. See Willie P. Mangum to J. Watson Webb, July 12, 1847. 

■"The original is in the Ford Collection, New York Public Library. 

The Mangum Papers 71 

He is a gentleman - tho of our plain No. Carolina manners - 
of liberal & excellent education - & has the reputation of being 
a ready & highly gifted writer. - 

His personal character is unexceptionable - if I am to judge, 
by the Warm attachment of almost all those who most intimate- 
ly know him.- Your large knowledge of almost every thing in 
your City designates you as the best qualified to advise & aid 
by suggestion, the inexperience of Mr. Wiley, & I think, I may 
safely invoke in his behalf your kindness to give him a small 
portion of your Valuable & almost constantly occupied time - 
as also, the benefit of such suggestions or advice as you may 
deem suitable. 

Be pleased My dear Sir, to 
accept the assurance of 

My high respect & constant 

Willie P. Mangum 

To Col. J. Watson Webb. 
[Endorsed:] Red Mountain 
July 12 1847 

Willie P. Mangum 
Mr. Wiley 

C. H. Wiley to Willie P. Mangum 72 

Oxford, July 14 th , 1847- 
Dear Sir: 

The enclosed letter was written at Raleigh several days ago 
& will speak for itself- I had intended to send it to you by a 
boy but finding a conveyance otherwise I must trust to your 
writing to me by the mail. You must write, & I shall look for 
the packet on Friday night- The Hillsboro mail comes in that 

72 This letter was previously published by Walser in his "Letters of Young Novelist: Calvin 
Henderson Wiley," N. C. iHist. Rev., XXXI, 416. The enclosed letter referred to in the first 
line probably included the same request as trie one of June 29, 1847. The letter of June 29 
was probably a different letter from the one here referred to, as the date of the one of Mangum 
to J. Watson Webb, July 12, would indicate that the June 29 one was received before the 
one to Webb was written. Mangum was a great procrastinator when it came to letter writing. 

72 State Department of Archives and History 

night & will not again arrive until the Friday following- I 
wish to start North-ward on Saturday & must rely mainly on 
your letters. If you knew me better I could with more confi- 
dence ask the favor mentioned, but even then I should not do 
it but for the strong case I make out- I love my pen & have 
some confidence in its ability to make a reputation for me; but 
matters are so pressing with me now that I must jump into im- 
mediate favor with publishers or I will fall to a position whence 
I may not be able to rise. I have two objects in view; first to sell 
my book 73 & form a favorable acquaintance with publishers & 
secondly, to get a situation if I can as a writer with a perma- 
nent salary- I can say, without any disposition to boast that 
any thing from my pen in the way of a book will sell sufficient- 
ly well in N. C. to pay double the cost of publication- In addi- 
tion to this my scholastic career which was long and thorough 
brought me acquainted with students from all parts of the 
South & I now have enthusiastic friends & admirers (excuse 
me) in some of the most intelligent & prominent young men of 
Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi & Missouri- 
Add to this the fact that critics here think my book has some 
intrinsic merits & it will justify the hope of a moderately fair 
price — I wish to form the acquaintance of literary men in Phil- 
adelphia & New York & want some obliging critic high in the 
confidence of publishers to pass judgment on the manuscript- 

I wish to make a short stop in Washington City & to see 
Edward Johnson who perhaps can give me much information 
that will be useful. 

I will see you immediately after my return & also, if you 
like, give you the interesting news by letter, that may occur in 
my travels — 

Let me ask you again to spur up your energies — & let me 
hear from you by Friday. It strikes me that one letter might be 
addressed to several in the same city — 

73 This probably refers to his novel, Alamance; or The Great and Final Experiment (New 
York, 1847). 

The Mangum Papers 73 

I never forget a favor. 

I am most truly, 
& with high regard, 
Your obliged Servant. 
C. H. Wiley. 


Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 
Red Mountain, 
N. C. 

Care of ) 

Dr. S. B. Davenport ) 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 21st. July 1847. 
My dear Sir 

It is a long time since, I've even heard of you. The last time 
that I did, you were ill, so much so, that you could not attend 
the laying of the corner stone, of the Smithsonian Institute, at 
Washington. I am very desirous, of hearing of your recovery, 
for such distinguished good men, as yourself, are, I do most re- 
spectfully assure you, at this day very scarce. 

Many things strange to relate, have appeared, since I did 
myself the pleasure, to address you. The battle of Buena Vista, 
and as a consequence, some of the people, like little children, 
"pleased with a rattle, tickled, with a straw," are proclaiming 
Genl. Taylor, as the candidate, for the Presidency in 48. Were 
ever, any set of them, so inconsistent with themselves, as are 
the Whigs, who advocate this measure? I entertain not one 
atom of hostility, to that gallant and fortunate General, But 
Sir, so long as we have such distingushed civilians, as Clay, 
Crittenden, Clayton, and many others, why should we desire 
a military man? It appears to me quite strange. I am sitting 
in my elbow chair, with all composure, the same old friend, of 
the Judge & yourself. But if we are, to be outvoted, and the 
great body of the people, declare that he shall be the man, why 

74 State Department of Archives and History 

then Sir, we must win enough, not to let him be taken out of 
our hands, & made an instrument of, as old Jackson was, we 
must take him by the hand, and help guide his steps. But Sir, 
if Genl. Taylor, keeps on letter writing, he will write himself 
down, as fast, as he fought himself up. My letters from the 
West state, that the Taylor fever, is abating there, and I as- 
sure you Sir, herabouts it is on the wane. And I do hope, that 
when you good and grave Senators, and the Whigs, who will 
compose a majority, of the House of Representatives, meet in 
Deer, next, you will then and there, so concilliate, arrange and 
satisfy, all the conflicting interests, in the great Whig party, on 
that mighty great question, as will satisfy, all reasonable men. 
I pray that you may be blest with good health, and I beseech 
you, to take special care of yourself, for, as I said before, in 
these degenerate days, of our Republic, "good men and true," 
are not easily found. 

I remain Your friend & Sert. 
J. B. Mower. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

N. P. Tallmadge to Willie P. Mangum. 

Fond du Lac, W. T. July 24th 1847. 

My dear Sir- 

I see by the papers that North Carolina seems to be going 
strong for Genl. Taylor 74 - knowing you to be a common sense 
man, and for the best interests of the country, I have assumed 
that you are for him- I send you my speech in favor of him at 
a meeting at Milwaukie - Wisconsin will adopt a constitution 

74 In the winter of 1846-1847. some North Carolina Whigs began endorsing Taylor for 
President. The Hillsborough Recorder and Wilmington Chronicle, for instance, carried his name 
on their editorial pases. But most of the Whigs still felt loyal to Clay. They were also un- 
certain as a result of the vagueness of Taylor's views on public issues. When the state Whig 
convention met February 22, 1848, resolutions were adopted approving Taylor and Clay as good 
Whigs but cautiously avoiding the endorsement of either for President. Pegg, "Whig Party in 
N. C." 252. 

The Mangum Papers 75 

and come into the Union in time to give a Presidential vote, 
and her vote will be for Genl. Taylor. I shall be pleased to hear 
from you on this subject. 

Very truly yours 
N. P. Tallmadge 
Hon. Willie P Mangum. 

F. H. Davidge 75 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington Augt. 1st, '47. 
Honble W P Mangum, 

Dr Sir, 

I have intended to write to you for some time past but 
have delayed in the hope that you would put in practice your 
intention of paying us a visit at the city of magnificent distances. 
A change has come over the political dream of the country, 
and Taylorism appears to be sweeping over the country like 
an avalanche bearing down all opposition. There are it is true 
many members of the Whig party who true to their principles 
would very much prefer a civilian for the Presidential Chair, 
but the popular clamor in favor of Old Zack is such as to drown 
all resistance, for the moment at least. The fervor of the feeling 
in his behalf has been much encreased by the efforts of the 
administration to detract from his merits and just in pro- 
portion to their endeavours to do him injustice appears to be 
the determination on the part of the country that his services 
shall be crowned with the highest honors. A little time may 
change the face of matters and it would seem to be the wisest 
course to "bide a wee" and see how the morning breaks. 

It gave me great concern to learn through the papers that 
you had been unwell but subsequent advices releived the anxiety 
of your friends in this quarter by assuring us of your recovery. 
Would not a trip to the North be of great service to you and 
might you not at the same time effect much good for others? 
I have heard many express a desire to see you. As a leader in 
Israel you might do much to calm the fears and give confidence 
to true Whigs who regard you as their fugleman. 

75 See above. 58. 

76 State Department of Archives and History 

Our poor friend Dr. Jones 76 has just reed, a most cruel blow 
the most so perhaps that can be inflicted on a parent. His only 
son who has been for some years a Clerk in the post office, was 
yesterday detected in purloining money from the office, the 
notes taken being found in his pocket. The circumstances 
are said to be these - For some time past letters containing 
money have miscarried and every effort has been made to de- 
tect by whom they had been taken. Circumstances at length 
led to the belief that the fault was in our city Post Office and 
measures were accordingly taken to discover the criminal. 
On Friday night last a letter containing $25 in notes address- 
ed to Wheeling was put into the office as a trap. The mail 
Agent when he arrived at the relay house between this and 
Baltimore opened the Wheeling Mail and found that the 
letter had not been mailed. He accordingly returned early 
on Saturday morning to this city and made his appearance 
at the office. The names of the three Clerks who had sorted 
the mail on the previous night were of course known. The 
Agent stated the fact of the letter not having been mailed 
and further that it had not been entered on the way Bill con- 
sequently must be still in the Office he then demanded that 
the three clerks should be arrested and examined. They 
were taken into custody and on examination twenty dollars in 
notes, to the identity of which the Agent swore as those he had 
put into the letter, were found in the pantaloons of Mr. Jones - 
the pantaloons were in Mr. J's chamber and were recognized 
as the same he had worn on the previous night. Bail in ten 
thousand dollars is said to have been entered Dr. Jones being 
the security for his son's appearance. I pity the father from 
the bottom of my heart and should not be surprized if the affair 
were to kill him. It is presumed the son will forfeit his recog- 
nizance and leave the city. 

I am still without any employment of moment and look for- 
ward anxiously to the next session of Congress, when the Whig 
Majority in the House may do something for my permanent 
benefit. We have nothing new here - everybody is exclaim- 
ing against the universal dullness. 

If you can spare enough of your valuable time to answer 
this I shall be happy to hear from you. My family are all well. 

7C Dr. William Jones was postmaster of the Washington City office under Jackson, Polk, and 
Buchanan. Madison Davis, "A History of the City Post Office," Records of the Columbia Historical 
Society, Washington, D. C, VI, 170-187. 

The Mangum Papers 77 

Pendleton is here franking I beleive on the part of the Com- 
mittee. Tomorrow August 2nd will be an important day. God 
speed the good cause say I. 

Ever yours truly 
F. H. Davidge. 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 

Saratoga Springs, 

August 17, 1847. 

My dear Sir, 

If ever we make you our Magnus Appolo & you neglect 
the correspondence of your friends, as you have done Mine, 
there will be something more than a Titus (Dates' plot within 
the walls of the White House. 

I left Carolina early in July & Since then, have been con- 
stantly on the road, save a halt at Berkely Springs, a week at 
Cape May & a fortnight here, where I have been drinking the 
waters, keeping good hours & avoiding the throng, to the ad- 
vantage of my health & spirits. 

Of course, I have been able to collect something of the state 
of public sentiment & to inform myself of the springs of action. 
In Philadelphia, there is a decided cooling off of the Taylor 
fever, though he has still great strength with the masses. The 
"Signal" letter 77 and its thousand subsequent daguereotypes, 
have produced the depletion. The same sort of feeling pervades 
elsewhere. Our Kentucky friend 78 has lately manifested Signs 
of repentance to his fidus Achates of Delaware 79 and among the 
blue hen's chickens there is said to be a decided Conversion. 
These are the gentlemen, who pledge their credit & honor for 
the orthodoxy of the hero- they are those who set the ball in 
motion- who endorse him & proscribed or threatened to pro- 
scribe, those who did not acquiesce. It is thus that the Whig party 
has been led blindfolded by leaders, who have no practical 
sagacity & who care for no advancement but their own. The 

77 In a letter published in the Cincinnati Signal, Taylor expressed views similar to those of 
the Democrats. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 272. 

78 Crittenden was disturbed by Taylor's letter, especially after Taylor had promised him not to 
express his views in letters which would be published. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 271. 

79 He refers to John M. Clayton. 

78 State Department of Archives and History 

time has come when these things must be spoken with a loud 
voice & I for one, do not mean to remain quiet. Among the 
other effects of this fermentation, you have of course seen 
Reverdy Johnson's proclamation of adhesion. That was to be 
expected, as soon as the apes of the Bait. Patriot pricked up 
their ears, for he then thought all the world was on the march 
& it would be inconvenient for a gentleman of his dignity to be 
left behind. 

I had letters from Mr. Archer & Judge M c Lean yesterday. 
The former is at New Port & tells me he is opposed to the tone 
of the "Monterey" correspondence- that the attempt to merge 
parties 80 is disquieting and unworthy a "high man." The Judge 
says, the Corwin folk are still moving, in the hope of arraying 
Ohio against the military mania & of speculating upon the 
chances of the wheel of fortune. You saw how he was not made 
President of the Chicago convention, though Charles King 81 
tried his super carbonate of soda to neutralize Webb's acid. 

It is very manifest to my mind, that we are to have serious 
difficulties about a Presidential nomination. Thousands upon 
thousands of our people are committeed to Taylor & will take 
nobody else. He will not, I fear, commit himself to them & 
without their support, we have no chance of electing any other 
candidate. The only alternative that is then presented is to 
take him upon trust or to take deteat. I confess to you, this 
difficulty disturbs my calculations- I cannot discover any prac- 
tical mode of escaping from it- I do not see how we are to 
reconcile it with our cherished principles & ancient professions. 
If he would declare himself on the general political doctrines, 
which I know he entertains, because I have seen the admission 
under his own hand, the case might be compromised in some 
way. His desire to be elected rules his determination not to 
commit himself in such a manner, as to drive off any probable 
support. In this policy he is greatly mistaken, for the disaffected 
Locofocos who intend making him the scape-goat of their treach- 
ery, would rally to his standard, if he anathematized their party 
to the deepest damnation. 

80 Many Democrats, including some of Calhoun's followers, talked in the period after Buena 
Vista in favor of Taylor for a non-partisan candidate. This idea did not grow. Dyer, Zachary 
Taylor, 269. 

^Charles King, a future president of Columbia College, and a former editor of the New 
York America, was at this time on the staff of Webb's Courier and Enquirer. Nevins, The Eve- 
ning Post, 95; Fox, New York City Newspapers, 1820-1830, 31-32. 

The Mangum Papers 79 

Cameron 82 was here a few days ago. He is a Taylor man, 
per se- irrespective of "Democracy." He & his confederates have 
continued a convention to meet at Harrisburgh next month to 
nominate him on independent ground. This is a speculation on 
the part of our friend for the Senate. His own party will not 
elect him if they succeed in the Legislature & ours cannot. In 
this dilemma his only hope is to concentrate on himself such 
an influence, as may be potential in controlling the election 
either way. The lot is worthy of its author- how it will succeed, 
time alone can tell. 

Whatever Greeley may say to the contrary, believe me 
there is a powerful sentiment in this region for Taylor- not 
among politicians, but, among sound & conservative men, who- 
though at bottom Whigs, have rarely taken part in political 
affairs & who have lost as many an important canvass by their 
indifference. I do not see how they are to be controlled- I know 
of no power which can keep the blaze under and any attempt 
to quench it by force, will only cause it to spread with more 
intensity. He may destroy himself, but nobody else can do it 
for him. The goose quill may be more powerful than the sword. 

Well Mr. Clay is on a tour & has gone to Clayton's to re- 
ceive consolation. I wonder if he will tell him all about the 
Scott & Taylor intrigues at Washington & who mananged those 
darling pets of the Cabinet expectants? If he returns home by 
the Lakes & I can make my time fit his, I will join him. 

I go from here by Lake George to Montreal & to Buffalo- 
afterwards westwardly, returning to Washington, by Kentucky, 
Tennessee Georgia, South Carolina &c. I expect to hear & see 
something on the road & will sometimes inflict my autograph 
on your eyes whether you will or not. 

There is a reasonable hope, that a state of things will arise 
in the N. American in the fall, by which I will become one 
of the Editorial corps. Had I not been called South when the 
union was made, it would have been effected in July I think. 

As Ever 
Your friend 

James E. Harvey 
Judge Mangum. 

^He probably refers to Simon Cameron. Democratic Senator from Pennsylvania. 

80 State Department of Archives and History 

Charles Phillips 88 and others to Willie P. Mangum 81 * 

University of North Carolina, September 1, 1847. 


At the last annual meeting of the Association of the Alumni 
of this University, upon a motion submitted by Judge Mason, 
it was determined to raise in the College Grove a Monument 
to the memory of the late President Caldwell. 85 For obvious 
reasons, it was further agreed that no individual subscription 
should exceed the sum of three dollars. 

The undersigned, having been subsequently appointed to 
collect the funds necessary for this purpose, take the liberty 
of requesting a contribution at your hands. A deep sense of 
the services of the late President is so universally entertained, 
that it would be idle to enter upon their detail at this time; 
nor is it thought necessary to say, that the Monument in con- 
templation is meant rather as an expression of filial regard, 
than a return proportioned to the marked public benefits which 
it was the well-regulated, earnest endeavor and signal good for- 
tune of his life to confer. 

The Society wishes to effect its purpose as soon as may be 
possible. Nearly a fourth of the sum required has already been 
collected, and we hope to make an early acknowledgment of 
your cheerful tribute towards a design so well suggested, and 
thus far carried out with fair prospects of speedy success. 

Charles Phillips, 

A. G. Brown, 

S. F. Phillips, Committee. 

^Charles Phillips studied at Harvard University before he became a tutor in mathematics and 
then professor of civil engineering at the University of North Carolina. Battle, Hist, of U. N. C, 
I, 643. 

84 This is a printed letter. 

85 At commencement in 1845 the alumni under the leadership of John Y. Mason and James 
K. Polk resolved that, by small donations of three dollars each, money should be raised to erect 
a marble memorial to President Joseph Caldwell to replace the old sandstone marker. The limit 
of three dollars a person was soon removed and the soliciting continued. On the marker is an 
inscription that it was erected in 1847, but Dr. Battle says it was put up in June, 1858. Battle, 
Hist, of the U. N. C. I, 506, 692-694. 

The Mangum Papers 81 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 21st. Sept. 1847. 
My dear Sir 

I am well satisfied, that the folly and ill timed zeal, which 
has and is, daily showing itself, in certain portions of the Clay 
Whig Party, is destroying him much more powerfully, than 
his enemies could. Then there is another part of the Whig party, 
seriously and devoutly Mr. Clay's friends, who are by far, more 
prudent and sagacious, but who doubt his availability, for fear 
the propriety, of again bringing him forward, dreading that 
awful calamity - defeat. I ask then Sir, how can such a candi- 
date, backed by such friends, calculate on success? Just look 
one moment, at the late "Whig young men's Committee," that 
nominated Mr. Clay, for the Presc'y. and see who they are. 
M. L. Davis, whom you know, an old broken hack, told me, that 
he drew up, altered and amended, those resolutions. The chair- 
man, is a good hot house fellow, a first rate rowdy, and by pro- 
fession, an assistant clerk, to the police office. These are the 
kind of creatures, that get up meetings, and herald forth, such 
distinguished names, as Henry Clay of Ky. for the Presidency! ! ! 
This move, has pleased the Loco's, much more than it has, the 
real friends of Mr. Clay, for the former well know, that they 
can beat him so easily. I am also perfectly satisfied, by letters and 
by friends, from the West, that the military fire, is burning out, 
and in all good time, will be extinct. I must confess, that at 
one time, this summer, I was alarmed, for the judge and your- 
self, but every day uncovers the veil, that has so long shrouded 
the great Presidential question, and very shortly, it must be 
raised, and then the people, will see distinctly, who has the 
real, substantial bottom, to stand the pelting, of "pitiless 
storms." There is Mr. Clay, whom his old friends say, has out- 
lived his popularity, that he never can again, be, A. No. 1. That 
so long as Mr. Clay's name, is at the head of the Whig party, 
so long this party, will be in the minority. They are continual- 
ly saying, we are tired of old issues and old names. For instance, 
there is now in the City, an old Captain of a Ship, who has ever 
been, the steady, intelligent friend of Mr. Clays, and when we 
asked him, how they (the Whigs) got so terribly beaten, this 

82 State Department of Archives and History 

fall in Maine, his answer was, we can rally and we can beat the 
Loco's, but while Mr. Clays stands, at the head of the Whigs, so 
long we shall be in the back ground. But give us a new man, 
for the Presidency, and we will give you the State of Maine, 
right side up. And the same feeling exists here, one of Mr. 
Clays oldest, most devoted and most worthy friends, called on 
me, last week and said: that the Taylor fever, was dying away 
every day, that he had to say to me, that he now despaired of 
doing any thing, for Mr. Clay, that he was resolved to move 
for judge McLean of Ohio, for the Presc' y . and yourself for the 
Vice Prec'y. That with these new names, they would be a 
Tower of Strength, that would overwhelm the Locofoco's of the 
day. This is the state of things now here. 

The death of Silas Wright, will enure, to the judges and 
your benefit. The Loco's, cannot so harmoniously agree, upon 
any other man. I never thought much of him myself, for any 
man, to play 2d fiddle, to V. Buren must, in my opinion, be a 
poor devil. 

I beseech you, my dear Sir, to take good care of your health, 
for such good men and true, as you are, can't every day be 
found, even in the good old "North State." 


I Remain Dear Sir, 
Your friend & Servant 
J. B. Mower. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
N. C. 

H. H. Clements 86 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Providence, Oct 8th. 1847. 
Hon Willie P Mangum. 

Dear Sir. — 

Do you recollect a Straggler who brought you a letter last 
year from the Hon D. D. Barnard, 87 and met you at Raleigh. 

86 He wrote numerous articles and poems for the American Review, III, 349-353; IV, 
465-466; V. 490-491. He wrote a sketch of Mangum for the Review but it was lost and never 

^Daniel Dewey Barnard. 1797-1861, was in Congress in 1827-1829 and 1839-1845. He 
was minister to Prussia from 1850 to 1853. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 671. 

The Mangum Papers 83 

At that time I was ostensibly on a political tour in the 
South and am now making the result manifest in the colums 
of a daily paper. What are the prospects with you? 

Gen Taylor is very unpopular with us: the people seem de- 
termined never to vote for another man who wears a cocked 
hat and sword — I myself think the breaking up of our party 
organization, would be productive of more political strife and 
bitterness than we have yet experienced. The two great parties 
sustain each other, one is the breeze which bears the ship on- 
ward and the other is the balast which keeps her upright. 

I have been scribbling for my paper some sketches of my 
recollections of the Senate, and have taken the liberty to en- 
close one of yourself. I do not for a moment think this will em- 
belish your fame at all, but it was given in the collection as a 
necessary accompainant of the whole and therefore beg you 
will regard it in no other light. Gales of the Register might 
perhaps do you a future service by coppying it with suitable 

I am Sir very truly 
Yours Obedt Servant 
H. H. Clements. 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 18th. Oct. 1847. 
My dear Sir 

I have been delaying writing, a few words to you, my dear 
Sir, in the hope, that I might tell you something cheering, It 
may however be, that you hear more than I do, about the Pres- 
idential question. In the first place Sir, We have passed through 
another summer, of much excitement, in regard to the brilliant 
fire, General Taylor, so valorously lighted up, in Mexico. In- 
somuch, that some exciteable characters were going forthwith, 
to make him President. (And at one time, I confess, that I was 
a little alarmed) But the bright flame of the Generals, is rapid- 
ly growing dim, 88 and very shortly, will be extinct. The Gen- 

^"By the autumn of 1847 . . . the first flush of enthusiasm over Buena Vista had passed, 
and Whigs were beginning to ask themselves what kind of Whig their prospective candidate was." 
In his letters Taylor emphasized that he would be a non-partisan President. This did not appeal 
to many of the leaders. Poage, Henry Clay and the Whig Forty, 158. 

84 State Department of Archives and History 

eral, has written himself down, by his too many letters. So 
our friends in the West say, and, so we say here. Tom. Corwin, 
has laid himself, on the the shelf with that anti war, anti 
prudent speech of his, in the Senate, last winter. Perhaps, he 
made it a little worse, than he intended, by that very proper 
question, you so gallantly put to him. I say, there let him re- 
main, but treat him kindly. I am informed, he is now sick of it 

The next Gentleman, spoken of, is one of our most distin- 
guished sons. But, I need not go back and tell you, indeed, I 
can't inform you, Mr. Mangum; any thing, about his being 
cheated in 1840. or his unfortunate defeat, in 1844. his quarrel 
with John Tyler, and his letters, respecting the annexation of 
Texas, there they all are. And there is Henry Clay, with his 
private and public character, standing directly before us. There 
is no man, who can give you, any information, about this dis- 
tinguished citizen, of Kentucky. Now Sir, I ask you, what can 
the people, do more now, for him, than they did, in the cam- 
paign of 1844. Is there a man, or any body of men, that voted 
against him, in 44, that will go for him, in 48? his joining an 
aristocratic church, 89 does him no good here, among the go-to- 
meeting portion, of christians. And among the great mass, of 
the "meek and lowly," it will do him harm. I consider it rather 
farcical. The aristocratic part, of the Whigs hereabouts, are for 
Mr. Clay, without giving any reasons, how he is to be elected. 
The Plebeians, are for judge McLean. There is also, a little 
clan, who are for D. Webster. They turn a cold side, to Mr. 

I have just heard, from Frankfort Ky. that Mr. C. does not 
desire, that Mr. Clay should again, be the candidate, and said 
many other things about it. And that, he entertains, for the 
judge, the most kind feelings. My information comes, from a 
very intelligent friend of the judges, who spent some time, 
with Mr. C. and gave him, his candid, honest opinion, about 
Mr. Clay; and that he never would, go again, for him. That he 
very reluctantly, went into the last campaign for him, very 
much against his better judgement. This Gentleman, is from 
the west, and a very influential friend, of the Great Whig-party. 
He called to see the Orator, of Ashland. Then Mr. Mangum, 
who are the most prominent names, that can be placed, before 

89 On June 22, 1847, Clay first proposed Christianity and joined the Episcopal Church at 
Ashland. Van Deusen, Life of Clay, 383. 

The Mangum Papers 85 

the people, with any promise of success. John McLean, of Ohio, 
and W. P. Mangum, of N. C. The location, is most admirable, 
for influence and success; and for the propriety of names. The 
South and the West, united on such a ticket, is a tower of 
strength, I have never heard a person, find fault with it. 

I have several itmes, sent you the Tribune, with a view of 
showing you the mode, some people have, of killing off, a fellow 
citizen, who stands in their way. Destroying him, from friendly 
motives! Firstly, kill off General Taylor, with Henry Clay. 
Then kill him, with Tom. Corwin. This is rich. Was there 
ever, any thing, more wicked, or more weak. 

I am Dear Sir, 

Your friend & Servt. 
J. B. Mower. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

Waddy Thompson to Willie P. Mangum 

Greenville oct 29. 1847 

Dear Mangum- 

I have just rec d . your kind letter- I thank you for what 
you say of my book, 90 & it is a little curious that you use almost 
the identical language which [William Ballard] Preston did in 
a letter to me when he first read- "That one was surprized 
after what seemed to be a pleasant conversation to find that he 
had learned all that it was desirable to know of Mexico past 
present & to come"- 

I agree with you that Scott has exhibited surpassing ability in 
his Mexican campaigns He is indeed a great man and only 
great as he is good- what a strange combination his character 
presents of all that is finicking & affected in manners with all 
that is gallant wise & great in action 

^In 1846 Waddy Thompson, the recent minister to Mexico, published his Recollections of 
Mexico, New York, 1846. A reprint was made in 1847. 

86 State Department of Archives and History 

I do not know that I shall be in Washington during the next 
session if I do ought the pleasure & the only ones which I 
promise myself will be that of seeing you and a few other old 
Very sincerely 
Yr friend 
W Thompson 
Hon W. P. Mangum- 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City. 
Sunday Night 6 th . dec r . 1847. 

My Dear Love. 

William & I arrived safely & well, half an hour ago. I stopd 
to rest him in Petersburg, & show him that Town & Richmond, 
losing a day on the route. We have not got into quarters for 
the session. 

Lewis Thompson 91 is here & will wait on William & myself 
this winter. 

My Love to all, 

Your affec. husband 
Willie P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum & others to Bishop Hughes 92 

Washington Dec 9. 1847 
To the Right Reverend Bishop Hughes, 93 


The undersigned, Members of Congress, respectfully in- 
vite you to preach in the Hall of the House of Representatives, 

01 A servant that frequently waited on Mangum while he was in Washington. 

e2 The original is in the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, 

93 John Joseph Hughes, the Roman Catholic Bishop of New York, who was active in the 
Irish famine relief work. He helped Polk in dispelling the idea that the United States in its 
war with Mexico planned to interfere with the Catholic religion there. Later he helped Lin- 
coln's program by counteracting the Confederacy's propaganda in Europe. D. A. B., IX, 352; 
Allan Nevins (ed.), Polk: the Diary of a President 1845-1849 . . ., New York, 1929, pp. 97-98; 
Quaife (ed), Polk's Diary, I, 408-409. 

The Mangum Papers 


on Sunday morning next (12 th . instant) at 11 oclock unless some 
other hour of the day may be more agreeable to you. 

We are, 

Right Reverend Sir, 
Your Obed*. Servants, 

John Davis 
Wm. Upham 
S A. Douglas 
John P Hale 
Simon Cameron 

D. S. Dickinson 

E. A Hannegan 
L W Cass 
Willie P Mangum 
Thomas H. Benton 
Jos. Grinnell 

J. H. Johnson 
T. Butler King 
J. G. Hampton 
R. S. Donnell 
Wm. Ballard Preston 
J S. Pendleton 
Willard P Hall 
John Wentworth 
J H Harmanson 
W. W. Cobb of Ala. 
James Dixon (of Ct.) 
Jno. M. Botts 
C. J. Ingersoll 
E. Sherrill 

J. Q. Adams 
Jno. M. Clayton 
J J Crittenden 
Chester Ashley 
Jam. S. Phelps 
Alb*. C. Greene 
D R Atchison 
J. C. Calhoun 
Tho. Corwin 
J A Pearce 
Sidney Breese 
W. Hunt 
W. Duer 
O. Kellogg 
H. White 
Caleb B Smith 
Saml. F. Vinton 
John A. M 'Clernand 
J. R. Giddings 

T)'. WlLMOT 

W m . T. Haskell 
James A Black 
Sam Inge 
D. B. St. John 

Washington, 9 Dec r . 1849. It gives me pleasure to place the 
Hall of the House of Representatives at the service of Bishop 
Hughes in conformity with the above invitation- 

Robt. C. Winthrop 
Speaker HR 

Jas. J. Faran 
F A Tallmadge 
I E Holmes 
E. C. Cabell 

88 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Monday night 
20 th . December 1847. 

My dear Love. 

I have time only to write you but a line - We are in good 
quarters, & both William & I are well. - William has been a 
little unwell a day or two ago, but is now quite well.- He has 
behaved himself well, & quite like a gentleman. I have got 
him a new cloak vest & cap, & he looks in the streets quite like 
a dandy, & is often complimented as a fine looking boy - Next 
month, I shall put him to school, either in French or Latin. 

I shall keep him with me - He sleeps with me every night. 
The mails are two days longer going home, than two weeks 
ago, therefore I write to night, hoping you will get this Satur- 

I rec d . Patty's letter Saturday, & am concerned to hear you 
are not as well as usual- 

The weather is the cause, bad & wet both with you & here. 
I have to go to a meeting of Whigs, & therefore stop. My Love 
to Sally, Patty & Mary. & believe me as ever, your 

affectionate husband. 
Willie P. Mangum 

Mrs. C. A. Mangum. 

William's love to Mother & Sisters. & next week, he must write 
home. — 

Willie P. Mangum to James K. Polk 9Jt 

[20 December, 1847] 

Mr. Mangum presents his respects to the President, & accepts 
with pleasure his invitation for Thursday next, to dinner. 

20th Dec 1847 

M The original is in the James K. Polk Papers, Library of Congress. 

The Mangum Papers 89 


Corcoran & Riggs to Willie P. Mangum 1 and Enclosure 

Washington 5 Jany 1848 
Hon Willie P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

We inclose the note for $1053 paid by us as requested by 
yourself & M r Crittenden 

You will observe by the receipt that a small fraction (17- c ) 
was paid by M r Glenn- 2 

There is no charge 

Yours respectfully 
Corcoran & Riggs 
Hon Willie P Mangum 


On or before the first day of January 1848, we, James T. 
Morehead, as principal, & John J. Crittenden & Willie P. Man- 
gum as sureties promise & oblige ourselves., jointly & severally, 
to pay to John Glenn Esq., of Baltimore, or to his order, one 
thousand dollars, lawful money, with interest from the date 
hereof - for value received - Witness our hands & seals re- 
spectively, this 15 th of Feby: 1847. 

J. T. Morehead Seal 

J. J. Crittenden L S 

Willie P. Mangum Seal 

[Written across the face part of the note:] 

Paid at Mechanics Bank of Baltimore January 4th 1848 by 
Check of Corcoran & Riggs and seventeen cents from Jn. 

J. W. Alnutt 

By E. G. Dubois 

x The original is in the John J. Crittenden Papers, Library of Congress. 

a John Glenn was a lawyer in Baltimore. Livingston, Law Register, 1851, p. 437. 

90 State Department of Archives and History 

[On back of note:] 


J T Morehead & others 


Jany 1 

For value reed I assign 

& guarantee this due bill 

John Glenn 

[Opposite end of note:] 23/ 


J. Morehead & others 

t 1000:- 

In.- 53.16 


Jan y 1 


Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City. 10th. January 1848. 
My dear Love. 

It is now Monday night, & I write you but a line to let you 
know that William & I are well. 

I am living in the City, but expect to move tomorrow or 
next day upon Capitol Hill.- I move on William's account- for 
the benefit of schooling & the fine Shades in Spring & Summer. 

He has not begun to go to school yet. He will begin next 
week- I shall send to an excellent school, & also he will go to 
a dancing teacher. I would have put him in a French family in 
Baltimore, with a son of Reverdy Johnsons to learn French, if 
he had been willing to go. But he seemed so reluctant, I gave 
it up.- The weather is very cold, & the mails are most irregular- 
I have rec d nothing from home, in almost a fortnight. - 

William gives his love to Mother & Sisters & all- Also mine 
to you & them.- I send to the post office at once- therefore 
write no more. 

Yr affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 

The Mangum Papers 91 

Willie P. Mangum to David L. Swain 3 

Washington City 12 th . Jan: 1848 

My dear Sir: 

I have received your several communications in reference to 
the appointment of Mr. Lucas. 4 - The last, I handed to Mr. Ven- 
able 5 & shall have it placed on file, with the former. - Mr. Ven- 
able will not I think, urge the appointment of any one (for his 
word would be decisive) but have each & every one to stand 
upon their respective recommendations. - You are aware that 
the Senators have no patronage in this respect. 

Your very strong statements may give ground to hope for 
success, and especially, if Mr. Venable shall stand aloof. Mr. 
Clay is here, & apparently in fine & vigorous health, feeling be- 
yond all doubt, that he is quite able to take upon himself the 
burthens of office. 

In regard to this question, every thing may be doubted. - 
There is obviously great diversity of opinion & feeling in ours, 
as well as in the other party. The Military feeling may carry 
it, yet that is very doubtful. 

Public Sentiment, I fear, is becoming deeply debauched in 
reference to the War & its consequences. 

No one need be much surprized, appalling as it is to me, 
that He who shall go for the Whole of Mexico, will be the next 
President. - 

This to a North Carolinian will sound strangely, & most 
likely be regarded as almost impossible. - Yet things tend in 
that direction - & every thing with the great Demo. Party, 
moves with the speed & momentum of a rail road Car - 

Accept the assurance of my 
respect & esteem. 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Gov. Swain. 

3 The original is in the David L. Swain Papers, University of North Carolina. 

4 Possibly Joseph Bibb Lucas, of Chapel Hill, who was a student at the University in 1845- 
1849. Grant, Alumni Hut. of U. N. C, 377.. 

5 This probably was a request for an appointment to West Point. Abraham Watkins Ven- 
able was the representative from the Chapel Hill District in Congress, 1847-1953. 

92 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 6 

Washington City 23 rd . January 1848. 

My dear Sir. 

You would like to know something of the Minor politics here, 
& the various movements looking to the Presidential election, 
if I would tell you. - They are so various, conflicting & so tangled, 
as yet to the eye, being undeveloped & affording but partial 
glimpses that one sees but little, & therefore can tell but little. - 
Mr. Clay you know is here, & seems passive & indifferent, aiming 
at nothing, caring for nothing, & in that respect, desiring & 
hoping for nothing. - 

I say, seems, & yet his appearance not only throws much con- 
sternation among Taylor men but is blocking their movements 
effectually, in various important quarters, among them I may 
mention the States of New York & Maryland. - Maryland has 
been set down & claimed confidently, as wholly Taylor. - The 
activity of W m . Cost Johnson ( regarded as a political Gentleman 
somewhat in distress) & the unfortunate position of M r Senator 
Johnson 7 - unfortunate for himself - have produced a sudden 
revulsion - I think not revulsion - but a sudden concentration 
of feeling & opinion looking in another direction. - Two Whig 
members of the Legislature direct from Annapolis, called upon 
me yesterday, & declared that there was entire unanimity among 
the Whigs; in the most unfavorable respect, not exceeding two 
doubtful, who were for Clay first, & after him for the most avail- 
able Whig, who stands avowedly & openly, upon the broad Whig 
platform. They had in a convention of Whigs postponed the elec- 
tion of Senator until Feby. but the unexpected course of Mr 
R. Johnson & the satisfactory one of M r . Pearce 8 led to a deter- 
mination to reelect Pearce promptly, say, the coming week, so 
as to give emphasis to the approval of his course by the Whigs 
of the Legislature & the State. - They will also pass legislatively, 
resolutions in favor of a national Convention, requiring the 
nomination of an undoubted & avowed Whig, for Pres*. & Vice 
Pres*. & expressing their preference for M r . Clay, but if that 

6 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Caroilna. 

7 Reverdy Johnson was one of the early backers of Taylor. As a result of his support, Taylor 
appointed him Attorney General. 

8 James A. Pearce, Whig Senator from Maryland from 1843 until his death in 1862. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1394. 

The Mangum Papers 93 

shall be deemed unadvisable, giving full scope for the exercise 
of their discretion. — 

The New York Legislature will at an early day, as I have rea- 
son to believe, do in like manner, with the addition of a legisla- 
tive expression of their undoubting Confidence that M r Clay can 
carry the State, yet providing, as in the case of Maryland, for the 
happening of Contingencies rendering it inexpedient in the 
opinion of the Convention to nominate M r Clay. - These move- 
ments, I am sure, are made in good faith, & not as a political 
"russe." & yet with a provident forecast as to events that may 
occur, or seem to occur.- In one word The Public Opinion in 
favor of a convention, I regard, as immoveably fixed. At one 
time, I was disposed to acquiesce in a different course, if such 
should be the general sentiment, & I could be sufficiently certi- 
fied, in regard to the administrative policy of the probable Pres- 
ident, yet now I think it impossible - and indeed, that a conven- 
tion is indespensible, to prevent inevitable defeat, a destructive 
fusion of parties & a partial annihilation of organized conserva- 
tism. - Our friend Crittenden is in great distress & so is Clayton, 
who are irretrievably committed. - They augur all sorts of dis- 
aster. - Either would make a respectable Cassandra. 

I do not sympathize with them, for the plain reason, that I 
would not & will not vote for Gen: Taylor unless he modifies 
his position. 9 - He is to me much more objectionable now, than 
he was when I last conversed with you. - His latter letters & 
givings out, are far more exceptionable, than his earlier mani- 
festations.- No man "can ride on both sides of a sapling" at one 
& the same time - No man will clean out the corruptions accumu- 
lated during Tyler's & Polks time, who not only relies upon, but 
receives a considerable support from both parties. - Twenty 
years ago it might have been otherwise, but the dreamers in 
this Utopian experiment, do not sufficiently consider the ob- 
stacles interposed by the State of particy, well defined, in close 
array, after severe & obstinate conflicts highly exasperated & 
panting for the renewal of the deadly shock. - My dear Sir, a 
fusion or extensive conciliation is now absolutely impossible. - 
It is in vain to reply, that then defeat is inevitable. I speak of 

9 In his several letters in 1847 Taylor had straddled most issues. In letters to the editor 
of the Cincinnati Signal, to Edward Delony, and to Dr. C. L. Wilcox, he said he would need 
time to investigate such Whig measures as the bank, the tariff, and distribution of the public 
land funds. He also indicated that he would be non-partisan in his appointments. Dyer, Zachary 
Taylor, 271-273; Hamilton, Zachary Taylor; Soldier in the White House, 45-41, 45-83. 

94 State Department of Archives and History 

the fact, I speak of things as they are. & yet I by no means concur 
in the desponding sentiment, that defeat is inevitable. On the 
Contrary, I think, Victory was never more Certainly within our 
reach, but for the disorders & irregular movements arising from 
an unwise, if not blind enthusiasm, an unreflecting but a virtu- 
ous & laudable desire to lessen the fierceness of party Conflict 
but above all from the restless activity & agitation of political 
gents in distress. 

North Carolina in my judgment, labors under a great mis- 
take as to this "spontaneous combustion" idea - under the most 
favorable circumstances. Gen T's election would have been very 
doubtful. - He cannot penetrate the North generally under any 
circumstances. - With hopes to New T England for the second 
office (I see the effect of such hopes on M r . Webster & 
M r Winthrop) and on the disorganized State of the democratic 
party in New York, I think, he might have been elected always 
counting upon the quarrels in N. Y. democracy continuing un- 
renconciled. 10 - Nothing Certain can be predicated of Pennsyl- 
vania. - I think the latter will vote the demo: ticket - & so of 
Virginia, the most noisy zealous & fidget ty of all the Taylor inter- 
ests, save those consistent & steady Georgia, & I ought to add, 
Tennessee for whose position & wishes I entertain much more 
respect. Berrien is cold, silent & against the whole thing, at first. 
All sides concur, & I have abundant information to that point, 
that Gen: T. cannot carry Ohio. - 

Mark this. If Gen: T. shall not modify his position, & shall 
nevertheless be run, he will not get the electoral Votes of more 
than three States in the Union, & they the weakest & very cer- 
tainly, not more than four - Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, 
& possibly, Georgia. Though I think, Geo will go the demo, nomi- 
nee, as well as Mississippi. - It is a mistake, as has been publish- 
ed, that Davis the Son-in-law of Gen T. & Foote, the Senators 
from Miss, are for Taylor. - They both say, they will be for him, 
if he shall be the Democratic nominee, othewise, not. - 

If we go to the Army for a Candidate, & must, perforce, take 
one from the battle fields reeking with blood, I infinitely prefer 
Scott, 11 as much the abler man, equally pure, & a flat footed 
Whig. - He would not be the Pres*. of a section or a clique. - If 

10 He refers to the fight between the Hunkers and Barnburners. Silas Wright's death increased 
this friction. 

u Mangum led the campaign for Scott in 1852. 

The Mangum Papers 95 

Taylor succeeds, after the army, Ken: & Louisiana will be all & 
all, & the pulsations of public sentiment, in my belief, will be 
felt from those States twenty times to one as compared with 
the old thirteen, excepting perhaps the Empire & perhaps one 
or two others, whose numerical power in the Ho of Reps, will 
extort concessions. - You & I, when acting for our friends felt 
something of this, in a former Western adm n . - One does not like, 
nor ought he to like deprevation of a fair & equal share of influ- 
ence in gratifying his constituents & friends. - You know, that 
I think, Kentucky is the Political Yankeedom of the South. ( Not 
true of Clay). - 

If Scott had the nomination, he could in my opinion, be more 
easily & more certainly elected, than any Whig at this time, in 
the Union - & this in the absence of much personal popularity. - 
He has no prospect of such a nomination, unless as an alternative 
choice, which you know is always one of those most uncertain 
things, that laughs at all reasoning, calculation & even Con- 

Events are however, on the wing, that in their developement 
& consummation, may by possibility, render him the most formid- 
able man in the nation. - 

I am wholly non-committal - rather unusual for me. I enter- 
tain a profound sense, that it is not only unwise but inexpedient, 
at this time, to go into the struggle for any one.- Everything con- 
nected with the subject is in the highest fermentation - What 
may come of it, no man I think, can foresee. - Events run with 
almost magno-electric rapidity, & July may bring about changes 
& a State of things, that no human sagacity can prefigure. - The 
issues are not yet presented upon which the result of the next 
election will be determined. - In Six Weeks no one need be sur- 
prized, to see the bold, broad, & unprincipled issue of the entire 
Conquest of Mexico, & the perpetual holding of the conquered 
Country presented by the friends of Cass & Quitman. 12 The prob- 
able democratic Candidates. - In that event, it may be found 
necessary to meet that Military & aggressive ticket, with a cer- 
tain military "prestige," - with Scott or Taylor either of whom, 
in that aspect, presenting higher & juster claims. 

All, all is uncertain in the future; & in this State of things, 
I earnestly hope & trust, that our Convention assembled for 

u At this time there was a strong movement in the country for the conquest of all of 
Mexico. Buchanan, Walker, Cass, and Quitman wanted to continue the struggle. Garrison, 
Westward Extension, 251-252; Smith, The War with Mexico, II, 243-244. 

96 State Department of Archives and History 

another purpose, will leave the subject untouched. 13 - & yet 
perhaps, I can hardly hope for it, as men naturally incline to be 
foremost in the chase, whether it be of the meanest game in the 
woods & fields, or of that more brilliant & dazzling prize- Execu- 
tive favor. - I hear, it is contemplated to nominate Gen T. at 
the Convention in Raleigh. My Colleague informs me he has 
written & advised it - Others I think it probable, have done so 
likewise. - 

Suppose Gen T. shall not deign to avow himself a Whig, so 
as to accept a Whig nomination, which is highly probable, nay, 
I think, almost Certain, do our friends mean to abandon the 
ground we have won & maintained for ten years, after more 
than ten years of hard & Strenuous contest? If they do - I do 
not, & I firmly trust, a powerful fragment of us for talent, public 
Virtue & consistent perseverance will be found rallying to the 
banner that we long ago flung to the breeze, & endeavored to 
uphold by all the efforts of which mortal man was capable. - 
Yes, we will rally around it, though it may be torn into rags by 
contempt, trailed in the dust or be-draggled in mud & mire. - 

I dined last night at Bodisco's - a dinner given to M r . Clay - 
had much talk with Crittenden, Clayton & Ewing of Ohio, with 
whom I rode. - The two former deeply disagree with Ewing 
& me. 14 - 

The Democrats, I think, are in good spirits - Cass & Quitman 
ahead, & for the whole of Mexico. - Worth may yet be got up in 
New York as an effort at reconciliation Yet, I think not. They 
are sensible of our difficulties - 

I have this morning, given you a long rigmarole, read it & 
burn it.- 

Be pleased to present me to M rs . Graham 
& accept for yourself the assurance 
of my entire respect & mo friendly 

Willie P. Mangum 

13 The state convention praised Taylor and Clay but cautiously avoided endorsing either for 
nomination. Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C." 252. 

14 In the early stages of the Taylor boom, Mangum along with Crittenden and Clayton 
favored the General, but as the idea that he was unsound on Whig issues grew, Mangum lost 
interest in him. Ewing agreed with Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 97 

To Gov Graham 

These are the only lines, I have written, or probably shall write, 
in regard to the purposes of our convention. M r . B. 15 feels a deep 
interest in our successes in the summer, & I would not like to 
thwart his views, even, if I deemed them mistaken. - 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Washington City. 

Friday night, 

10th Feby. 1848 

Master Willey's love to Sister Pat. He & Father are well- Their 
love to dear Mother, & Sisters Sally & Mary. 

Master Willey got his sister's letter to day.- He got to the 
head of his dancing class to day, though he is the youngest 
scholar & nearly the youngest boy. He also got Mrs. Royall's 
compliments to day, & he is now going ( it being 6 oclock P. M. ) 
to see Mr Lover, the author of Handy Andy- It is a White day 
for Master Willey. 

Father will write to Mother to morrow or next day. Master 
Willey sends his love to Miss Polly & also to Granny. 

Master Willey is still a good boy- He sends Mr Lovers card 

Master Willey says he does love Sister Pat, better than she 
does him- Sister Pat must give Mother ten kisses for him. 

[Addressed : ] 

Miss Patty P. Mangum - 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 16 

Washington City. 15 th . Feby: 1848 
Senate Chamber. 
My dear Sir. 

I have just rec d . yours of the 12 th . instant. I had received a 
letter from your nephew, dated at Vesuvius Tennessee, & im- 

^George E. Badger. 

1G The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

98 State Department of Archives and History 

mediately acknowledged its receipt. - I suggested the difficulties 
in procuring for him an appointment in any of the regiments 
now in the field. - Those who have seen active service in the 
Volunteer reg ts . are generally ready to fill a Vacancy, & are 
generally preferred. 

In the old reg t8 . those from West point, many of whom are 
still in waiting, are taken. 

If the pending bill shall pass (as I think, it will not) there 
would be a pretty sure chance of success. - At all events, I shall 
avail myself such aids as I can procure, to gratify his Wishes. 

I shall write you in a day or two, at some length - The phases 
of things shift rapidly. - Gen T's friends see his [views] must 
come into position, or he will fail. - I doubt whether he will, 
though four men are appointed to exhibit a projet, & the ac- 
cepted one, will be presented to him, whether with success, is 
yet to be seen. - You will be surprized to hear that I am one of 
the four. Crittenden, Clayton, & C. S. Morehead of Ky: - I 
shall not accept my Commission. - It is debated whether either 
of the words "Whig" or "Democrat" shall be used. 17 

Quite tender! Clay, I think, has not seen such a stage of 
things, as would induce an acceptance of a nomination. - I had 
for the first time, two or three hours last night, with him in 
his chamber, & alone, other company being denied. - It was a 
full & frank conversation. - He is calm, & in the best temper & 
frame of mind. - His present position is essential to bring gentle- 
men to their senses, as well as to Whig principles. - A No-Party 
stand cannot be held. - No one of Common observation, could 
be here a month & not see its impossibility. - 

I adhere to the opinion - that if Gen T. Stands mute, either 
Clay, Scott or McLean will be run. 

Yrs truly & Sincerely 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Gov. Graham 

17 Taylor insisted that he would not accept the nomination if it came from a party as such. 
He said that the Whig Party was a minority party and only with support from others could he 
win. On January 30, 1848, he wrote Peter Skew Smith, of Philadelphia, that he was not to 
be brought forward "as a candidate of any party nor the exponent of any party doctrines." On 
April 20, 1848, he wrote that if he were not nominated by the Whigs he would seek the 
presidency on his own. About the same time, Crittenden, Alexander H. Stephens, and Robert 
Toombs wrote a letter which Taylor approved that conformed to the Whig views. Dyer, Zachary 
Taylor, 278; Poage, Henry Clay and the Whig Party, 175-176. 

The Mangum Papers 99 

P. H. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 18 

Wake Forest, Feb 18th. 48 

My dear brother. 

I know that you have been expecting a letter from me for 
some time, and I should have written to you some time ago, 
but I have delayed it from day to day, and I hardly know why; 
but I hope that you will pardon me this time when I tell you 
that I will be more punctual for the future, and sometimes 
write you two letters for one. 

Father staid with us some 3 or 4 weeks in January, pitch- 
ing the crop, and planning off hillside ditches, for which, you 
know he is very famous. He left here for Granville court, and 
I expect is now at Hillsboro. The work on the plantation is 
going on pretty well; we have run a cross fence through the 
plantation, which, you know, was very much needed, and are 
now ploughing. I have had four walnut trees set out in the yard; 
I hope that they will all live and bear in our time, and that the 
children of some of the six may play under their shade. I attend 
the society at college this session, and of course, am over there 
pretty often; there are about 75 students. Every thing is pretty 
much the same now, as it was when you were there, except that 
the faces have greatly changed. Prof White told me to send his 
respects to you. Miss E. is now in the neighborhood, and is liv- 
ing with her brother - in - law, three miles below Forrestville : 
there was a party given at Forrestville this session, at which 
she was the reigning belle; and a good many, it is said, were 
pierced by Cupid darts and only went home to spend a sleep- 
less night; it is well enough you were not there, for you would, 
doubtless, have been in the same situation: but I tell you, 
make haste, for your rivals are daily increasing, and out of so 
large a number, someone will soon be favorite. 

Miss Martha says, "that she was glad to hear that you spent 
such a pleasant Christmas, and that you must pay particular at- 
tention to your personal charms from this time until com- 
mencement, so that you may be able to charm some rose- 

18 P. H. Mangum, Jr., who later became famous for his land terraces, and Willie P. Mangum, 
Jr., were sons of Priestley H. Mangum, Sr. See Stephen B. Weeks, "Willie Person Mangum. 
Jr.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, V. 258 and S. A. Ashe, "Priestley Hinton Mangium," Biog. Hist, of 
N. C, V. 263. 

100 State Department of Archives and History 

buds at one of the commencements; that it would be the pride 
of her heart to know that there were some dozen who could not 
sleep for thinking of you; she says that you must eat less and 
study more, and not to have any pimples on your face when 
she sees you again; she wishes to know who Henrietta Hardy 
married and his profession. She sends her love and Mrs Purify 
her respects to you. Fidell is well and follows me wherever I 
go over the plantation, setting the partridges and running and 
barking at the doves. 

When you write again, which must be soon, I want you to 
send me a copy of the verses of the tune, "Away with Melan- 
choly;" do not forget it. 

Your affectionate brother 
P. H. Mangum Jr. 

Hamilton Fish to Willie P. Mangum 19 

Senate Chamber- Albany 
February 22nd 1848 
The Honble W. P. Mangum 

My dear Sir 

I hope that the interest which I feel in common with yourself 
in the success of the Whig Party & the consequent prosperity of 
the Country will be a sufficient justification for presenting my- 
self before you when I know that your valuable time must be 
wholly occupied- But we have such contradictory reports from 
Washington of the views attributed to our leading friends there 
that we are really at a loss to know what are their views as to 
the course to be pursued by the Whig Party in the selection of 
a Presidential Candidate. I think I cannot be mistaken in the 
opinion that Mr. Clay is the first choice of a very large majority 
of the Whigs of this State not only for the Presidency but as a 
Candidate & I think too with the division in the Loco Foco party 
in our state ( which is daily growing more marked & more bitter ) 
that the vote of New York may be counted upon with certainty 
for Mr. Clay if he be the Candidate presented by National Con- 

19 This is a copy which Fish made of the original. The original is not in the Mangum 
Papers. This copy is in the Hamilton Fish Papers, Library of Congress. 

The Mangum Papers 101 

vention- such too I think will be the result (i.e for the Whig 
nominee) should the Convention present Genl Taylor's name, 
provided the General relieve himself in some degree from the 
"[non] party" attitude in which some [of] his letters seem to 
place him- I refer to this, as his success in this State will in a 
great degree depend upon assurances which have not yet reached 
the public in an authentic shape, of his identity with the Whigs- 
in this conclusion I would refer to the resolutions recently adopt- 
ed at a Whig Legislative Caucus (On 15th Inst) the second of 
which is understood here as bearing directly upon Genl T- I 
was not in Albany when the Caucus was held but am told the 
resolution was intended to express the views of the Whigs that 
Genl. T. could not be considered for the Whig nomination while 
persisting in his present attitude- at any rate it is so under- 
stood by many who have hitherto expressed preferences for 
Genl T & I as far as I can judge it is acquiesed- We are very 
anxious to know from a reliable source what are the views of 
our friends in Washington both as to the policy of a nomination 
& the relative prospects of success with Taylor & Clay & also 
whether any more decided expression may be expected from 
Gen T than has yet been obtained of identity with the Whig 
Party & of sympathy with their views & principles & whether 
Gen T will go into the convention & abide by its decision in 
case that decision result in favor of another Candidate- 

I do not desire your views for any public use but should 
like your permission to communicate them to some friends 
here allow me to add that I am the more anxious to hear from 
yourself your opinions on this subject as I have heard you 
quoted as expressing a decided opinion that Mr. Clay could 
not receive the vote of North Carolina or any other Southern 
State except Kentucky- in the same way are Mr. Badger & Mr. 
Crittenden quoted & a gentleman mentioned to me in New 
York a few days since that Mr. Clayton had said he considered 
Delaware doubtful for Mr. Clay while Mr. Pearce said that 
under no circumstances could he obtain the vote of Maryland- 
Are such the opinions of those gentlemen or is this one of the 
modes resorted to to make capital for another at his expense- 
I am somewhat suspicious that the latter is the fact- perhaps 
my long continued & ardent admiration of Mr. Clay together 
with no little jealousy of military men may incline me to that 

102 State Department of Archives and History 

I pray your indulgence for this my long letter. I will not 
again transgress (at least) not to the same extent. 

With very sincere regard & esteem 
Yours faithfully 


Copy Letter from H. F. to Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Feb. 22, 1848 

Robert C. Winthrop to Willie P. Mangum. 


Ho. of Representatives 
Thursday Mar. 9 [1848] 
Hon. Mr. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, At a meeting of the Whigs of the House last even- 
ing, it was voted that it was expedient to hold a joint meeting 
of the Whigs of the two branches, to consult on the common 
interests of the Party, on Saturday evening next at 8 o'clock, & 
I was directed, in behalf of the Executive Comm ee . to notify you 

The Whigs of the House will hope to meet their brethren of 
the Senate on this occasion, & propose the Senate Chamber for 
this purpose. 

Yours Respy & faithfully 
Robt. C. Winthrop. 

William Piper 20 to Willie P. Mangum 

Dials Creek, March 24th 1848 
Judge Mangum, 

My Dear Sir. 

Mrs. Mangum showed me your letter last evening, or 
that part of it which has reference to me, and my school. It is 
true Sir, I have not been pleased with the leaders of the op- 

*>See above. IV, 308. 403. 

The Mangum Papers 103 

posing party, but knowing my imperfect nature to be very ex- 
citable, I have not suffered myself to be led to act or say more 
about it than I thought to be right. I have had the offers of 
other business and another school, but to serve you was my 
motive when I took shelter under your roof- and if I do not 
perform according to my best ability, It will be because you 
advise me to do otherwise, or that I will be deprived of that 
little reasoning power I have been blessed with. My present 
school will expire the latter part of April. I intend to take a 
subscription school if I can get it, as near home as possible; that 
my leisure hours may be employed to advantage. If I cannot 
get a school, your Son, and my children shall have my atten- 
tion- Mr. Carrington will stand up like a man. 

The fore part of the Winter was so rough that I could not 
repair my houses, until my school commenced, We have made 
out with them, without much suffering. I had to dispense with 
the use of my old man Jim, not being able to pay for him. 

Your family are enjoying health, and fine spirits at pres- 
ent except Miss Sally whose health is gradually improving, 
and I think will be restored with the op[en]ing spring. Mrs 
Mangum was quite unwell on Sunday but was quite cheerful 
last night- Mr Carrington is making a drive with his farming 
operations. We are all well. I hope Sir you will honour me with 
a note which will be gladly received and perused- 

I am with much respect 

Your most obe d . & humble Serv*. 
W. Piper 

Paul C. Cameron to Charity A. Mangum 

Fairntosh Orange Co. 

Sunday morning April 16th. 1848 

My dear Madam. 

Returning home from Baltimore I halted a day with my 
friends at Washington City. I take much pleasure in acquiting 
myself of a duty to your husband- having promised him to 
address you a short note on my return home- 

104 State Department of Archives and History 

Judge Mangum desired me to report himself to you in good 
health- and I am sure I may safely do so, as I have never seen 
either looking in better condition. You will be much pleased 
with the degree of improvement in your son Preston- and doubt 
not you will regard it as a winter well passed by him- 

I learn from the Judge that Preston has quite a fancy for 
life in Washington City: and that he is in no haste to return to 
his native hills in Orange- Judge Mangum spoke as if he con- 
templated a visit Home at a very early day with Preston. He 
said he would have written by me, but for the engagements at 
the moment. 

With kind wishes to your Daughters- 
I am Dear Madam very Respectfully 
Your friend & servt. 
Paul C. Cameron 

Willie P. Mangum to James F. Simmons 21 

Washington City, 11th May 1848. 
My dear Simmons. 

I have just opened your kind favor, within an hour of my 
going on the boat, for a short visit to North Carolina; & there- 
fore can do little more than barely acknowledge it.- I have 
been confined to my room for a week, with a slight bilious 
attack, & been today to the Capitol for the first time in eight or 
ten days.- We are in a sad condition here — divided & cut up, & 
I fear, tending to dissolution.- That I trust will be avoided, for 
the result must be the forming the worst & most dangerous kind 
of parties — I mean, sectional.- I am, as ever, in favor of Mr. 
Clay as my first choice in the union, if the question of avail- 
ability were settled.- I have not looked to him as probably a 
candidate until very lately. 

When he was in this City, I did not look to such a result. I 
had the fullest & freest & frankest conversation with him on 
the subject.- He then, most unquestionably, had not come to the 
resolution of assenting to the use of his name before the Con- 

^The original is in the James F. Simmons Papers, Library of Congress. I am indebted to 
Miss Elizabeth McPherson of the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress for calling 
the letter to my attention. 

The Mangum Papers 


Gen. Taylor was zealously pressed by Kentuckians, Ten- 
nesseeans, & C. & C I had never had that fever.- Twelve days 
ago Taylor was apparently down, & Clay, Scott & McLean were 
most in the public mind — The last only in case Mr. Clay were 
out of the way.- No collision between them could have occurred, 
or been tolerated.- Gen. Taylor's letter of the 22nd ult. has to 
some extent, set him on his legs again here, & his friends think, 
or affect to think confidently, in regard to his prospects.- Mr. 
Crittenden is the head, the heart & soul of Taylorism here; with 
all respect however, for his old friend Clay, whom he sincerely 
thinks, unavailable. 

I do not think Mr. Clay's prospects for a nomination good. 
My state, will I think, give him a majority of her vote. 

I sincerely regret his assent, thinking it must lead to his 
mortification.- Scott & Taylor are now most in the public mind.- 
& we have not the means of saying who has the best prospects. - 
My own opinion is, that Scott is the stronger, & that either he 
or McLean will most probably get the nomination.- 

I think, either might succeed — & I have my doubts in regard 
to Taylor.- It is proper to say, that probably, a majority of 
voices are against me. It seems to be settled that Taylor can- 
not carry Ohio — & it is supposed, he will run with much diffi- 
culty, in at least, two of the New England states. 

If we have to march a President into the White House, with 
drum & fife, I prefer the abler man, & one who is not only a 
Whig, but who will respect the usages & become the exponent 
of the principles of the Party. What may become of it, will de- 
pend upon Ohio, New York, & New England.- If we had sound- 
ness enough, it would be a great point to manifest to the world 
that an infamous war gotten into to make Presidents, not only 
crushed its projectors, but failed to place any blood-stained 
laurels in the Executive Chair.- 

I must close, with the request that you present me kindly & 
affectionately to all your family. 

& believe me, as ever. 
Most truly your friend. 
Willie P. Mangum. 


The Hon. Mr. Simmons 
Rhode Island 

106 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum. 


Sunday, June 18th. 1848. 
My Son. 

I enclose you the Olive Branch- Lewis 22 has kept many of 
them that I would send to day, if I had envelopes. Give my 
Love to Mother & your Sisters. — You must write after Copies 
every day in the office — Large hand, as well, as small hand — 
Father has not been well since he left home. — I am somewhat 

Kiss Mother & Sisters for Father. 
Willie P. Mangum 
To Wm. Preston Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Master Will. 

Louis Thompson to William Preston Mangum. 

Washington City 

Tuesday June 20th 1848 
Moste Esteemed 

Dear Willie P. Mangum 
you will excuse me for not writing to you before as i promist to 
do - but it was not my fault when you hear what I have to say 

but i must first commence by Telling you how mutch I misd 
you i am at a loss at times to acount for my Absence of minde, 
but the long look'd for have come at last We or your Par, i 
mean, have moved down to Mrs. Jeffrers at last we have been 
hear about two weeks and it is mutch more Pleasenter then on 
The hill Young Dayton 23 are gone to the Country after visiting 
New York i see his Pa. very often and he always enquires after 
you, young Haskill 24 is still hear but he looks as if he was Lost 

^Louis Thompson was Mangum's servant in Washington. See the next letter. 

23 Probably the son of William Lewis Dayton, Senator from New Jersey in 1842-1851. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 891. 

^Probably the son of William T. Haskell, Congressman from Tennessee from 1847 to 1849. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1072. 

The Mangum Papers 107 

or fartherless and mother less - for I am shure he [torn] not 
look like a membrew of [Con] gress's son, as he is i pitty him 
from my harte 

i see Mr. Labee your Dancing master he all ways enquires 
after you particular almost every person are asking after you 
Those that you knew and others that misses you my garden is 
a flourishing it looks beter then i ever seen it befour We have 
a great deal of fruite this season and i am sorry you are not 
hear for to injoy some of it, your Pa. takes his breakfast at 
Mrs. Jeffres and i Bring his Dinner from Mr Tylers and you 
do not know how mutch better he lives then he did at Mrs 
Clemmences, your pa, have inter ceeded to git me in the serv- 
is of Mr Bagbey 25 who have been apointed minister to Russia 
and I think it very likely that i will go with him - he Mr 
Bagbey have just left here for alabama to see his familey be- 
four he goes, I gues that you was as well as my self mutch des- 
sapointed at General Scott's Defeat in the Conviss but it was 
to be so, i supose you ha[ve] heard long befour this time that 
G[en] Taylor is lookd for to be ower President] My mother 
sends her bist regards to you and she would like to hear from 
you i colected all of your Papers this morning and got your 
pa. to forward them to you he is quite well and looks better 
then he have this winter he goes out very littel he sends all of 
his love to you and to your Ma and sisters and to every body of 
your family. 

i say this for him - he wrote to your mar on Sunday. 

i would be very glad for to receave a letter from you and 
wrote by you i want to see how you have improved you must 
try your best and try and learn befour your Pa. comes home 
you must tell me what your ma, and Sisters thought of you on 
your return home — your Pa. told me how you was receavd at 
home but i want to hear it from you, if there is any papers 
that you want from hear write me word Pleas give my humbel 
regards to your ma an sisters and your servants, and i still 
[re] main My Willie's Servant and ever shall [torn] your Bidding. 

Louis Thompson 
To his Pett - Preston 

^Arthur Pendleton Bagby, 1744-1858, was a member of the Alabama legislature in 1821, 
1822, 1824, 1825, 1834-1836 and speaker in 1822 and 1836. He was governor in 1837-1841 
and United States Senator from 1841 to 1848. He then went to Russia as United States minister. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 660. 

108 State Department of Archives and History 

Gales & Seaton to Willie P. Mangum 26 

Office of the National Intelligencer, 
Washington, August 15, 1848. 

Respected Sir: 

Honored by the Senate with the charge of reporting the 
Proceedings and Debates of that body hereafter, and at the 
same time with that of publishing any Speeches made during 
the Session just closed which have not already appeared in 
the National Intelligencer, we beg leave to ask the favor of you 
to send to us per mail, for publication, any Speech or Speeches 
which you would desire to find a place in our columns, whether 
the same have or have not been heretofore published else- 

If published elsewhere, a reference to the subject, and, as 
nearly as convenient, to the date, will be sufficient. 

With high consideration, we are 
Your most obedient servants, 
Gales & Seaton — 

W. P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to John S. Pendleton 27 

Washington, August 26, 1848. 

MY DEAR SIR: I have this moment received your favor of the 
24th instant, saying that a rumor is current in that part of Vir- 
ginia in which you reside that I have returned to North Carolina 
determined to support the election of Messrs. CASS and BUTLER 
for the first and second offices of the Republic. 

Your favor was handed to me in the rooms of "the Whig Ex- 
ecutive Committee," where I am and have been for several days 
aiding in the distribution of matter designed to enlighten and 

^This is a printed letter. 
''This is a newspaper clipping. 

The Mangum Papers 109 

bring up the public mind to the support of Messrs. TAYLOR and 
FILLMORE for those offices. 

I thank you for your prompt and confident denial of the 
truth of the rumor, and I am very sure you know me too well to 
have felt that you hazarded any thing in nailing the false and 
base coinage to the counter. 

In truth, my dear sir, I cannot conceive of any conjunction of 
circumstances, however monstrous, that could induce me to lend 
my support — insignificant as it is — to the elevation of Gen. CASS 
to the Presidency. I am in favor of Gen. TAYLOR, not only with 
zeal, but with undoubting confidence. 

And, mark me! Notwithstanding the apparent reverse in 
North Carolina, 28 (which we in that State perfectly understand,) 
she will cast a heavier majority in November for the Whig ticket 
than she has done since 1832 — possibly with the exception of that 
for Gen. HARRISON in 1840. 

I shall be obliged to you to denounce the rumor referred to 
in the manner you think most suitable, whenever you meet it, if 
you shall deem it of sufficient consequence to spend upon it so 
much breath. 

Very truly, your friend and obedient servant, 

Willie P. Mangum. 
To the Hon. JOHN S. PENDLETON, Virginia. 

T. L. Clingman to Willie P. Mangum. 

Asheville Sept 1st 1848 

My dear Sir 

Since my arrival home I have induced the paper here to 
take decided ground for the amendments of the constitution. 29 
I think from all I saw and heard as I came on that the west will 

^In rhe North Carolina election Charles Manly, the Whig candidate for governor, won over 
David S. Reid, the Democrat, by a small majority — 42,536 to 41,682. In the legislature the 
Whigs and Democrats had the same number of delegates, although the Whigs had controlled 
the previous legislature. Norton, Democratic Party of N. C, 156-157; Pegg, "Whig Party in 
N. C," 207-208. 

^He refers to the constitutional amendment granting suffrage to all white males of age. 
Under the North Carolina Constitution, a person had to own 50 acres of land to vote for 
members of the state senate. The amendment was defeated. Not until 1859 was a similar 
amendment adopted. Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C," 207-208; Green, Constitutional Development 
in the Southeastern States, 267-268, 270. 

110 State Department of Archives and History 

generally unite in favour of such a change as you see in- 
dicated in the Messenger of this week. I am satisfied that if 
carried out it will be the best thing for our party. Should the 
the measure fail by reason of opposition from the democrats 
of the East then they will be the losers in the State as every 
one will see that they were merely humbugging the Whigs this 
year &c. Should the clique at Raleigh throw themselves in op- 
position to the movement it will damage them. 

Will Waddell retain his seat or resign? 30 If they can make 
out a strong case against him would it not be most politic for 
him as well as for the party in the county to resign and take 
his chance again on the day of the presidential election? We 
might then reap the benefit of Taylors popularity. I under- 
stand that he is not inclined strictly to follow Mr. Badger and 
those gentlemen around him. If he desires anything for himself 
he must see that his duty to himself requires a different course. 
In the event of Taylors election, it will be Badgers object to 
provide for himself and Stanley and they too will if one gets 
into the cabinet and the other gets a foreign mission, absorb 
about all that North Carolina can hope to receive for her share 
of the offices abroad. It is obviously proper therefore for all 
these who do not intend that the Whig party of the State shall 
be the mere property of one family to show a proper feeling of 
indpendence as we shall soon be in a minority in the State. 

I hope you will not allow anything to deter you from taking 
the excursion through the west you propose. All to whom I 
mentioned it seemed pleased with the idea. You shall hear 
from me whenever anything of interest occurs. Write me if you 
have leisure. 

Yours truly 
T. L. Clingman. 

Mr. W. P. Mangum. 

30 In the election for state senator from Orange County in August, 1848, Hugh Waddell, the 
Whig candidate, was declared by the sheriff elected over his opponent, the Democrat, John Berry. 
Reports in the papers showed there had been irregularities. Berry accused the sheriff of falsifying 
the records. A committee of the senate held hearings and decided that Waddell received 747 and 
Berry 754 votes. The committee then threw out all contested votes which left the results 736 
for Berry and 731 for Waddell. Waddell resigned September 23, 1848. Hillsborough Recorder, 
August 16, September 27, 1848; "Reports from the Committee on Privileges and Elections in 
the Case of the Contested Election in the District of Orange," Raleigh, 1849, Senate Documents, 
1848-1849, Doc. No. 16, 32 pp. 

The Mangum Papers 111 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York 11th. September 1848. 
My dear Sir 

I just want to inform you, my worthy friend, that in this 
section of Country, and particularly, in this state, the prospect 
brightens, every day and every hour, for General Taylor. 

Within the past week, I have received information, from my 
friends, in the country, and from the counties, on the north river, 
and all old democratic counties too, and from men, who have 
made the canvass, of their respective counties, in person, declare 
to me, in the most emphatic manner, that General Taylor will 
"roll up," (to use their own words) greater majorities, in those 
counties, say Oneida, Delaware, Ulster, Orange, for the Presi'y. 
than any other candidate, ever did. 

The election in Vermont, has waked up the people, to a sense 
of their political duty. It has inspired us all, with confidence, in 
the N. England States, that they will cast, their electoral votes, 
for the General. 

You may put down Sir, New York (36. votes) for the General 
by, from, 50. to 60,000 majority. 31 

The move of a few aristocratic, crazy, Clay idolaters, 32 will 
not change the electoral vote, enough to put it on paper. Surely 
Mr. Clay, that old gallant whig leader, cannot for one moment, 
sanction the vile conduct, of his few, deluded followers, in this 
city, & elsewhere. I attended, on friday eve'g last, a meeting, of 
our ward, ( 5th. ) for the purpose, of choosing delegates, to send 
to Utica, to nominate a candidate, for Governor, (and I think 
Washington Hunt M. C. 33 will be the man) and such enthusiasm, 
as I saw manifested there, for General Taylor, inspired me, and 
all around me, with great confidence, of his success. And we are 
going to have, on Monday ev'g, (tonight) a great mass meeting, 

a New York went for Taylor largely because the Free Soil Party, with Van Buren as its 
candidate, took many Democratic votes from Cass. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 287-288, 300; 
Hamilton, Zachary Taylor; Soldier in the White House, 133. 

^Some of Clay's supporters were so outdone with the nomination of Taylor and the 
abandonment of the Whig platform that they began a movement to run Clay as an independent. 
Although Clay was bitter he did not go against his party's nominee. Van Deusen, Life of Clay, 

83 Hamilton Fish, whom Weed groomed for the place, was nominated for governor in order 
to placate the Clay Whigs. Van Deusen, Thurlow Weed, 163. 

112 State Department of Archives and History 

of all the ward, to form a club, and prepare for the great cam- 
paign, of November next. 

We all count, on the electoral vote, of good old North Caro- 
lina, for General Taylor. 

I am Dear Sir, 

with the Highest respect 
and good wishes 
Your friend 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum J. B. Mower 

(U. S. Senate) 
Red Mountain 
N. Carolina 

Louis Thompson to William Preston Mangum. 

Washington City Sept. 19th 1848 
My own William 

i take this oppertunity of writing you hoping that thes 
few lines may finde you and All quite well i have waited a long 
time in hopes that i might be so fortunate as to receave a line 
from you as you promised me but after waiting so long i thought 
i would write again i send you this Paper (the Intelligencer) 
so that you may see how that your Pa, have been detained hear 
so long which it showes in the letter to Mr. Pendleton he have 
been Engaged with writing ( Franking ) -documents ) i mean 
more then all the time put togarther that I have been with 

your Par, have been quite unwell for some days but i am 
pleas to say that he is getting quite well a gain i supose he will 
be abel to gete of from hear before long in a few days but i 
cant say what time for no one knows his buisness 

Pleas write to me and let me hear from you but i want you 
to write your self no matter how [torn]d - no more but I still 
remain your faithfull [se]rvant - Louis Thompson 

To William P. Mangum 

Tell Mother that Father has been quite sick, by close confine- 
ment, but is now nearly well - My Love to Mother & sisters. I 
hope to see [you] in a few days. 

W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 113 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum. 

Sept. 26 1848. 

My Dear Willie. 

I have been disappointed so often in looking for you and 
not seeing you. I have not written since Congress adjourned. 
You know not my Dear Willie how much pain it gives me to be 
so long seperated from you. This year so far, has been the 
longest year of my life, do let me know when I shall see you. 
Your Children are so impatient and are asking me every day 
when will Father be at home. 

one week when you are at home is shorter to me than a day 
is now. I hope you have served the publick long enough to de- 
vote a small portion of your time to you family who miss you 
so much. Cousin Meekins told me the Other day that I must 
tell you when I wrote to let him know if you expected to keep 
all your hand here, that he might know how to make arrange- 
ments respecting your wheat crop. Your crop of wheat this 
year is good, also your Corn and tobacco. 

Our Family are as well as usual not any thing serious. I 
hope my Willie you are in good health. May heaven guard and 
protect you and save you from harm, is the constant prayer 
of your devoted Wife. 

C. A. Mangum. 

W. P. Mangum. 

P.S. Sally Patty Mary and William send their warmest love to 
Father, and are looking for Father every day. I cannot 
tell you how often the girls have rode out late in the eving 
expecting to meet Father and how disappointed they would 
return. Your with love and devotion, C.A.M. 

114 State Department of Archives and History 

Thomas D. Tilford H to Willie P. Mangum. 

Frankfort Ky. Sept. 29th. 1848 
Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

As the grandson of your old friend and acquaintance, Tho 
Dougherty formerly Clerk H.R. U.S., I take the liberty of ad- 
dressing you a few lines on the subject of the approaching Presi- 
dential election- Crittenden's triumphant majority in August 35 
indicates pretty well how Ky. will go in November- "Old Zach's" 
maj. will be from 12 to 15,000 - The news from Ohio is quite 
encouraging- 36 I had a letter a few days since from a dis- 
tinguished member of Congress from Ohio; who says that Ford, 
the Whig candidate for Gov., will be elected on 10th Oct. by 
10 or 12,000, and that Taylor will carry the State by a diminished 
Maj- We are convinced here that the great battle-ground is Ohio 
& Indiana, and we are therefore concentrating all our Ky. forces 
on those States- Gov. Letcher started yesterday on a tour 
through Ohio and Indiana; Morehead and other of our able 
speakers have also gone- Corwin is laboring in Ohio like a true 
Whig and writes to us very encouragingly about the prospects- 
We have strong hopes of Indiana; the great Fort Harrison meet- 
ing on 5 Sept. seems to have inspired our friends with new 
zeal - I trust our friends in North Carolina will do better for 
Taylor, than they did for Manly in Aug- You done a poor busi- 
ness really - only 800 maj. for the Old North State- I should 
like to have a line from you candidly about our prospects in 
N. Carolina, Georgia &c Excuse the liberty I have taken of thus 
addressing you : With Sentiments of high regard 

Yours &c 

Tho. D. Tilford 


Govs. Letcher & Crittenden send their best respects — 

34 A Frankfort lawyer. Livingston, Law Register, 1851, 419. 

^Crittenden was elected governor by a majority of about 7.000. National Intelligencer, 
August 16, 1848. 

30 In Ohio the Whig candidate for governor, Seabury Ford, was elected October 10 by a 
majority of 200. National Intelligencer, October 11, 1848. 

The Mangum Papers 115 

Prospectus for National Whig. 37 

[1 October, 1848] 

Joseph B. Pleasants and Charles W. Fenton, 38 propose to 
establish, at Washington city, on the first day of January, 1849, 
a daily journal, to be called the NATIONAL WHIG. In present- 
ing this enterprise to the confidence and support of the public, 
it becomes us to state briefly the general principles which shall 
mark its character and conduct. The importance - nay, absolute 
necessity - for an able and fearless journal, which, while it will 
fully and fairly represent all sections, shall be ready at all 
times to expose the tendency, on the part of our rulers, to- 
wards the arrogant assumption, and corrupting abuse of power; 
which shall promptly meet and turn aside the stream which 
flows from high places through hireling presses and pensioned 
libellers of men who differ honestly with the "Powers that be" - 
in short, to send daily, the antidote with the poison, has long 
been felt, and we propose to do this as far as an honest zeal 
shall enable us. 

The paper will go for the whole country, aiming to put down 
all organization for sectional, selfish, unwise or unholy purposes. 
It will take its stand upon the Constitution, as construed by its 
framers and early expounders; aim to preserve it inviolate from 
all assaults from whatever quarter; to preserve union, harmony, 
and a well ordered liberty. Should General Taylor be elected, 
as long as he maintains the high conservatibe position which 
he has assumed (and which we must say is entirely consistent 
with the past and present policy of the great Whig party) we 
will give to his administration as cordial a support as is con- 
sistent with our dignity as men and as independent public 
journalists. But, should "madness" so far "rule the hour" as 
to result in the election of General Cass - going into office, as 
he will, the creature, the automaton, the thing of such a miser- 
able conclave as sat at Baltimore in May last - we can only 
promise "war to the knife," for four years at least, if, perchance, 

37 This broadside is printed. 

^The National Whig was published from 1847 to June 1849. Fenton was one of the 
editors. Later he was consul to Great Britain. John C. Proctor, Washington Fast and Present: 
A History, New York, 1930, II, 627; American Almanac, 1850, p. 128. 


State Department of Archives and History 

our "manifest destiny" should so long allow us an existence as 
a free and united people. 

J. B. Pleasants, who will have the editorial control, will 
only say that the fact of his being born and educated in Vir- 
ginia, having every relation, sympathy and interest centred in 
the South, must be a sufficient guarantee of the course the pa- 
per will adopt on all questions, present or prospective, in which 
the interests of that great and glorious portion of the con- 
federacy may be involved. To the people of the District we say, 
we are among you, of you, and yours at command, in whatever 
concerns your interests and rights as constituents of Congress 
and as citizens of the United States. 

BSP 3 The paper will be published on a double royal sheet and 
furnished to daily subscribers at $8. Tri-weekly, $5, and weekly, 
containing all valuable matter, at the low rate of $2 per annum. 
Payable, in each case, on receipt of the first number. 
JJ£W Monthly subscribers will be furnished at 75 cents payable 
to the carrier. 

y^W* Editors publishing this prospectus, and sending a paper con- 
taining it, will receive our thanks and be noted for daily ex- 

IJEW Those persons who subscribed to the late National Whig, 
and to whom that paper is in arrears, will be supplied with this 
paper for the times for which they have respectively paid. 
Washington City, October 1, 1848. 



Post Office. 

The Mangum Papers 117 

Catherine Mangum 89 to Sally A. Mangum* 

Hillsboro: Oct. 9th, 1848 — 

My Dear Cousin, 

I seat myself tonight, to write you a good sociable letter, as 
I feel in the mood for writing, & as if I wanted to have a long 
talk, with some dear friend. How delightful it is, for us to pour 
out our hearts to some one we know, to be a friend, & whom we 
know, can, & will, sympathize with us — Such a friend, I believe 
you to be dear Coz — so summon up patience & resolution, enough, 
to read my rigamarole to the end. Well, I suppose you have 
seen dear Cousin Jack — I long to hear yours & Pat's opinion 
of him — Oh: you don't know how glad I was to see him — I 
never was so overcome in all my life, it seemed to me when I 
saw him, that the spirit of my dear Mother had risen up before 
me. You don't know my dear Cousin, you never can know, 
what a pleasure it is to me, to see any of her relations, those, 
I mean, who have not forgotten us. Cousin Jack, is one of that 
number, at least, & all his family — I love him with my whole 
soul, he is so perfectly good & amiable. The few happy days, 
the only happy days I ever spent in my life, I can trace back, 
to the time when our dear Mother was with us. What has life 
been to me, since she was taken from us — a wild chase — life, 
is almost a burden to me — but why do I talk so, it is wrong & 
sinful — enough, I shall tire you with my " complaining melan- 
cholly" — I will speak of something more cheering — You would 
like to know what 'Old Hillsboro,' has been doing since you 
were here, as you love the dear old place so devotedly — so, I 
will tell you all I know about it — I believe we have been quite 
gay, gayer than usual — though I have mingled very little in 
it — More strangers than usual are here, spending the Summer. 
We had a large party at Mrs. Cammerons on last Wednesday, 
dancing — a real frolick, & a very plea [s] ant one it was. The 
tickets were sent to me on Monday evening — the very day 
Cousin Jack left us — there were two for you all, with a request 
to send them to you by Wednesday, I put them in the office, as 
the only opportunity — but they were not mailed — as they sent 
them back to me the last of the week. I will send them to you 
sometime. I wish you could have been here — I know you would 

^Priestley's oldest daughter born in 1825. 

*°The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

118 State Department of Archives and History 

have enjoyed it so much — Cousin Jack, was ticketed too, now 
would it not have been delightful, if we all had been there to- 
gether. I have been wishing to go down to see you all this Fall, 
But Father has been quite sick with chills — is better now — 
But I don't know when I can go — I am tied here with cords of 
iron. Oh! how I wish I was free, if it was but for one moment. 
This thraldom is hard to be borne — it is equal to that of a Gal- 
ley Slave. I think sometimes, I will burst the bars of my cage, 
if I go to destruction, & I regret that I have not done it before 
this, Yes, Cousin, I do regret it — but I say so to you in confidence. 
But how foolish it is to talk so — nevertheless I am in earnest. 
Has Uncle come home yet?; if he has, give my love to him. — 
I suppose I need not ask you to come to see me now. But you 
can write dear Coz — do answer this, & tell me every thing you 
can think of. Give my love to Aunt & ask her how she likes 
Cousin Jack — tell her, I know if she were to be with him 
long enough to know him, I am certain she would like him be- 
cause he is so good. We send our love to all, & accept the same 
for yourself. Miss Martha has been quite sick again, & Brother 
is complaining of his breast. Oh! how I wish we were all to- 
gether. Mrs. Waddell sent to me the other day for the money 
for your bonnets — you had best send it to her as soon as you 
can. Do excuse this — & be sure to burn it up. Good Bye: dear 
Cousin, I want to see you all so much — Believe me ever 

Your affectionate Cosin C — 

We are to have some Weddings soon — Frank Waddells & Mr. 
Branch for one, this week perhaps. 

J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 15th. October 1848 

My dear Sir- 
Permit your old friend, to congratulate you, on the splendid 
triumph, in good old Penn a . that vote, settles the election of 
General Taylor. We count on N. Carolina, as certain for him. 

The Mangum Papers 119 

We also have assurances, from Georgia, that its electoral vote 
will be cast for the General. Every thing, looks well for the 
Whigs, once more. 

And Sir, the Whigs, as a party, have nobody so much to fear, 
as themselves. 

I hope we shall all be able, to once more, bear prosperity, 
with more composure, than the same party did, in 1840. 

If I am alive and well, and General Taylor, is elected Presi- 
dent I hope, I shall have the pleasure, of once more, shaking your 
warm and friendly hand. 

I am Dear Sir 

Your friend & Servant 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum ) 

U. S. Senator ) 

Red Mountain ) 

N. Carolina ) 



Raleigh, November 1848. 

Sir: - The undersigned were appointed by the Whig State Con- 
vention, which met here in February last, a Central Commit- 
tee, and in that character beg to submit for your consideration 
a few suggestions with a view to bringing out, at the ensuing 
Presidential election, the full Whig vote of the State. 

There is no doubt that a majority of the voters of the State 
are Whigs, decidedly in favor of the Whig Nomininees for Presi- 
dent and Vice President. There seems a so good reason to believe 
that a large number of our Citizens, who, four years ago, voted 
the Democratic Ticket, are now disposed to vote for General 
Taylor. The only difficulty in the way of certain and triumphant 
success is the want of some efficient means to procure a full at- 
tendance at the polls. We have no county elections to ensure 
local interest, and the impression being general that the State 

41 This is a printed circular letter. 

120 State Department of Archives and History 

is Whig, the necessity of individual attendance is apt to be 
over-looked, and many trusting that there will be votes enough 
without theirs, may be induced by trivial business or small 
obstacles to remain at home. This may produce defeat, and at all 
events must reduce the majority which is due to the excellence 
of our cause, the merits of our candidates, and the high char- 
acter of the State. 

Impressed with these views, and feeling the great importance 
to our country of the approaching Election, we respectfully ask 
you, in concert with other leading Whigs of your County, in order 
to prevent defeat and ensure a decided triumph, to adopt im- 
mediately the following plan of organization: 

Let a number of true and active Whigs be selected in each 
precinct of the county, who will pledge themselves to attend 
the polls on the day of Election, there to see that all persons who 
are disposed to vote for Taylor and Fillmore are brought to 
the polls, and supplied with tickets examined and known to bear 
the names of all the Whig Electors - to challenge all spurious 
or doubtful votes - to observe the absence of any Whig voter, 
to-have him sent for early, and, if necessary, provided with a 
conveyance to the place of Election; and finally to see, so far 
as depends on them, that no vote is lost to the Whig ticket by 
absence or inattention. These gentlemen should also divide the 
precinct among themselves, so as to enable them with con- 
venience and certainty to visit, a day or two before the Election, 
every Whig voter - every one who for any reason is disposed 
to vote our ticket - to encourage and urge him to attend - to 
enforce the duty and necessity of such attendance, not merely 
to cast his own vote, but also to use whatever influence he may 
have for inducing others to do likewise. 

This plan is simple and can at once be put into operation, 
and if adopted, we feel confident will secure us not only a certain 
but a decided majority. 

We hope these suggestions will meet your approbation; and, 
if so, we very respectfully ask that you will take immediate 
steps to carry them into effect. 

g^iP Let all understand that the Election is held ( under act of 
Congress) on Tuesday, the Seventh of November. 

The Mangum Papers 


We are, Sir, most respectfully, your Friends and Brother 

Richard Hines, Chairman 

Geo: W. Haywood, 
H. W. Husted, 
T. J. Lemay, 
N. L. Williams, 
Rufus Barringer, 
Henry W. Miller, 
K. Rayner, 

(John H. Bryan, 
(Alfred Jones. 
(N. Woodfin, 
(T. S. Galloway, 
(Ed: J. Hale 
(Ed: Stanly, 
(Hugh Waddell, 



J. B. Mower to Willie P. Mangum 

New York 12th. Nov. 1848 

My Dear Sir, 

What was opinion, a week ago to-day, is History now. We 
have gloriously triumphed over the Common Enemy, and 
elected the man of the people. General Taylor is the President 
elect of the United States, for the coming four years. And I beg 
leave, most heartily, to congratulate you, your friends, and the 
Nation, on this splendid victory. 

And Sir, the first thing now to be done, is, the formation, of 
a first rate Cabinet, to aid the old Hero in sailing the Great Ship 
of State, safely, and successfully. 

The majority, in this State, for General Taylor, will be over, 
I think, 60,000. and weve elected, 32, out of the 34 members of 
Congress, Whigs, save perhaps, one Barnburner, (Preston King) 

Glory enough for one Campaign. Now, I hope we shall be wise 
enough, to keep the power we have triumphantly achieved. 

I am dear Sir 

Your friend & servant 
J. B. Mower 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
U. S. Senator 
Red Mountain 
N. C. 

I sent you the Tribune 
cont'g the first news of the 
election of the General. 

122 State Department of Archives and History 

William L. Hodge'' 2 to Lemuel Sawyer. 

New Orleans 13 Nov 1848 

Lemuel Sawyer Esq 

Dear Sir 

You will have seen that I did not over estimate what the 
Whigs of La. could & would do - the Locos are perfectly thunder- 
struck & united I hope without the possibility of rallying for 
the general State election next year when we entend to give 
them another defeat for Governor Legislature & Congress — 

You can now appreciate the boastings of Hamason, 43 as we 
have carried his own district that hitherto Locofoco Gibralter 
by a majority of 200 - we have also carried the 1st district (La 
Seres) 44 by 340 & the 2d (Thebodaux's) by 2200!! - Our hopes are 
strong for the 4th (Morse's) & for myself have no doubt we have 
carried it making a general sweep of every district in the State. 

We intend to keep up our organization for the State Cam- 
paign in Nov 1849 — 

I congratulate you sincerely on the general result throughout 
the Union & hope you will all do full credit to the Whigs of La. 
who had to fight at every disadvantage against the united patron- 
age & influence of both the general & state governments & which 
were used in the most unblushing & bare-faced manner. 

Very truly & sincerely 
Wm. L. Hodge. 

I have no hopes at present for Mississippi — But Alabama we 
think has gone for Taylor: of which you will know before 
this reaches you. Oh Lord, Oh Lord Alabama turned Whig! 

Look out next for Texas & Arkansas. I dont intend to be 
surprised at anything. 

42 WilIiam L. Hodge was the editor of the New Orleans Commercial-Bulletin in 1847. From 
1850 to 1853 he was Assistant Secretary of the Treasurer. Charles W. Winslow, Winfield 
Scott: The Soldier and the Man, 1937, p. 445. 

43 John H. Harmanson, Democratic Congressman from Simmsport in 1845-1850; Emile La 
Sere, Democratic Congressman from New Orleans in 1846-1851; Bannon G. Thibodeaux, Congress- 
man from Thibodeaux, in 1845-1849; Isaac E. Morse, Democratic Congressman from St. 
Martinsville, in 1844-1851. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1062, 1205, 1339, 1606-1607. 

44 Taylor carried Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, 
and Kentucky in the South. Hamilton, Zachary Taylor; Soldier in the Whie House, 132. 

The Mangum Papers 123 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

Wall St 
New York Nov 15th/48 

My dear Sir 

In the absence of excitement or of any serious opposition, 
save that which insured success, Genl Taylor has been elected 
receiving not as many Electoral votes as Mr Polk did, & with 
a short Whig vote of at least 200, 000. 45 When we take into con- 
sideration the reasons urged by the advocates of ''availability" 
that Our Zach was to carry the coatless & the hatless & the un- 
shod Democracy - that the purlieus would send forth their subter- 
ranean hordes and that he was to riot in a majority so over- 
whelming that it would not be called a fight only a guerilla 
skirmish merely he may be permitted to pause when the result 
is arrived at & foot up the account. We have lost Ohio a sure 
Whig state & we have gained Pennsylvania a State Regal in its 
former Loco fidelity. But the Whig fortress is shaken in New 
England. In New York Van & Cass will have 10 to 20,000 more 
than Taylor & Van will have about as much over Cass. Mr Clay 
would have had by the votes of the people & by majorities over 
all Vert. Mass. R. I. Connt. N. Y. N. J. Pa. Del. Md. N. Ca. Tenn 
Ky. Ohio. Ind. 179 sure. Taylor has 163 & he owes his election 
to the general fear & distrust of Cass. The Barnburners insured 
his election. Without them Penn. could not have been touched - 
nor could N. J. The loss of Pa would have been defeat The b'hoys 
have had little to do with Taylor's success. It has been decided 
by men who chose Taylor as a choice of evils. The thinking 
men of the country, under solemn protest voted for him & he 
is elected by those who abhored his nomination but finally deter- 
mined in his favor so as to keep out Lewis Cass. 

We are a very hopeful people and here my hope that Genl 
Taylor's Govt, will be Whig. That his Cabinet will be formed 
from the purest & best Whig Statesmen in the Country. That his 
measures will be Whig all over - no mixture - but unadulterated 

^Taylor received 1,360,099 popular votes against Cass's 1,220,544 and Van Buren's 
291, 263. He received 163 electoral votes and Cass 127. In 1844, Polk had received 170 
electoral and 1,337,243 popular votes, whereas Clay had received 105 electoral and 1,299.062 
popular votes. Taylor, therefore, received only a few more popular votes than Clay. Edward 
Stanwood. A History of the Presidency, Boston, 1904, pp. 223, 243. 

124 State Department of Archives and History 

— If his Cabinet be chosen with a view of conciliating it will 
be wise & well. I have proved during this canvass that I have 
not altered individual opinions but that my judgement has 
been sustained by large masses of the best Whigs in the Union. 
I backed down on Monday & am accused of adding some hun- 
dreds to Taylor's vote on Tuesday. The fight is over now for 
the present & the future. 

We want some voice in fixing the Cabinet I am free to say 
that I want you in that Cabinet & I earnestly entreat nothing on 
your part will interpose any obstacle to your friends in urging 
your claims. As by general assent here public opinion centres 
to Crittenden, Evans, Clayton, yourself, Bell, King, Sergeant. 
Mr. Kennan, Truman Smith Choate & Pettigru as the parties 
from whose ranks will be made up the Genl's Cabinet. 46 New 
York will probably not expect any Cabinet apt. although the 
modest Mister Moses H. Grinnell advances pretensions for the 
Navy Dept. A strong pulle here will be made for Clayton for 
the Tresy. & yourself for the War Dept. It is of course proper 
that your own wishes should, in some way, govern the action 
of your friends here. 

If the old Guard have the reins in the Cabinet 'the people' 
will be satisfied, because those men are the representatives of 
the people "The New England Division" represent no body but 
themselves, & God help those who lean upon them save they 
be their particular dependants. 

I am very sure that your appointment would be heartily re- 
sponded to here. 

I have had high authority for stating that position in the 
Cabinet would be tendered Mr. Clay 47 - and — in the event of 
his declension, the Mission to St James. There could be no 
happier auspices for the incoming administration than to verify 
that rumor by the actual tender. It needs no amplification to 
enforce the wisdom of such a course- Both would be declined. 

46 Taylor's Cabinet included John M. Clayton, for Secretary of State; William Meredith a 
Pennsylvania lawyer, for Secretary of the Treasury; George Crawford, a former governor of 
Georgia, for Secretary of War; William B. Preston, Virginia Congressman for Secretary of the 
Navy; Reverdy Johnson for Attorney General; Jacob Collamer, a Congressman from Vermont, 
for Postmaster General; and Thomas Ewing for Secretary of the Home Department. For good 
portraits of the Cabinet members see Hamilton, Zachary Taylor; Soldier in the White House, 

* 7 Taylor's Cabinet was a disappointment to many leading Whigs. Crittenden and Abbot 
Lawrence had been invited to enter the Cabinet, but both had declined. Clay and Webster had 
not been in favor of Taylor and had not done much to bring about his election. From the first 
the Cabinet did not work together well. Dyer, Zachary Taylor, 311-318; Hamilton, Zachary 
Taylor; Soldier in the White House, 136-141. 144-145, 151-152, 255-256. 

The Mangum Papers 125 

Mr. Clay's friends will meet here next week. The meeting 
will take in our City, the State, Mass. R. I. Cont. N. J. Pa. Del. 
Md. & Va. probably an 150 in all — They will advise Mr. Clay 
immediately afterwards of their intentions & their wishes as 
regards himself. It is certain that advice won't place him in the 
Senate, in the Cabinet or as the recipient of a Foreign Mission. 
He may go abroad if he pleases but his purse will be his friends 
purses & not any part of this d-d ungrateful nations. 

Mr. Clay will probably be the leading spirit of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of his own State & then the future is with 
God. We have proclaimed him as "The People's Candidate for 
1852 without the aid or intervention of Conventions." 

I should be very happy to hear from you at your earliest 
leisure, as whatever is done here should be on foot at once. 

I have heard of you through Botts & others during the canvass. 

Very faithfully 
Yr. friend. 
N. Carroll 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

Nov 18 th ./48 


My dear Judge 

I learn that you are to be at Washington soon & perhaps 
there now I have addressed this to Washington with directions 
to forward it if you are not yet arrived. 

Since I wrote a new 'wrinkle' has been hideously developed 
by some of "the originals" [who] would be conscience keepers 
of Gen 1 . Taylor. 

Some wretch who hoping thereby to secure favor with the 
New Dynasty has sold himself body & breeches, made ov[er] 
certain private letters of Mr Clay [out] of which the worthy 
'originals' are [ha]tching a gross & infamous attack upon 
[torn] old Hal. It appears that a remote [streak] of common 
sense has made them pause- the assassins suspend the blow 
but it is only suspended. 

126 State Department o\r Archives and History 

The effects of such a course would be to destroy Genl. 
Taylor's Administration before it had commenced- We all here 
submit - we do more- we will yield that administration if it 
be a clean Whig one- if it devotes its energies to the country 
& rides rough shod over cabals & cliques- an ardent- honest & 
thorough support. None know better or more truly the value 
of such 'aid, assistance & comforts 'than the leading men who 
will be the great pins of the Administration. It will be finely 
rendered. Self-respect will make it & mark it, as disinterested. 

But if the oldest officers & soldiers in the Whig army are to 
see their idolized leader, now stretched upon a bed of illness- 
may-hap on the borders of eternity- with one foot meeting the 
grave & his mighty soul alone keeping back the other- howled 
at & set upon by the mere Jackalls of prey, May God blast us 
if we do not return the blow with interest. Not in the figurative 
sense but in the actual & real, will w[e] burn & destroy — 
the papers that [torn] the attacks will be rooted out & n[o] stone 
left on top of another of the dirty buildings & the wretches [who] 
wrote the infamous scrolls may [think] themselves fortunate if 
they es[cape] 'the falling ruins.' 

Our hearts are full & very sore We have borne & we will 
bear & forbear but they at their peril assault him. 

There could be no more fitting opportunity than the present 
to allude to Henry Clay & to his illness- to express the general 
& wide spread interest of the people in his behalf & their united 
wishes that he may soon be restored to full health. 

No paper so fitting as the Intelligencer nor no person so apt 
at such an article as Judge Mangum or Joe Gales. 

You will soon see 'feel[ers]' about the Cabinet & individuals 
in relation to it & I hope that your papers will respond. 

A very nice fight is going on between Sewards friends & Col- 
liers in which many of us have the same interest we would 
have as betwen Kilkenny cats. 48 The probability is that Joshua 
A. Spencer will be the compromise agreed upon- a most excel- 
lent & judicious choice. A word of SEEMING treason. It will be 
wisely ordained if New York [recejived NO places in the Cabinet. 
It is [f]or her benefit that it should be so, [a]nd therefore it is, 
no treason for one of her true sons to say "leave her out." The 

* 8 William H. Seward and John Collier were candidates for the office of United States 
Senator. Weed, who supported Seward, succeeded in winning most of the Whig leaders, so 
that Collier withdrew in favor of others such as Washington Hunt and Hamilton Fish, but neither 
of these would make the race. Consequently, Seward won with little difficulty. Weed was in 
complete control of the New York Whigs. Van Deusen, Thurlow Weed, 165-166. 

The Mangum Papers 127 

selections to be made if at all from her Great men would assured- 
ly fall upon some little great man & in no wise respect or rep- 
resent the wishes of her people. If great care be not taken the 
appointments here will be likely to weaken the Administration. 
If on the contrary compromise ground be occupied in relation 
to such matters and a native born like Jno. L. Lawrence or Philip 
Hone placed at the head of the White House, the back bone of 
cliques & factions will be broken & the people- the voters gen- 
erally pleased. The under appointments would then be judicious, 
& popular A little care in season will secure this result. I trust 
in God the disgraceful scenes of 1841 will not be reenacted. 

You ought to watch And. Stwart 49 two or three other Pa. 
worthies & more particularly have a sharp look out for our 
beauty Gov. John Young & his confreres. I much fear that it 
will take all the reputed firmness & honesty of G[en] Taylor to 
match the plots hatched [and] hatching to circumvent him. 

I hope you will make the [torn] acquaintance of Greeley 50 
this w [inter]. It is worth more than the powd[er] you would 
expend. Greeley is a ver[y] great man & it will be well if that 
'fixed fact' be known in good season. He won't drink & will there- 
fore be always a calm observer. 

With great regard 
I am very faithfully 
N. Carroll 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 

* 9 Andrew Stewart, 1791-1872, represented Pennsylvania in Congress in 1821-1829, 1831- 
1835, and 1843-1849. He declined Taylor's appointment as Secretary of the Treasury. His 
party affiliations were first Democratic, then Whig, and finally Republican. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 

B0 Horace Greeley was elected to Congress in 1848 to fill a vacancy. He served from 
December 4, 1848. until March 3, 1849. He hoped to go to the Senate but Weed put in 
Seward instead. Van Deusen, Thurlow Weed, 166. 

128 State Department of Archives and History 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

54 Wall St, 

Thanksgiving day 
Nov. 23d/48 

My dear Judge 

You knew Mr. Seaman 51 the member of Congress in 45 & 46 
from Richmond & King's Co in this State? He was said to have 
been one of the best member of that Congress. 

Will you put a little of your heart in a letter to him about 
the matter? The reason why is this, Mr. Wakeman the 
former Corresponding Secy. & Superintending Agent of the 
American Institute is deceased. The compensation is a mere 
bagatelle but it is of importance in view of the approaching 
change of the Tariff that it should be in the hands of the right 
person Now if my good friend the Judge will say what he 
pleases of me to Henry J. Seaman ex. M. C. it will prob- 
ably be the entering wedge & the clincher. I have an ardent & 
warm support from our mutual friends here in the Institute, 
many of the I.O.O.F. being members, and of old I was one 
of the Lords paramount in the Institute. In view of the future 
a worse man might have it & controlled, it is of great benefit to 
the incoming administration. Will you nib one of your pens 
in your best style & indite such a document as you only know 
how to write? 

Greely is only keeping in check certain operations when his 
& other batteries will be opened in your behalf & probably 
Clayton's. The Cabinet to suit this atmosphere would include 
yourself, Clayton & King, & then the least objectionable from 
the Free States & that is very hard to determine. 

Seward is pushing all he & his friends know how for the 
Senate. 52 Collier is equally hard at work while Joshua A. 
Spencer to my notion grows stronger every day- The other 
candidates are D. D. Barnard (a cousin german of Jack Frost's) 
Ogden Hoffman, Mark Sibley, Luther Braddish & Jerome Fuller. 
It may so turn out that the last will be first. 

61 Henry John Seaman, 1805-1861, was the America Party Congressman from 1845 to 1847. 
Thereafter, he was interested in the development of railroads, plank roads, and bridges. Biog. 
Dir. of Cong., 1505. 

B2 See above. 126n. 

The Mangum Papers 129 

We are gratified today inexpressibly so to learn that Mr 
Clay is on the mend- Many curses are in store for us but I do 
not believe we are yet to be crushed with such a calamity as 
his loss. If harm came to that mighty heart through the villiany 
practiced towards it by those in whom it placed its trust God 
help & save them - man could not. 

There is nothing to change the account currant of balances - 
163 to 127 on the vote of the Empire just the majority. It has 
been a strange fight. The enthusiasm - Duty, fear & hatred have 
been the elements electing Genl. Taylor. God spare us hereafter 
from such imminent peril as but now we stood in danger of. 
Ohio & Ina [Indiana?] & Wisconsin belonged to us in a fair field 
fight & the votes (there) would have been ours. 39 votes. Then 
the act would stand 202 to 98. Genl. Taylor as Genl. Taylor has 
nothing to plume himself upon. As the Whig Candidate the 
people have taken him on trust & to them the most objectionable 
candidate who could have been named, but as between him & 
Cass they had no option. Preference & all that rendi[r] dignity 
to the Elective Franchise were out of the issues. It was literally 
Aversion [?] or the Devil. Hope clung to the faith that Aversion 
[?] might change & be cured while they knew the Prince of 
Evil could never change save to grow worse. 

If Genl. T. is modest - if you & others who are capable of 
directing his affairs think for him & act for him - no evil but 
good will come of the downfall of that Black & baleful Loco — 
Infernoism against whose crest the weapon of every true think- 
ing man was bent to the death If this new power be but a per- 
sonal party & Bell & Crittenden & those who hatched the plot 
will halt at nothing, in proclaiming 'the King can do no wrong' 
& back Genl. T. through all things then be sure before two 
years Loco Focosim will remantle its fortresses & at the end of 
four ride in more intolerant & tyrannical than ever. 

We hope here that Taylor is a clean Whig & means to abide 
by & with the real Democratic Whig Party. If he does the throb 
of happiness will circle with the sun. Then power is an assured 
possession of the Whig Party and their continuance in charge 
of the Govt, as certain as anything on earth can be. 

Mr. Clay's leading friends here will not trouble the New 
Administration as expectants. They expect & mean to give 
their ardent, honest & thorough support to the Govt, if it be 

130 State Department of Archives and History 

truly Whig. Indubitably they will not leave one stone on top 
of another if it be other than true Whig. At this time all is 
hope & that of the soriest line. Grant Heaven that earnest be- 
lief be not clouded by a single speck on the surface of the 
Great Whig Sun. 

With heartiest wishes for your health & happiness, 

I am very faithfully 
Yr friend & sert 
N. Carroll 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

John Cameron to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hillsborough 24th, Novr. 1848. 
My dear Sir 

Having heard accidentally that you were in Raleigh, I have 
concluded to run the risk of this reaching there before you leave. 

I have applied to the Electors individually, for the appoint- 
ment of their special messenger to carry on the vote of the 
State, which I trust they will not refuse me, as I am anxious to 
go on to Washington any how, if I can obtain the means of do- 
ing so, with the intention of spending the winter there, provided 
I can get anything to do to enable me to pay my board. I am ex- 
ceedingly anxious to see you before you return, & if you will 
be kind enough to drop me a line saying when you will be at 
home, I will try & run down & spend a day at Walnut Hall. 

We have all been more or less sick this summer, & my 
general health & strength, is more shaken than it ever was be- 
fore. I hope however that change of scene, & something to do, 
(if it can be obtained) will soon bring me through as sound & 
stout as ever. Waddell has been very busy collecting evidence 
to substantiate his claim to his seat, 53 & is very sanguine of suc- 
cess; indeed if men can prove what they say they can, there is 
no doubt of it, for he has already obtained the names of thirty 
who have not the shadow of a title to land, & among them are 
6 out of the 7 challenged by Barnett Hasel as one of the Judges, 

03 See above, 11 On. 

The Mangum Papers 131 

& on account of whose votes being received, he refused to sign 
the certificate. 

Understanding this to be old Zach's birthday, as soon as the 
sun is over the fore yard I shall knock off a bumper to his con- 
tinued health & well being, & better luck to us all. I saw your 
brother yesterday, all were well with him. Wm Cain has had 
chills but I believe he has gotten over them. I think he will ac- 
company me down when we learn that you are at home. 

Yr. Sincerely attached 
friend & Servant 
J. Cameron. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

George W. Jones 5 * to Willie P. Mangum. 

Deer 4th 1848.— 
Dr. Sir- 
In the Acts of the Assembly passed at the session 1844 - 5 
you will find an Act on the 46th page entitled an "act in favor 
of Poor Debtors — In the first section of said Act there is some 
doubt whether the words "not to exceed fifty dollars in value" 
has reference to the preceding words "household & kitchen furni- 
ture" only or whether they refer to all the enumerated articles 
in said section — I could almost wish that the Assembly that 
passed the act were here, to show us what they intended; but 
as that is wishing an improbability you will please favor me with 
your opinion. — 

Yrs sincerely 
Go. W. Jones 

w See above, IV. 350a. 

132 State Department of Archives and History 

John B. White 55 to Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 

Wake Forest Dec. 5, 1848 

Dear Sir 

I am directed to say to you that you were appointed a tutor 
here for next session at the late meeting of the Board. The 
session commences on the fourth Monday of January and closes 
the 2d Thursday of June. It was agreed to pay you at the rate 
of $300 a year certainly and if the income would allow $400. 

I think we shall have a large increase of students. I hear 
of many new ones coming in. 

Please let me hear from you. 

Yours in haste 

John B. White 

W. P. Mangum Jr. 

Hugh Waddell to Willie P. Mangum. 

Home. [Hillsboro,] Deer. 13. 1848. 

My dear Friend. 

I have desired anxiously to see you for some time, not only 
because, as you well know, I never meet you but with pleas- 
ure, but for another reason, viz: to take yr. advice as to the 
proper course for me, in the wretched predicament in which 
my friends have placed me, in contesting the seat of Berry. 56 

I entered into this thing with unconcealed reluctance & de- 
clared to a large meeting of Whigs on the day after the late 
election that nothing but a unanimous vote of my friends pres- 
ent to that effect could induce me to do it. - Postponed as long 
as it has been I deeply regret that it was attempted for it is 
now certain that the contest will scarcely be terminated before 

66 A native of New Hampshire and educated at Brown University, John B. White, 1810- 
1887, became professor of mathematics and history at Wake Forest College in 1837. In turn 
he became secretary of the board of trustees, college treasurer, acting president, and president. He 
headed a girls' school in Tennessee in 1853 and 1855 before he became president of Almira 
College in Illinois. He held the latter post for twenty-three years. G. W. Paschal, History of 
Wake Forest College, I, 123-125, 414-425. 

6e See above, 11 On. 

The Mangum Papers 133 

the end of the Session - the course of the Democrats is plainly, 
to continue taking Despositions as long as possible & then to con- 
sume the residue of the Session in debating the questions, 
arising on the depositions. - As yet we have only shown about 
16 voters not entitled by reason of their being Landless men & 
about 12 or 14 who having had land, made Deeds of Trust, (as 
yet unclosed), although we fully count upon shewing 5 or 6 
more who did not own any land; thus far as to Capt B.'s friends - 
this morning the Capt. opens his batteries & judging from the 
two first witnesses examined by him, he has utterly failed to 
sustain two men whom I had shewn unqualified.- It is believed 
he may possibly shew 3 or 4 of my votes, but not more, to 
have been spurious- We shall see in three days what they can 
do. Now what I desire to ask, is, what is yr. opinion of the 
course I ought to take in the event of the Senate's sending the 
election back to the people? I am clear, that I ought not to touch 
it, - not only because I will not be again harrassed with such a 
filthy scramble with such dirty wretches, but because I do not 
think it comports with the character I have sustained thus far 
to continue a contest in which there is really any doubt whether 
I am the choice of the people of Orange- I am told sundry of 
my friends have left the State since 7. Novr. but whether a 
greater number of B's may not have left also I am unadvised.- 
It is true my taking the seat might ensure the election of a 
Whig U. S. Senator & if so I would submit to any personal in- 
convenience or even humiliation, which did not involve dis- 
honor. - Please give me yr. advice immediately. 

I have now said all I intended on the contemptible scuffle in 
which I am engaged. But I have not room left in which to 
pour out my heart in expressions of gratitude to God, & of 
triumph as a patriot for our recent glorious victory achieved 
on the 7. Nov. & still less room have I to express my individual 
thanks to you for the brilliant & effective services rendered by 
you in this great struggle for freedom against the most profli- 
gate & dangerous party which has ever weilded the sceptre of 
Political power in America. — 

I see the Prest. has shot Parthian arrows 57 in his late mes- 
sage, at which I knew not whether the American people ought 

67 When Congress convened in December, 1848, Polk delivered a message in which he 
advocated the extension of the Missouri Compromise line as a solution of the slavery question. 
Collamer. of Vermont,, compared him to a lawyer "who, being reprimanded for contending 
against the opinion of the judge, replied that 'he was not rearguing the case, but damning the 
dectston.'" McCormac, James K. Polk, 717. 

134 State Department of Archives and History 

most to be pleased, or filled with indignant contempt.- no 
doubt it was written before the late election; if not, it is in 
singularly bad taste to say the least of it, as the very doctrines 
censured by him, are by that election vindicated most tri- 
umphantly. - 

I have not deemed it necessary to say a word or write a line 
to any friend on a subject, which considering my peculiar situ- 
ation & yr. fraternal kindness in regard to it, might be ex- 
cused, were I to consult you whether I should write or speak 
to anyone. - You understand me as alluding to what you have so 
kindly & so frequently mentioned not only to me, but to other 
friends in the event of a Whig being elected Prest. — And now 
my dear & valued friend I must pray you to pardon me if there 
be the least indelicacy in asking you what I ought to do touch- 
ing that matter. — It is of such deep & indeed vital importance 
to me that I can scarcely be silent & yet cannot bring myself 
to say a word. - Gov r . Graham wrote me immediately after 
the result of the election was known & assured me without any 
allusion to it by me, that he & yourself & Mr. Badger would 
leave no stone unturned — I knew as much of all three I thought 
before the receipt of his letter, but must confess I was touched 
by this instant & ardent expression of his feelings & was as well 
convinced of the cooperation of yourself as if I had reed. 20 
letters announcing it, from yr. hand. Write me this week here, 
if after, to Raleigh May God bless you & yours & may he forget 
me when I cease to appreciate yr. long continued & unchanging 
kindness & even affection, for your unworthy but devoted 

H. Waddell 


Asbury Dickins to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington 13 Jany '49 

My dear Sir, 

For these ten days past, I have been looking for you daily. 
I trust that your absence is not caused by indisposition, either 

The Mangum Papers 135 

of yourself or any member of your family. A few evenings ago 
I was at Boyds where I saw your friends Atchison, Cameron 
and Hannagan. 1 They wanted to know when you would be here. 
I told them I was myself anxious about your detention at home, 
and meant to write. They desired me to say that they have an 
excellent room in reserve for you, and expect to see you then. 

On thursday evening there was a charming party at Mrs. 
McCaulay's at the Navy Yard. We all missed you very much. 
Bedford Brown who was there, and with whom I had some 
friendly conversation about you, spoke in the warmest terms 
about you. Of this I will tell you more when we meet. 

I think your presence here is now very desirable on public 
considerations. You will have seen by the papers, that the South- 
ern members are to meet on Monday evening. 2 Your counsels are 
too valuable to be wanting on such occasions. 

My family unites with me in the kindest regards to you and 
to our esteemed (though personally unknown) relatives Mrs. 
M and the young ladies, and your son. 

Believe me, dear Sir, always and sincerely your friend 

A. Dickins. 
Hon W. P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 3 

Senate Chamber 
evening session. 1 st . March 1849 

My dear Sir. 

I have but little time to acknowledge your favor, & to Say, 
that nothing can be conjectured with an approach to Certainty, 

1 He refers ro David R. Atchison, Senator from Missouri, Simon Cameron, Senator from 
Pennsylvania, and Edward Allen Hannegan, Senator from Indiana. 

2 On December 21, 1848, David Gott, of New York, offered resolutions in the House of 
Representatives in favor of prohibiting slave trade in the District of Columbia. It was passed by 
a vote of 98 to 88. This culminated the growing hostility over the slavery question of which the Wil- 
mot Proviso was an important part. Several Southern Congressmen held a private caucus and ap- 
pointed a committee of five to call a meeting of Southern members whenever necessary. That 
committee now called for a caucus on December 22 of all Southern members of Congress. In 
that caucus T. H. Bayly, of Virginia, proposed an address to the Southern people, but A. H. 
Stephens and Calhoun had the group agree to leave the matter to a committee to report on it before 
January 15. A committee of 15 representing the 15 slave states was appointed. Stephens was 
chairman. On Monday, January 15, 1849, the committee reported an address drawn up by 
Calhoun. Stephens and all other Whigs of the committee tried to delay or defeat the adoption 
of the address, and, when they failed, many Whigs stayed away from an adjourned meeting. 
Berrien tried a mild address, but it was voted down. Calhoun's Southern Address was the result, 
although Whig opposition had reduced it to a Democratic rather than Southern address. Wiltse, 
Calhoun: Sectionalist, 377-387. 

^he original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

136 State Department of Archives and History 

in regard to our friend Waddell, until after the appointment 
of the Cabinet. - This morning we had intimations that may be 
relied on. - 

Clayton, State dept. - probably Laurence, for the Treasury - 
McKennon, for the Navy. _ Crawford of Ge°. for the War - Ewing, 
for the Post Office dept. - & Preston of V a . for atto. General. - 
If Laurence shall not go into the Treasury, Meredith of Phila: 
will - In that case, Laurence, for the Navy - The former cast, 
the more probable. - 

It is not satisfactory, by any means. - The atto. Gen. an utter 
failure, & will break down, the first term of the supreme court. - 
As to the Mission to Spain, I am, in every sort of form, com- 
mitted to M r . Waddell against all Comers, & yet he will have 
much difficulty. - Yesterday, I talked, the first time on the sub- 
ject With M r Badger. - He goes for Stanly & Waddell both. - Stan- 
ly for Madrid -. & Waddell for Mexico. & will push in a peremp- 
tory manner - He cannot get both & possibly, not to say probably, 
will fail for both. - Besides Barringer 4 has been pushing for 
two or three Months for the Mission to Spain, & has made the 
strongest appeals to me &C. - He has active friends among the 
originals. - 

With the kindest feelings toward M r . Barringer, I have told 
him, it is impossible for me, with any regard to my engagements, 
to go for any one before Waddell. - After him, if two missions 
can be had for N°. Ca. I shall with pleasure, say all for him that 
I think he deserves. - But at the Same time, shall feel bound 
to Speak in like manner for other aspirants. - M r . Badger does 
not entertain with favor M r . B's aspirations. 5 

Thomas Cain G to Martha P. Mangum. 

At Home March 2nd 1849 
My dear Cousin: 

I have been desirous of coming to see you for some time, 
but could not fulfill my wishes or intentions, for I have now 

4 Daniel M. Barringer was appointed by Taylor minister to Spain. He served from 1849 to 

6 The remainder of the letter is missing. 

e Son of William Cain, Jr., and nephew of Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 137 

to attend to the Farm all the time. You may know then that I 
have turned Farmer, & am termed, by my associates Farmer 
Cain in lieu of Brother Sterling. 

I must pray your pity & sympathy & consolation, for in 
truth, I am in need of them All. For 'tis a life I truly detest. 

I trust & pray (if I may use the expression) for I fear you 
are tired of this nonsense & egotism But, indeed, if I leave off 
foolishness I am undone, for forsooth, I know nothing else. I 
have been but once to see cousins Sallie & Mary It was not 
caused by inclination, (far from it) but necessity, which, you 
know is the ruler of all things. But if you come up I think I 
can over come necessity & all other obstruction. But will I do 
this for you alone. 

As for news I know none. Do you know that at Judge 
Baileys Mrs. Wills, Miss Brownrigg, & Miss Long of Miss. They 
have been expecting to leave the Burg for some time All too 
quite sweet & lively still here propossing to go all the time. 
Will stay a month or two longer I expect. 

Miss Brownwigg is engaged to Mr Henry Waddell or such 
the report which I suppose to be true as they are very loving. 
He's the eldest son of Mr Hugh Waddell Senator from Orange 
Your are heartily tired I know so I will conclude Excuse all 
mistakes, blunders, etc, as Brother Wm's going on at a great 
rate in here & therefore don't know what I am about. 

Love to all. 

Believe me your ever, 
[Addressed:] Thomas Cain. 

Miss Martha Mangum, 
Walnut Hall 

M. L. Davis 7 & Others to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York March 27th, 1849. 

The young men of the city of New York have resolved to 
celebrate with an appropriate festival the birthday of Henry 
Clay on the 15th day of April next. 

7 See above, III. 290n. 

138 State Department of Archives and History 

This day has been selected in consequence of our local elec- 
tion taking place on the 13th of said month. 

Among other distinguished gentlemen of the Country we 
are directed to invite you to honor the occasion with your 

The Young men of New York will greet your coming with 
a warm welcome. 

Very respectfully 
in behalf of 
J. P. Phoenix A. R. Lawrence 

T. E. Tomlinson M. L. Davis 

To the Chairm of the Committee. 


Willie P. Mangum. 

Sion H. Rogers 8 to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh March 29th 1849 
Dear Sir: 

It is the general impression here among Whigs & Democrats, 
that Mr. M c Rae 9 will be turned out of his office- District Attor- 
ney for N. C. — owing to the fact that he was President of the 
Cass & Butler Club in this place and that he took a tour through 
the State East of this place- speech-making- New Bern, North- 
ampton &c- If it be so I should be pleased to receive the appoint- 
ment- You can refer to any member of the Bar in Raleigh. Ex 
Gov. Graham or any other professional man- who knows me, I 
shall be obliged to you to take some interest for me, if you wish 
any information at all wright to G. W. Haywood, who suggested 
to me to wright you this letter I remain yours &c. 

Sion H. Rogers 
[Addressed:] Forwarded 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain Orange Co 

8 Sion H. Rogers, 1824-1874, graduated from the state university with the second highest honor 
in 1846. After suidying law with Judge George E. Badger, he began practice in 1848 in 
Raleigh. He was a member of Congress in 1853-1855 and 1871-1873. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 
1476; Battle, Hist, of U. N. C. I, 499. 

"Duncan K. McRae was appointed United States District Attorney in 1843. Norton, 
Democratic Party in N. C, 187. 

The Mangum Papers 139 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 10 

March, 1849 
Dear Sir. 

I send you in addition to my letter, the first no. of Gen: 
Duff Green's Paper 11 . 

Look into it, & you will see the whole ground. - I know 
that paper & the course taken are in accordance with M r . Cal- 
houn's v[iews] & sentiments & advice, he for the f[irst] time, in 
twenty years having given up Presidential aspirations [torn] 
in advance of the trial. - 

M r . C. said to me "the day of Statesmanship has passed. 
The intrigue or the military w d . take, & he thought the only 
policy left, was to go into canvass pell-mell." - after all that 
has passed, some of our Purists I sh d . think, would not be 
overzealous to try the S°. C a . copartnership just now. If they 
do. & succeed, theirs will not be the Lion's part. 

Yrs truly 

W. P. Mangum 
To Gov. Graham 

John Minge 12 to 

Richmond Apl 12 1849 

Dr Sir— 

I am a candidate for the appointment of Marshal of this 
district and avail myself of yr kindness & friendship so often 
manifested towards me to present me to the proper authority - 
The present incumbent is Edmund Christian one of the bitterest 
Democrats & who has always said he would not serve under a 
Whig President and said publickly in the life time of Genl 
Harrison that he would resign, he did not do so however, of 
course was continued under Tyler, being the uncle to his wife, 
and was the very man pitched on by Ritchie through whom 
Tylers ear should be reached, and had more influence over 

10 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 
n Not in the Mangum Papers. 
^See above, IV. 327n. 

140 State Department of Archives and History 

him than any other man in the state, and was the chief in- 
strument of his cecession from the whig party, this I do know, 
and if it were necessary could have the evidence of Jno Syme 
of Petersbg Judge Jno F. May & Wm Robertson, of Jas Lyons 
& Wm H Macfarland of this City to prove that I had every op- 
portunity to know — 

As you are very well aware, I was the P. Master at Peters- 
burg appointed by Tyler immediately after the death of Har- 
rison, and as he (Tyler) told me himself by way of rebuke, 
was the only man appointed by him, who voted for Clay, which 
I shall always consider as Glory enough for me, you know 
too with what satisfaction both to the people of Petersbg and 
to the Dept. I filled the appointment, and the unusual & agra- 
vated manner of my removal, if it has escaped yr memory I 
refer you to a recent letter to Mr. Colamer P.M.G. If it is 
necessary I could obtain the signatures of every Whig in the 
City, but in case this appointment should be confered on me, I 
will through you promise forwith to resign if any whig in the 
district not himself a Candidate, shall object to it - and whilst 
I promise this, under any circumstances I must through you, 
also, urge on the administration the removal of all such men, 
as I can assure you, that to the sickly sensibility of the Whigs 
on the subject of removals do the democracy owe their as- 
cendancy in Virginia- 

Yrs Very Truly 
& Sincerely 
Jno Minge — 

P.S. If there is no impropriety I know of no other better 
means of presenting me than to deliver this letter with yr. en- 
dorsement to the proper authority. 



William J. Alexander 13 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Charlotte April 13th 1849 
Dear Sir 

I received your very kind letter from Washington dated the 
30th ult. I write now to correct an impression which seems 

M He was superintendent of the Charlotte mint after Green W. Caldwell resigned to go to 
the War with Mexico. 

The Mangum Papers 141 

to have made on you that during the last Presidential campaign 
I was an active political partisan making violent political har- 
angues &c. This my dear sir as I stated in my letter to you is 
not the fact. Since my appointment to the office I now hold I 
have carefully abstained from any such course believing it 
wrong in principle - altho really an office holder here is a less 
calculated to exercise any influence than if he were stripped 
of it for his motives would be and often properly be suspected 
as proceeding from the deepest personal interest. I had nothing 
to do with the removal of Col. Gaither, 14 and was appointed by 
Mr. Polk from personal kindness in a great degree to succeed 
G. W. Caldwell who was a volunteer for the Mexican War. I 
do not write this letter to procure me further aid but simply 
to remove from your mind a very erroneous impression which 
some kind friend has no doubt suggested to you. It is not in 
my nature to be violent as you well know. Will you let me know 
who will probably succeed Genl. Saunders 15 I see your name 
connected with it. Is it so. My friend Barringer who was here 
the other day but being absent I did not see him, does not seem 
confident of obtaining the office as he informed his friends here. 
I would be glad to hear from you again at your leisure — 

I am dear Sir with respect 
Your friend &c 

Wm. J. Alexander. 
The Honble 

Willie P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington City 15th. April 1849. 
My dear Love. 

I feel that you have many reasons to complain of me. - & 
yet, you have not. - I am unhappy. I am embarrassed. I have 
suffered everything. - 

I know you have always been mine, & true to me; & I would 
suffer more than martyrdom; not to be true to you. - J love you, 

14 Burgess S. Gaither was superintendent of the Charlotte mint under Tyler. 

15 R. M. Saunders was minister to Spain before D. M. Barringer was appointed in 1849. 

142 State Department of Archives and History 

my Love, above all the world; and if I did not, I should despise 
myself. - I love my children next. - 

Yet, I have been so unhappy, that I could not write you, 
a word. - You saw, or heard I was living - that was all. I de- 
sired to go home. 

My dear Love - my dear Wife, - I would suffer death, rather 
than not be your husband while you live - & after your death, 
I would die, rather than have another, - if I survive you. - 

I think you are the best person, I ever knew- I hope the 
very best. - & my dear Love, bear with me, as one loving you, 
more than any one, living or dead; & thinking, I have reason 
to have that feeling, - I have been looking after the interests 
of you & yours, & mine. - I shall, God willing, be at home in a 
week or a little more.- 

My dear Love, My dear Wife, be as you have always been - 
Your husband's friend, standing by him against all the world. - 
As your Husband, now & always; goes for his wife & children 
against all the world.- 

I mean not anything unreal.- We are old.- You have done 
all your duties to me, & as the Lord liveth, you are dearer to 
me than the mines of Feather River, or Sacremento, with all 
their riches - & all the world besides - next our dear children.- 

Let us meet, God willing, as always, your most affectionate 

Willie P. Mangum. 

C. L. Hinton to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh Apl 17 th /49 
My Dear Sir 

There is a good deal of feeling in our town about the Post 

Mr Lemay 16 one of the applicants, you know is a highly 

respectable citizen and I have no doubt his appointment would 

be gratifying to nine tenths of our Whig friends. 

There has been a recommendation for the continuance of 

the present encumbant- signed by Mr Lemay and many other 

"Thomas J. Lemay, editor of the Star. 

The Mangum Papers 143 

Whigs- This recommendation was gotten up about the first of 
March before the question was stired- and most of those who 
signed Whites 17 recommendation have since signed others- 

If you are desposed to interfere in this matter you could [not] 
aid a more worthy man than Lemay 

Yrs truly 
C L Hinton 

On your return from Washington cant you give us a call — 

W. S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum. 

Wyenton Va. 
April 22d. 49 

My dear Mangum 

The letter you enclosed was of date the 8th of March. 
The writer deserved the loss of his object, by trying to defraud 
the Post Office of 5 cents. 

As to the "Taylor Concern," 18 of which you speak, I have as 
little responsibility as you in making it up, having not only 
been employed, as you know, but not even consulted. From your 
staying so long at Washingtn. I suppose, you are seeking some 
high post, I hope the mission to England; which as it will not be 
offered to me, I should be glad to see given to you, being one 
of those persons I am willing to see preferred to me — 

Yrs. Cordially &c 
W. S. Archer 

Hon Mr Mangum 

17 William White was the postmaster at Raleigh. 

18 Most of Clay's strong friends had little influence with Taylor. 

144 State Department of Archives and History 

J. W. Hall 19 to Willie P. Mangum. 

St. Louis, April 24th 1849 
Hon: W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

I left Washington on the 1st April, and arrived here 
just in time to see the last of our little daughter, ten years old, on 
whom we had lavished our whole affections, and who had been 
educated almost entirely by Mrs. Hall and myself. For mental 
developments, she was the most remarkable child I have ever 
seen in my whole life. I got here on the 10th & on the 12th she 
expired, after an illness of fifteen days. 

My wife was in ill health, and this stroke seems as if it 
would take her life. 

As you know, I told you that my friends desired me to per- 
mit them to ask for me, some foreign appointment; at the time, 
I did not know whether to do so or not, but now that I find my 
wife in such a state of distress, I have agreed to do so; but they 
ask me to support their effort, by getting a few letters from a 
few of my friends — I told them I would do so, by applying to 
a few of my old friends, viz: Hon. James T. Morehead, Judge 
Underwood, Gov. Thos. Metcalff and Gov. J. J. Crittenden of 
Ky, and also that I would ask the favour of one from you, as 
one of the Senators from my native State. 

They have fixed on the office of "Charge d'Afaires" at Stock- 

As I have lived in many parts of Europe, and speak the 
French nearly as well as my own tongue, as well as German and 
Italian well, they think with my business habits, I would fill 
such station well, for which I feel much obliged to them. After 
my return from Europe, I accepted of Professor of Theory and 
practice of Medicine in the St. Louis University, where I have 
served for the last ten years, besides attending to a large, pri- 
vate pratice — But, I have now resigned, and am free to go 
whither I may find it best for my wife's health. I therefore wish 
the favor of you, to write to [sic] letter in my behalf, to Mr. 
Clayton, and send it to me, and I will hold it with those of other 

10 A Joseph W. Hall was a physician in St. Louis in the 1850's. St. Louis Directory, 1859. 
p. 206. 

The Mangum Papers 145 

friends, to be sent by them to the department. I wish you, also, 
to be so good as to write to me, giving me your advice about 
the matter. 

I have held several important offices, none of which I ever 
sought, but in this, though I can make no direct application, I 
feel so much interest for it, that I will aid by asking a few 
friends to give it their support. I do not think that men who hold 
offices, should be the seekers — but their friends, or the people. 
In this instance, I confess I would most gladly accept. 

With the highest regard, 
esteem & respect 
I am, dear Sir, 
Your Hble. & obt. Srvt. 
J. W. Hall. 

N. B. As you know, I am well acquainted with Pres. Taylor. 
Please let me hear from you as soon this comes to hand. J W H 

John Pendleton 20 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Redwood Culpeper Cy Virginia 
April 30th 1849 
My Dear Sir- 
By the most extraordinary combinations you ever heard of, 
I am beaten for Congress - Six hundred Whigs of the district 
by the aid of the entire loco foco vote have defeated the earnest 
wishes of three thousand of their own brethren and broken down 
probably for years the ascendency of their own party in the 
best Whig district of the State - I shall in a few days make in 
the papers an exposition of the affair & send it to you. 

Meantime I am brought to a very serious crisis & on this 
account I write to you. 

You are aware perhaps that without any agency of my own, 
my name was at an early date placed before the Cabinet of 
Genl Taylor, for one of the Foreign Missions — Spain or Brazil, 
or Mexico or Chili - All equally acceptable and the only ones 
I would accept, of the whole batch — 

*>See above. Ill, 158n. 

146 State Department of Archives and History 

Now My Dear Sir, if it be entirely in accordance with your 
judgement and feelings to do so, just enclose to me at Washing- 
ton City a letter to Genl Taylor, as strong as you are authorised 
to make it. You know my relations to his party and my part 
in the movements which resulted in his election. I had not con- 
templated any solicitation of assistance - and would not have 
made any but for the event which has just occur 'd- Pardon me 
if I presume too much upon your friendship, in supposing that 
you are inclined to serve me- And do not, if you have the slightest 
difficulty about it, permit yourself to be for a moment embar- 
rassed by my application 

I am very respectfully 
and truly 
Your friend 
Jno Pendleton 
Judge Mangum- 

Committee of Memphis to Willie P. Mangum. 

Memphis Tenn. May 4th/49. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 


A convention is to be held in Memphis on the 4th 
Day of July next, 21 for the purpose of aiding, by the expressed 
will of Citizens from every part of the country, the project of 
constructing a Rail Road from the valley of the Mississippi to 
the Pacific Ocean. 

With much pleasure we have witnessed that the people of 
the country are Sanctioning the proposed measure by their 
deliberate approval. — 

We are aware, Sir, that the great enterprise to be successfull 
must be assisted by the prominent men of the Union, where 

ai On July 4 a preliminary meeting was held, but the main convention did not meet until 
October 24, 1849. Representatives from New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Missouri, and 
most of the Southern stares were present. M. T. Maury was chosen as chairman. The convention 
which the delegates labelled a "national convention" proposed: (1) a railroad to the Pacific; 
(2) a ship canal or railroad across Mexico or Central America; (3) a military road to the 
Mexican frontier; and (4) the encouragement of oriental trade. The chief emphasis was the 
Pacific railroad. The convention advocated a survey of the different routes at Federal expense. 
John G. Van Deusen, "The Ante-Bellum Southern Commercial Convention," Historical Papers of 
the Trinity College Historical Society, Ser. XVI (1926), 27-31. 

The Mangum Papers 


elevated position enables them to direct public Sentiment and 
controll public action. — 

Deeply solicitous to avail the country of your aid and in- 
fluence, we invite you very earnestly to be present at the pro- 
posed convention, assuring you in behalf of our citizens a cordial 

Jno. T. Trezevant 

David Looney 

David Park 

R M. Winchester 

R. C Brinkley 

Jno. Pope 

R. B. Twyman 

Very respectfully 
A. B. Warford 
Robts. Topp 
H. Van Pelt 

Seth Wheatley Corresponding 
R. J Yaney Committee. 

James Penn 
H G. Smith 

John Hogan 22 to Willie P. Mangum 



Utica New York May 23/49 
Dear Sir 

Above I send you my professional card 23 in order that if 
you have any debtors ( other than political debtors many which 
you have in this State) you can send me your claims for collec- 
tion as to your political debtors these are a drove of horned 
cattle that I cannot touch with a forty foot pole- as to those 
who are indebted to you for your friendly acts the trouble is 
I would come in for a large share of liabilities myself. Since 
I had the pleasure of seeing you in Washington I have until 
the last few days been confined to my room but deeply im- 
pressed with old Father Richie 24 wailings & sobings & fearing 
that he may take it into his head to expatriate himself & take up 
his residence in the Fee Gee Islands I have mustered steam to 
buckle on the armour & pitch battle with "that good old soul" 

^See above. IV. 419n. 

^The enclosed card reads: John Hogan, attorney and Counselor at Law, Utica, N. Y. 

^In his campaign Taylor had insisted that he was not a partisan candidate; and yet when 
he got in office the pressure was so great that he removed most of Polk's appointees. Thomas 
Ritchie, who went to Washington from Richmond in 1845 to edit Polk's organ, the Washington 
Union, therefore, attacked Taylor's administration every day for its appointments in the spring 
of 1849. His language was strong and irritating. He did not even spare Taylor, the President. 
Dyer. Zachary Taylor, 322; Hamilton, Taylor: Soldier in White House, 215-216, 217. 

148 State Department of Archives and History 

Gen. Taylor' for the deep & painful wrongs he is perpetrat- 
ing every day in throwing overboard the appointees of your 
friend & pitches Mr Polk & Mr Buchanan with his head on one 
side if Gen Taylor does not cease his pouncing & devouring so 
many men good & true to Capt Richie & Gen Cass we will 
pitch into his negros at Baton Rouge & take them one by one 
down to New Orleans & throw them in to fill the crevasse in 
the Dike at New Orleans in order to prevent N. O. from inunda- 
tion. Now so much for so much You now see the bitter spirit 
of indignation he will engender when spured on by an injustice 
done our fellow man. to sum the matter up Gen Taylor & his 
friends are ransacking every nook & corner & scalding out of 
their pleasant abodes all the old Sturgeons- Now what say you 
to all of this "We have no enemies to prescribe or friends to 
reward" I will now cease my indignation at the old fellow & 
let Father Richie be taken down to Old Virginia 

You have I hope got through with writing recommendation 
for patriots who seek to serve their country in some official sta- 
tion Will you please to write to Gov Crittenden of Kentucky 
& remind him of his promise of one half a name for each of us 

We have at last proved that your friend Mr Daniel Webster 
of Mass voted for Gen Cass for the presidency 25 & how many 
more of the Bigs done the same than they themselves only 
know. We the Democracy are up & doing in this State We are 
each faction rowing their own Boat. I now have done indulging 
in my Johny propensity. I wrote the other day to Mr Calhoun 
to which I have as yet recve d no reply I am fearful for his 
health he takes a deep an interest in that d 1 - sh negro question 
I assure you I feel for his health. When Providence calls him to 
himself the brightest of the bright stars of our country sits there 
& only there will his high qualities be appreciated & just esti- 
mate be accorded to his worth & unsurpassed ability- when 
the period is about arriving that his noble spirit is to take its 
flight from its clay tenement (it will be surrendered up with 
that sweetness & confidence only known to the inocent Babe)' 
to that Merciful Providence who has so long blessed him with 
good health to reflect on his country the brilliancy of his ex- 
traordinary mind- you will pardon me for speaking this length 
of Mr Calhoun but my dear Sir you know my attachment for 

^Webster had been reluctant to support Taylor even after his nomination. Fuess, Daniel 
Webster, II. 190. 

The Mangum Papers 149 

him Be kind enough to write me in spite of this note. I hope 
Mrs Mangum & family are well Be kind enough to give my best 
wishes to your interesting little son & let me know how he 
progesses at his dancing school but more especially at the Col- 
lege please have him write me 

I have the Hon Sir to be 
Your Obt Servt 
John Hogan 

Hon W. P. Mangum) 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 26 
Private, except to yourself, & Mr. Waddell. 

Washington City 25 th May 1849. 
8 O'clock, P. M. 

My dear Sir: 

After the most strenuous efforts, that I have ever made in my 
life, I am beaten; & our friend Waddell will fail. — He cannot 
be appointed abroad. I have not been otherwise, than hopeful, 
until today I now regard it as fixed. — I have been here, (with 
the most unmanly reproaches at home, ag*. me), (which I mean 
to settle) to see to this, & some other matters. — Mr. Waddell 
cannot be carried with three interests, of supposed, nearly equal 
influence — & the administration will take a new name — & that 
will be William A Graham of No Carolina, to whom will be 
offered the mission to Spain or to Russia, at his election. — I 
regret this sincerely & profoundly; & yet, it is the result of a 
diversity of inclination between the Senators. — 

It cannot be otherwise, — Nothing can prevent it, unless a 
Visit of yours to Washington can. — That, I think, probably can- 
not. The Senators are understood to have made a point of this 
matter. & the adm n . are unwilling to make a point with either. — 
I understood, that both the Senators were bound in every way, 
that gentlemen recognized, to aid Mr. Waddell. I have gone it 
in good faith, I trust others, have done likewise. — Yet Mr. Wad- 
dell will fail, unless you can aid him. 

^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, Department of Archives and History, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

150 State Department of Archives and History 

Our friend Barringer is "no where," as the gentlemen of the 
Turf say. The real contest is between Waddell & Stanley. — 
Will you come on here? I go home at once. — As to Mr. Waddell 
coming on, it w d . prejudice him. — Col Paine 27 who is nearer to 
the President than any one, thinks so, as do I. — Paine has used 
all his influence for Mr. Waddell — a Very excellent man he is — 
but with no avail — The question then became, -Shall his com- 
petitor prevail? — He cannot, & shall not, unless dreadful re- 
prisals be made on the appointing power. — This notion of the 
"earlier Presidents" is fudge & foolery — & yet fudge & foolery 
have generally governed the world. The earlier Presidents ap- 
pointed generally, no one to a first grade mission unless, he had 
had the endorsement of his State as a Gov r . or had been in Con- 
gress. This notion kills Waddell, though he has certain qualities 
far above you or me to make himself agreeable to a proud & 
jealous people, such as will be found in Spain (Your modesty 
will admit it as to yourself. My Justice, admits it, as to myself) 
& yet either of us, might succeed, through purely adventurous 
circumstances, without regard to merit — but because we had 
been Senators etc. etc,. Early in this (here Mr. Barringer comes 
in). It is now nearly nine Oclock. — Will you come on? 

I must close. — Mr. B. to whom I have read what is written 
above, is much cut. — His heart is much in this matter. 

I write in his presence to get this in the mail, & therefore 
omit very much that I intended to say — I desired to say much — 
I cannot now say more, than these public men who rely upon 
the steadiness of public favor, may find themselves very much 

I will write you tomorrow, & leave for home the next day. 

As ever, Very truly, 
Y r friend 

Willie P. Mangum 

To Gov. Graham 

[Endorsed:] May 25 th 1849 

W. P. Mangum in regard 
to the mission to Spain 

STtobert T. Paine, 1812-1872, who held several state offices before 1846, was a colonel in the 
war against Mexico, the war governor of Monterey, and a member of the Mexican Claims Com- 
mission after the war. From 1855 to 1857 he was a member of Congress from North Carolina. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1382. 

The Mangum Papers 151 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 28 

Private & perfectly confidential, in all except, what relates 
to you personally. - 

Washington, May 1849. 

My dear Sir. 

I have always told you and Crittenden, that I was a better 
judge of "Horse-flesh" & public opinion, than either of you.- 
The judgment of both of you, was greatly disparaged with me 
& all sensible men, that you did not instantly give an implied 
assent to the truth of the statement- That you or either of you 
should have acknowledged it, openly, was not to be expected.- 

You succeeded once- & with my approbation- by a series of 
fortunate accidents- They cannot quite redeem you & Crittenden, 
from the imputation of errors of judgment. - 

You ( I mean, the admn. ) are gradually, losing power. ( I shd 
like to say, in what) There will not be another military admn. 
soon.- Though Gen. Taylor is the best of all of you, he can neither 
succeed himself, nor can another military man- not even ex- 
cepting my & your excellent & illustrious friend, Gen. Scott. 29 

The next administration will be either Democratic or Whig 
in a civilian.- Now, Sir, if this be true,- as I am sure it is,- it be- 
hooves many of you, to look to the future.- There are two Gentle- 
men in the Cabinet that might be induced to take the burthen 
of the Executive office- Mr. C. & Mr. E.- 30 as to Gen. Taylor he 
cares not a fig for it- the highest thing of the sort, since the days 
of Washington.- 

As to Crittenden, whom I not only, have every sort of con- 
fidence in, & respect for, but absolutely love him more than any 
Senator with whom I have sat, except one, perhaps, two,-he 
cannot succeed.- 

No Slave State can or ought, to succeed at the next turn.- 
Then it comes to a choice between a neutral man, as far as 
position indicates it, & one bound by the force of circumstances, 
to an immature, sort of strange fanaticism, mixed up with all 
sorts of political ingredients.- I assume, that the old pretenders 
to the Crown, are absolutely out of the question. - 

28 The original is in the John M. Clayton Papers, Library of Congress. 

^Despite this opinion in 1849, Mangum later supported Scott and was to a great extent 
responsible for his nomination in 1852. See below, 225n. 
^Clayton and Ewing. 

152 State Department of Archives and History 

Now my dear Sir, I see as plainly, as I see anything in the 
future, that the real contest for a nomination, is between the 
little State of Delaware, & the great State of Ohio.- & if the 
little State gets it, she will not only have many more chances 
of success- but bad as it may be, I go it with all my might. 

You are all infatuated if you think Gen. [T.] will succeed 
himself- He came in upon grounds absolutely annihilative of 
that idea & that result. 

Keep yourself well, with the north & No. west. You are 
well enough, with the so. & so. west.- 

Have the California question settled- You have much 
power to aid in the settlement of it. This is a sort of strange 
thing to write- Your "high official station" as my colleague 
says, denies me the opportunity to talk to you.- I mean to leave, 
in two or three days, & shall not have a chance to see you, ex- 
cept upon official business. 

But thank me!- It will turn out, that I am right. 

You may be the next President, (if you live) & if (again) 
you will be wise- If it be not you, the President will be a Demo- 

All other notions- especially military- I tell you, will utterly 
fail- Mark that again! 

Keep this hasty note, to Vindicate my character for sagacity, 
when I shall have gone hence.- 

As ever, Very truly, 
Your friend & Sevt. 
Willie P. Mangum 


The Hon. John M. Clayton of Delaware 














The Mangum Papers 153 

Abraham Lincoln to Willie P. Mangum 31 

Springfield, Ills. June 4 th 1849 
Hon: Willie P. Mangum: 

Dear Sir: 

I understand the President has determined to give 
the General Land Office to Illinois; 32 and if you would quite 
as soon I should have it as any other Illinoian, I shall be grate- 
ful if you will write me to that effect at Washington, where I 
expect to be soon — 

A private despach from thence, tells me that appointment 
has been postponed three weeks from the first Ins* for my bene- 
fit- No time to lose- 

Your Ob* Serv*. 
A. Lincoln 



of the 


Raleigh, N. C. 

[7 June, 1849] 

This Institution is located in an airy and healthy situation 
on the North side of Raleigh, about a half mile from the Capitol, 
and combines all the advantages of town and country. The 
grounds embrace nine acres, which are in a state of cultivation 
and improvement, and when completed will afford ample space 
and facilities for exercise and amusement. The buildings and 
all the domestic arrangements are adapted to school purposes; 

31 The original is in the possession of Mangum Weeks, Alexandria, Virginia. This letter 
has been previously published by Paul Angle in his New Letters and Papers of Lincoln, Boston, 
1930, 56. Mr. Angle there states that the original is in the possession of the Harvard University 
Library. Later in a letter to Mr. Weeks, Mr. Angle acknowledged the error. Harvard University 
Library has also acknowledged that the original is not to be found in its collection. 

^In the presidential campaign of 1848 Lincoln worked for Taylor but he himself was 
defeated for Congress. Anxious to obtain a Federal appointment, he wrote to many friends to 
obtain their support. Before the election he had promised to support Cyrus Edwards for com- 
missioner of the land office. Edwards decided not to push his claims. Then Justin Butterfield, 
a Clay supporter, made application for the post. This angered Lincoln, who wanted it for himself. 
Because of the uncertainty of Edwards' application, his hands were tied. Eventually he withdrew 
his application. Albert J. Beveridge, Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1858, Boston, 1928, II, 190-195. 

^This is a printed circular. 

154 State Department of Archives and History 

and as the property is owned by the present occupants, the 
School may be regarded as permanent. Whatever may be the 
state of the Principal's health, the exercises of the School will 
go on regularly, under the direction of Mrs. Finch, and such 
assistants as may be associated with her. 

It is the design of this School to give to young Ladies a 
thorough English Education, with instruction in such ornamental 
branches as are usually taught in the best Seminaries. A regular 
course of English studies will be prescribed for all who enter 
the School; but as to other languages than the English, with the 
ornamental branches, parents and guardians can select as they 
are disposed. Having incurred considerable expense in fitting 
up the present establishment, and being determined to make 
it furnish all it proposes, we hope to receive, as heretofore, a 
reasonable share of patronage. We desire not a very large num- 
ber, as we believe that thorough instruction and discipline can 
be best secured in a School of such size, that each pupil can re- 
ceive a full share of attention from the Principal and one or 
two competent teachers. As we have had some eight or ten 
years' experience in this department of labor, we are not without 
hope of giving satisfaction to all reasonable patrons. 

Our charges are made as moderate as the expense of the 
facilities furnished will allow, and as we are certain it will be 
far better for all parties, payment will be required in advance. 

The government of the School is parental, and its rules are 
printed for the inspection of parents and pupils. 

To prevent rivalry and extravagance in dress, a uniform is 
adopted, consisting of purple Merino in Winter, and of white 
material in Summer. 

The Scholastic year is divided into two Sessions of five months 
each, commencing on the first of July and January; and at the 
end of each Session there will be a vacation of one month. Pupils 
who remain during vacation will be charged $10 extra. Each 
young Lady will attend to her own Wardrobe and Washing, and 
it is desired that no accounts shall be made in the City. 

Each article of apparel must be marked. A regular account 
will be kept of the recitations and conduct of pupils, and reports 
furnished to parents and guardians twice per Session. 

Pupils can enter at any time; but when entered, are respon- 
sible till the close of the term, unless excused by the Principal. 

The Mangum Papers 155 

Terms Per Session: 

Board and English Tuition, 
Music on Piano or Guitar, 
Use of Instrument, 
Drawing and Painting, 
Ancient or Modern Languages, 






J. J. Finch, Principal. 34 
June 7th, 1849. 

Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 35 

Saturday. 9th June 1849. 
My dear Sir. 

I have reed, your note & rise from bed,- being ill as I have 
been for three days, to enclose you two letters from Gov. Gra- 
ham.- I also enclose one, reed, this morning, from Mr. Gilliam, 36 
Speaker of the Ho. of Commons of No. Ca. a most judicious man.- 

I profoundly regret the growing appetite for patronage in 
N. C. The enormities of the two last Admns. have been so great 
as to arouse a Vindictive & retaliating spirit.- We have been 
Whig because we asked & cared for nothing- How it may be in 
the future, I know not- Use your patronage, so as not to injure 
us.- You are in possession of all my views on this subject, and 
let me repeat, that I have great confidence in my opinion, in 
regard to No. Ca.- Pardon this egotism in consideration of its 

I hope yet. Gov. Graham will yield to an obvious political 

Very truly Yr 

friend & obt Sert 
Willie P. Mangum 

The Hon: Mr. Clayton 

84 After attending Wake Forest College in 1836-1837. Josiah J. Finch became a Baptist 

minister. He served pastorates at Edenton, New Bern, and Raleigh, While pastor at Raleigh 

he and his wife opened the Sedgewick Seminary for girls. It ran from 1845 to 1850. The 

Sermons of Rev. Josiah J. Finch, Charleston, 1853; Paschal, History of Wake Forect College, I, 
626-627; Amis, Historical Raleigh, 96. 

^The original is in the John M. Clayton Papers, Library of Congress. 

^These enclosures were not found. 

156 State Department of Archives and History 

Thomas G. Holt 37 to Willie P. Mangum 

Holly Springs - Miss — pi 
10 th June /49.— 

My Dear Mangum - 

I hope you will not think me troublesome, when I call your 
attention to the subject, which caused my visit to Washington 
& on which occasion you manifested an interest in my behalf - 
The public papers, some months since informed us, that the 
appointment of Marshalls hitherto resting with the Sectry of 
State, had been transferred to the Bureau over which Mr. 
Ewing presides- While various appointments & removals have 
been made in this State, nothing has been done in relation to 
the Marshall for North Miss — pi- and I fear my application ;- 
together with your recommendation and that of our friend 
Peyton, has been overlooked or entirely neglected- If not, 
asking too much of you, I would feel under additional obliga- 
tions if you would communicate with Mr Ewing on the subject. — 

Is it possible that the Orange District is to go by default, and 
Venable be encouraged in preaching of his "Non intercourse," 
doctrines? — We have a hope in defeating Jake Thompson 38 in 
this district- If we succeede it will be owing to the disafection 
at present existing in his own party. — 

Respectfully & affectionately your 

Tho. G. Holt 

J. M. Clayton to Willie P. Mangum. 

June 17 1849. 
My dear Mangum, 

I am too unwell & worn down by the pressure upon me to 
go & see you. Oblige an old friend by coming to see him, and 

^Thomas Fletcher rather than Holt was appointed United States Marshal from Mississippi in 
1850. American Almanac, 1850, 123. 

^Jacob Thompson, the Democratic Congressman, who was later Secretary of the Interior under 

The Mangum Papers 157 

let him shew you truly, how unjust were your suspicions that he 
could possibly at any time have designed any disrespect to you. 39 
If you love me as I know you do, do come and let me talk with 
you and receive your sympathy to which I as an old friend, am 
entitled - not your complaints. 

Your friend, 
J. M. Clayton 

P.S. The press continues on my department day & night - 16 
hours a day! ! 

Hon: Willie P. Mangum 

Robt. T. Paine* to Willie P. Mangum. 

June 29th [1849] 
Dear Sir 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your note 
& the accompanying letters marked private which I have read 
by your permission. At the request of Mr Clayton I wrote to 
Gen. Edney informing him that the office of consul at Pernam- 
buco was for its fees a lucrative one. I do not know that I can or 
ought to strive to set aside the appointment made for a more 
lucrative one. It is such a one as you & I thought suited to Gen. 
Edney & I can in no way be brought to believe that the Honor 
of North Carolina is embodied in the worth or dignity of any 
office bestowed or that can be bestowed on Gen. Edney. I candid- 
ly think that this almost universal dissatisfaction with appoint- 
ments is derogatory to the character of Whigs & it will require 
not a great deal more evidence of this sort to satisfy me, that 
between the parties there is in fact no difference on principles 
but rather a scuffle for office. There appears from the tenor of 
one of the letters sent by you, that a voracious appetite for office 
has been gotten up in Western N. C. by some political doctor, 
which is to be satisfied only by the appointment of Gen. Edney 

^Mangum was disappointed that Clayton did not appoint the persons he recommended for 
positions in the State Department. 
*°See above, 15 On. 

158 State Department of Archives and History 

to one of two offices. To say the least of it, I think it a morbid 
appetite, to feed which would badly effect the general body 
politic & I cannot conscientiously assist in administering the 
food. I very much regret to learn from the tenor of your note 
that you hold no communication with the present Cabinet. I 
submit whether you are not doing injustice to yourself & to the 
Whig party, by such a course. You are compelled in your public 
capacity to foster one of the two parties of the Country & it 
is too true to be disputed, if you do not sustain this administra- 
tion, you will thereby give aid & comfort to the "enemy " I in- 
tend to leave town in the morning & will not probably return 
before fall. In the mean time wishing you health & happiness 
I am Very truly 

Your Obdt Servt 
Robt T Paine 

Hon. W P Mangum 

P S Enclosed I return the two letters as you requested 

Caleb Atwater to Willie P. Mangum 

Circleville O. Aug. 24, 1849. 
Dear Sir, 

Knowing you to be a farmer, I have forwarded to you a 
Report on the agriculture of this state. I stated to our whig rep- 
resentative in the legislature for whom I wanted one copy for 
you, and he instantly gave me 3 copies of that Report and one 
copy of each of our benevolent institutions Reports. Should you 
desire it I will forward them all to you by mail. I hesitated to 
send more because you might not wish to pay the postage on 
so many Reports, and I am too poor to pay the postage on them. 

So far as our counties Ross & Pickaway counties are con- 
cerned we shall send two reps. & one senator who will be whigs. 
Mr. C. N. Olds who gave me the Reports will certainly be one 
of them and I have requested Ross to give us Mr. Olds for sen- 

We, in Ohio are too much engaged in our own state affairs 
to think just now about the United States affairs. I need not 

The Mangum Papers 159 

tell you that Ohio voted by a larger majority than any other 
against Gen. Taylor, nor need I tell you that this state is by 
far less friendly to him now that it was last autumn. The entire 
Great Western Valley, Kentucky excepted, feels as Ohio does 
on that subject. Could I have had my wishes gratified in the 
formation of a cabinet, made up of yourself, Clay, Rives &c. &c. 
Taylor might have been popular, but as it is, with out even one 
man, at all fitted for his station, it is now perhaps, too late to 
retrieve what he has lost by appointments so disastrous to him- 
self and his country. However, who knows if he would throw 
off his worst enemies now using him for the most selfish pur- 
poses, and stand up like a man and be A PRESIDENT of the 
United States, in full, the people might rally around him once 
more? Surrounded as he is, he need not expect a single vote in 
the West, Ky. excepted. Why Sir, every man appointed by him 
in Ohio is in favor of Seward or Col. Doniphan 41 as his successor! 

It is my desire to spend the next Winter in Washington, 
provided that the U. S. Senate will appoint me to some station, 
say assistant sergeant at arms. I wish to see you all once more, 
and I have an old claim on the U. S. which your Body might 
duly consider and order paid, if they think it just, otherwise not. 

I doubt whether any one in the world would more gladly 
receive a letter from you than myself, but, I must stop and 
wishing you every thing you even desire subscribe myself 

Your old friend and 
Very humble servant, 
Caleb Atwater. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum ) 

U. S. Senator. ) 

41 Even before Seward went to Washington as Senator, he had courted the favor of Taylor's 
family in Baltimore, where they were living and where he made it a point to have a legal case. 
At Washington he continued this friendly attitude toward the family. President Taylor was 
captivated, too, and even allowed Seward to attend Cabinet meetings. Seward's rival in New 
York, Fillmore, the Vice President, lost influence with Taylor. The result was that Seward 
carried great weight in the Federal appointments, especially in New York. Hamilton, Taylor: 
Soldier in the While House, II, 167-170. 

160 State Department of Archives and History 


John T. Trezevant and others to Willie P. Mangum 1 * 2 

and Enclosure 

Memphis, September 1, 1849. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum, 


A National Convention of Delegates from every part of the 
Republic is called to meet at Memphis on the 23d., of October 
next, for the purpose of aiding the project of connecting the 
Mississippi River (and thereby the whole country) with the 
Pacific Ocean, by means of a great Central Rail Road highway. 

Very earnestly we invite you to be present, that we may 
avail the country of your name and influence in carrying out 
this great enterprise; which promises to place the trident of 
commerce, naval, military and political power in our hands; by 
centralising the United States between the continent of Europe 
on the one hand, and that of Asia on the other. We tender you 
the hospitalities of our city and shall be pleased with an opportu- 
nity, which shall enable us to assure you in person, how much 
we shall appreciate your visit. 

Very Respectfully, 

John T. Trezevant, Robertson Topp, 

James C. Jones, John Pope, 

M. B. Winchester, Robert C. Brinkley, 

H. Van Pelt, R. B. J. Twyman, 

David Looney, T. S. Ayres, 

William Armour, W. F. Tannehill. 


N. C. 


Memphis, September 1, 1849. 

A direct Western outlet to India from America and Europe, 
for more than three centuries an object of great magnitude 

42 This letter and the enclosure are printed. See above, 146. 

The Mangum Papers 161 

with civilized nations, is now within our means of accomplish- 
ment by constructing a Central Railway from the Mississippi 
river to the Pacific Ocean. 

To aid the work, a Convention of the people of the United 
States was called by a sister State to meet in Memphis on the 
4th July 1849. The citizens of Memphis hailed with delight 
this new enterprise, as characteristic of the progressive spirit 
of the age, and called for by high considerations of National 
import. In Mass Meeting, they appointed the undersigned a 
committee, charged with the duty of addressing their fellow- 
citizens of the United States upon this important question. In 
the discharge of the duty assigned us, we have adverted in a 
previous address, to such prominent advantages, Agricultural, 
Manufacturing Maratime [sic], Military, Commercial and Na- 
tional, as to us seemed obvious, and the people of the whole 
country, North, South, East and West, were invited to take the 
question under consideration, and send forth their delegates to 
meet us in council. The response to our solicitations, coming 
up from the public press of the country, from eminent states- 
men, from distinguished citizens of all parties, and from every 
section of the Union, and above all from the mass of the people 
in all the States, was such as to justify the assumption that the 
work can, must and will be done. The ravages of the cholera 
in the South and West, in June last, compelled the postponement 
of the Convention from the 4th of July to the 23d of October 
next. We are happy to say that the cholera has now entirely 
disappeared from the South and West, and the health of the 
country [is] completely restored. We again invoke the aid of 
our fellow-citizens. We invite every town, village and hamlet 
in the United States, to send forth their delegates, and in behalf 
of the citizens of Memphis, we tender to all who may honor us 
with a visit, a most cordial welcome. 

Henry G. Smith, Robertson Topp, Edwin Yerger, 

Lewis Shanks, Samuel Bond, Miles Owen, 

Levin H. Coe, E. J. Carrell, George W. Smith, 

Wm. T. Brown, Leroy Pope, ' TT ' 

Edwin Hickman, 

F. P. Stanton, James Conquest Cross, rj) AVID Park 

Seth Wheatley, James Penn, James Young, 

Spencer Jarnagin, Jacob Farrington, T. S. Ayres. 

162 State Department of Archives and History 

Duncan M Alpin* s to Willie P. Mangum 

Near Bolton's Depot, Hinds Co. Miss.- 
Sep 5th. 1849- 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir, 

In the "Fayetteville Observer" of the 21. Ult. I notice 
a paragraph taken from the ''Philadelphia News" stating that 
you were confined at Washington City, by "Chronic Diarrhoea." 
This is a subject of National regret. But aside from the deepest 
sympathy, and all considerations personal to yourself and fam- 
ily, the present aspect of National affairs renders it extremely 
desireable that you should be at your post during the next Ses- 
sion of Congress. Prompted by these views, I take the liberty 
of addressing you. 

Some few years ago, a Well was dug in this County, which, 
from the strong Mineral properties of the water was occasionally 
frequented by persons afflicted with various diseases. As might 
be reasonably anticipated some were benefited, while others 
wre probably injured. It was soon discovered, however, that 
all cases of chronic Diarrhoea were certainly & speedily cured; 
and not only Diarrhoea, but Dyspepsia, and various types of 
chronic affections have all been relieved- Indeed I have not 
heard of any instance of failure in that loathsome disease. — 
Here permit me to state what I know from personal experience. 
I had an attack of Diarrhoea in the fall of 1847. which gradually 
grew worse till the early part of the summer of '48, when the 
disease assumed the chronic form. The remedies usually pre- 
scribed having proved unavailing, my medical advisers urged 
me as a last resort, to go to "Cooper's Well." I was so extremely 
emaciated at that time, that I could with ease embrace the lower 
part of my thigh, or what had once been the calf of my leg, 
between my thumb and middle finger. In this apparently hope- 
less condition I was carried to the Well where I had remained 
but a few days when I felt evident symptoms of improvement, 
and in four or five weeks the disease was entirely checked, 

* 3 In 1823 before he left North Carolina, Duncan McAlpin was postmaster at Philadelphia 
in Robeson County and sheriff of the county. Mclver, Register of North Carolina, 45, 71. 

The Mangum Papers 163 

health restored, and the acquisition of flesh and strength was 
rapid & uniform In fact my health has been better since that 
time than for many years previous. 

As an evidence of the estimation in which this Well is held, 
I will only say that it was sold last week with a small tract of 
indifferent land for the sum of $30,000. This it will be recollected 
is within two miles of the "Mississippi Springs" the most fash- 
ionable and celebrated Watering place in this part of the world. 

"Cooper's Well" is 13 miles west of Jackson and 8 miles 
south of the nearest point of the Jackson and Vicksburg Rail 
road, at Clinton, where Hacks are always in readiness to proceed 
to the Well, or Springs. 

Not knowing whether you have returned home, I take the 
liberty of paying the postage of this letter, and requesting the 
post master to forward it to you. 

With fervent wishes for the restoration of your health, I 
am, Sir, 

With profound regard 
Your Obt. Servant 
Duncan M c Alpin 
Formerly of Robeson County, No. Ca. 

P. S. The water of Cooper's Well has recently been analyzed in 
New York and found to abound in health giving Minerals- The 
first question asked of the gentleman who carried the water 
there (only a bottle full) after the process of analization was, 
whether it had ever been tried for chronic Diarrhoea? for which 
and various other diseases it was pronounced a valuable remedy. 
I would send you the paper containing the analysis, but cannot 
lay my hand on it at present- 
ly Addressed:] 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

No Carolina. 

The P. M. Hillsboro' ) 

will please forward this. ) 

164 State Department of Archives and History 


Charles Manly to J. B. White, W. H. Owen & 
Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 

Executive Department 
Raleigh Sep 5th/49 


Messrs. J. B. White 
W. H. Owen 
W. P. Mangum Jr. 


Your communication on behalf of the authorities of Wake 
Forest College desiring a loan of a sufficient number of State 
arms to be placed in the hands of the Students of the College 
for the purposes of Military drill, exercise &c. &c. has been re- 
ceived — 

The power which the Governor possesses of making a loan 
of the Public arms is derived from the Act of Assembly of 1846, 
Chap. 2 & is limited to volunteer Companies of the Militia reg- 
ularly formed & enrolled. 

I regret that I am not able to grant your request. — 

I am Gentlemen 

with great regard & esteem 
Yr. Obt. Servt. 
Chas: Manly 

P. H. Mangum to [John Southerland Lewis] H 

Hillsboro', N. C. Sept 12th 1849. 
Dear Sir. 

I take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of your first & 
only letter to me, within the period of an acquaintance of more 
than twenty years — for which you are entitled to my hearty 

"Lewis failed to obtain the appointment. Instead, the Reveiend John Thomas Wheat, who later 
became Episcopal minister of Mississippi, was appointed in 1849 Professor of Rhetoric and Logic 
to succeed William M. Green, who became a bishop. Batde, Hist, of U. N. C, I, 524, 617-618, 

The Mangum Papers 165 

thanks. — Assuredly a proportionable attention to your other 
friends, during the same period, must have imposed on you an 
almost intolerable burthen; & left you but little leisure to brace 
yourself against the wear & tear, incidental to the ordinary busi- 
ness transactions of life. — "No more of that, Hal, an thou lovest 

I am pleased to learn from you, that you desire to fill the 
Chair of the present incumbent, the Revd. Dr. Wm. Green: and 
it would afford me & my children much happiness to know that 
your wishes in that respect were gratified. Your cousin Willie 
has no aspirations in that direction. I think the place would suit 
you - & you it; — and we much desire, that you would take all 
proper means to secure it. 

The complexion of the Board of Trustees, who will have to 
make the appointment, is not so definitely known to me, as to 
enable me, to hazard an opinion of the result. I know one thing 
— that the Presbyterians of the State have a hankering for that 
sort of power which the control of the Schools confers: And 
that public opinion in some measure, & a portion of the Trustees, 
in particular, have heretofore inclined strongly against intro- 
ducing into the University anything like sectarianism, or a mono- 
poly of the Professorships by any one denomination of Chris- 
tians. Hence a few years ago, they had an adjunct Professor of 
Logic &c who was a Methodist Clergyman; & within a few years 
they have introduced two Episcopalians. These inroads upon 
Presbyterian domination produced irritation & heartburns with 
that interest - but notwithstanding, I think, it may be safely 
assumed, that it is now the fixed policy of the Trustees to rep- 
resent in the persons constituting the Faculty, the different 
Christian denominations of this Country, as far as may be prac- 
tible - excepting always the Roman Catholic Church, which 
seems to be a great bug-bear to them all. — 

We live in a world where means must be used to attain ends. 
— Now you should lay aside all useless sensibility - of which you 
doubtless have a good deal, I should judge, from the mildness 
of your nature, the modesty of your deportment - your educa- 
tion manner of life. Your application ought to be backed by 
some of the public men of Georgia, who are most favorably known 
abroad. Letters to the Trustees, through the hands of Major 
Chas. L. Hinton, from Messrs Berrien & Govr: Crawford in 
particular, would have a most salutary influence. They perhaps 

166 State Department of Archives and History 

are better known here than any others of your State. In addi- 
tion, I would suggest that you procure letters from other public 
men of your State — & if you have acquaintance with other men 
of your State, known favourable as mere scholars or men of 
literature, get letters from them. — I in the mean time, will do 
what I can - & it will be of no little avail, that you be presented 
as a Southern Man; & if not exactly a North Carolinian, the 
Grandson of Col. Southerland. 

I must urge you to lay aside all false delicacy, & get suit- 
able persons to apply to such men as I have above suggested, 
for letters. As we say here to indicate an effort of energy - "The 
Bull must be taken by the Horns." I doubt not that your claims 
will be equal to those of any other candidate, provided they be 
pressed with suitable vigor. 

I hope you will let me know from time to time what you are 
doing & may have done, in regard to this subject. — 

We are all uneasy about my Brother. We hear nothing from 
him & fear something more than usual is the matter. 

Your friend 
P. H. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to William L. Long* 5 

Washington City. 21 st . Octo: 1849 
My dear Long. 

I regret to have delayed so long, a reply to your note of the 
17 th . instant. - I have not been Well enough to attend to busi- 
ness - nor am I now- therefore I shall be brief. - You refer to my 
supposed relations to the administration - I mean not to touch 
that subject, further than to say - that my position, whatever 
it may be, is the result of considerations wholly public, & not at 
all, of a private nature. - I am unconscious of any feeling of 
personal bitterness towards any member of the administration; 
nor have I reason to suppose, that any such feeling on the part 
of any one of them exists towards me. - 

I decline asking office for any one, for the reason, that I have 
hitherto met with no success in matters of most interest to our 

^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

The Mangum Papers 167 

State; & because, I may feel it my duty, in the future, to take 
position adverse to the administration, in some matters of ap- 
pointment, that possibly, some of its members may have much 
at heart. - You will see, that I cannot with delicacy, or scarcely 
with good faith, ask and receive favors, when I mean, to be left 
"as free as air," in the discharge of my Senatorial duties. - 

As to the justice or propriety of doing more for North Caro- 
lina - if she desires it - (& I could wish she might never desire 
any thing. ) - I suppose there can be but one opinion. - Compare 
her with Kentucky as to patronage - of nearly equal political 
weight - & the disproportion is as four or five, or more, to one : 
- & yet N. Carolina is the most reliable Whig State on the South 
of the Potomac, if not (excluding the "isms" [)] in the Union. - 

The only mark of respect, (if respect, it can be regarded.) 
shown her, has been dictated by other & not Whig States, & 
against the strongest expression - numerically, morally, & in- 
tellectually - that has ever come up, in my time, from that 
State. - 

But let that pass. - I must state, that last spring I wrote a 
letter for M r . Wiley, 46 presenting his name for a Charge-ship, 
or Consulship. - I also, in the summer, spoke strongly & en- 
couragingly, to Co 1 . Winslow, 47 for similar appointments, but 
declined making a direct application. - 

You will therefore readily perceive from these facts, that 
I cannot recommend any one, to the exclusion of others,-if no 
other obstacle interposed.- 

The testimonials you have filed are as strong as any that 
can come from North Carolina, & I know your standing well 
enough to know, that you could easily have them indefinitely 
augmented. - 

If my opinion, be supposed to be worth anything, it was 
frankly & fully expressed to the Hon: Secretary of State, in 
the spring, when in View of the difficulty of reconciling rival 
interests for a full Mission for N. C. it was under consideration, 
whether the substitution of two or more Charge-ships might 
not be expedient. 

You had not given me the slightest intimation that such an 
appointment would be agreeable to you; & yet, I said to the 
Secretary, that if such policy should be adopted, you would, 

46 Calvin H. Wiley. 

47 Probably Warren Winslow, of Fayetteville, the future speaker of the state senate and acting 
governor of the state. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 686; Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1719. 

168 State Department of Archives and History 

in my judgment, by the general concurrence of North Carolina, 
be placed at the head of the list for one of those appointments, 
or side by side, with the highest & strongest. - 

That is now my opinion. - 

I have received this summer, from different points, in North 
Carolina, the strongest letters, asking my aid, to obtain for you 
a foreign Mission. - I am perfectty sure, that they were written 
without your privity - & indeed without your dreaming of such 
a thing, - as Voluntary tributes of the good & kindly opinion, 
which I know, the Whigs of the State, entertain for you. - 

I wish I could readily lay my hands on the letters of Gres- 
ham, & Joyner - to enclose them to you. - They could not but be 
gratifying to you - for such praise, from so venerable & excel- 
lent a man as Co 1 . Joyner - I know less of Gresham - would be 
despised by no mortal man. - Yet, what could I do? 

I have thus far, spoken of your character & qualifications, & 
the estimate, in which I suppose them to be held, in North Caro- 
lina. - 

If my private feelings & wishes were to have any weight, in 
a question that ought to be looked at solely, as a public mat- 
ter - there is no one of your age (that I now remember) who 
has so many & strong claims upon my respect, my regards, & 
in a word, upon my grateful recollection of your steady, & un- 
wavering & most useful friendship & support. - It began with 
your boyhood - I trust, it will terminate only with our lives. - 

I wish it were in my power to serve you but you see, I am 
fettered & hampered in every Way. 

If you had opportunities of seeing more of the Secretary of 
State, I feel very sure, you would need little other advocacy - 
for the world - & truly too - allows him a large share of sagacity, 
& at bottom a kind heart. - 

If you shall be fortunate, I pray you to try to take care of 
our friend Winslow, and as far as you can, of M r . Wiley, if he 
will consent to be served. - 

With my best Wishes and regards, 
I am, Mo truly. 

Yr friend & Ob*. Ser*. 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Col William L. Long 
Penn. Avenue. 

The Mangum Papers 169 

William A. Graham to [Willie P. Mangum] 

[15 November, 1849] 

My Dear Sir 

Your note has just been handed to me — Having received 
your letter some weeks since, I had expected to hear from Mr 
Cain on the subject of it. But thus far I have had no communica- 
tion from him. I have however been absent for over two months, 
with the exception of a day or two, at the end of a week. 

I expect to go to Allemance Court on Sunday, and will be 
glad to have your company. On my return I will go to the Fed- 
eral Court, at Raleigh, & probably will not be at the Co Court 
of Orange. 

Very truly Yours 
W. A. Graham 
Novr. 15th, 1849. 

Abner Parker's* 8 Contract to Take Negroes to Georgia 

[17 November, 1849] 

Nov. 17th 1849. reed, of Charity A. Mangum, wife of Willie 
P. Mangum, of the County of Orange & State of North Carolina, 
the following slaves - viz: John & Hulda his wife, Stephen, Davy, 
Jesse & his wife Sarah, Duncan, Edmund, Caroline, & Judy & her 
child - which slaves I am to take to some eligible section of the 
State of Georgia & there hire them out untill the end of the en- 
suing year, to the best advantage; And take bonds, payable to 
Wm. Cain Senr. Trustee &c of the county & State aforesd., with 
good security, for the lives, for the humane treatment & for 
suitable clothing of each of the said slaves & for the delivery of 
said slaves, at some designated place in the county where they 
may be hired, to the said Cain or some authorized Agent: and 

* 8 See above, III, 44n. 

170 State Department of Archives and History 

the bonds so taken, I am to return to the said Charity A. Man- 
gum or to her said husband. — 

A. Parker. 


P. H. Mangum. 


Col. Abner Parker 
Charity A. Mangum 
rect for Trust Negroes 
(10 Grown & 1 child). 

J. B. Jones* 9 to Priestley H. Mangum. 

C. Hill Nov 22 - 1849 - 
My dear Sir- 

I am summoned to give evidence next court to give evidence 
on the case of Negro Wm Jones, on charge of hiring his own 
time, doing business in his own name I am inclined to believe 
this return maliciously made — The said Wm Jones was for years 
a faithful body servant of my father who is now dead - after- 
wards of my elder brother who is also dead - And who willed 
him free — That will, of course could not take effect — The negro 
belonged to my Mothers estate- She had never given a bill of 
sale for him — I was executor of that estate — and have settled 
it up long ago — The heirs would not agree-to have him sold- And 
I was advised in Chatham — where we then lived, to let him 
alone — In that county no one ever molested him-and he has 
never been charged with any misdemeanor. Here he has con- 
ducted himself with equal propriety- As soon as I heard some 
mention made of returning him to court some months ago, I 
took his property away from him, and he has since been work- 
ing in my name — Dr Mitchell 50 allowed him a place to live on — 

■"•Johnston Blakeley Jones, 1814-1889, was a student at the University in 1831-1836. Grant, 
Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 328. 

50 Dr. Elisha Mitchell, 1793-1857, a native of Massachusetts, was educated at Yale University, 
In 1818 he joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina. A naturalist, he traveled 
over much of the state and made reports of his discoveries. He measured the peak Mt. Mitchell, 
which was named for him. D. A. B., XIII, 45-46. 

The Mangum Papers 171 

I do not know anything better to do with him- He has a wife 
& children who are slaves - and he is too old to leave the State 
In search of another home. 

Very respectfully 
Your Obt Svt 
J B Jones 

To Prestly Mangum Esq 

Whigs of Norfolk to Whig Senators 51 

Norfolk, Va., Dec. 20th 1849 

To The Whig Senators of the United States:- Gentlemen; 

We, as Whigs of this City and District, beg leave respectfully 
to address you on a subject of deep interest to us as a party. 

Immediately after General Taylor went into office, we, in 
common with the Whig party, sought the removal of the Col- 
lector of this Port, Mr. Whittle, and solicited the appointment 
of Mr. Garnett 52 in his place. Both of these measures were ef- 
fected. Mr. Garnett had been prominent in his professions of 
Whig doctrines; and from his previous pledges and declarations, 
we believed he would prove true to himself and the party that 
placed him there, and faithful to the trust confided to his hands.- 
We are sorry to say we have been most sadly disappointed and 
mortified at his course; a course not only in conflict with his 
professions, but indicating a total forgetfulness of the position 
in which he is placed. He has introduced into the customs here, 
a system of Nepotism, alike condemned by all parties. The 
offices in the Customs here, as far as his action is concerned, 
are still held, (with two exceptions,) by Democrats appointed 
by his predecessor. To the principal or first office he has ap- 
pointed his Son; to the smaller office a Protege; neither of 
whom, as far as we are informed, has or ever had any claim 
whatever upon the Whig party; thereby setting an example for 
which no precedent is found to have existed even under a Dem- 
ocratic Collector here, and to say the least of it, an example a 

51 This is a printed circular. 

5a William Garnett was appointed Collector of Customs at Norfolk to succeed Conway Whittle. 
American Almanac, 1848, 103. 

172 State Department of Archives and History 

Whig consistent in his principles ought not to set nor follow. 
Contracts for work connected with the office, that should be 
submitted to the fair competition of the public, are given to 
some favorite at his own price, under the excuse that he, Mr. 
Garnett is under obligations to the individual to whom the work 
is given, because his name is on his official bond. 

Mr. Garnett has been complained to and remonstrated with; 
but he sets all such complaints at defiance, and altogether man- 
ifesting a state of obliviousness, to be a accounted for only upon 
the score of age and incapacity. These grounds of complaint 
have been laid before the Secretary of the Treasury who prom- 
ised to have the cause of complaint removed. At the hands of 
the Secretary we have had no relief; and are therefore com- 
pelled to look to the Senate of the United States, before which 
his name will be brought for confirmation of his appointment. 
We respectfully ask your aid in its rejection, as we not only 
think it justly merited, but what the public interest calls for, 
irrespective of all parties. 

We are, Gentlemen; 

Respectfully your Friends, &c. 

We 53 refer you to papers now on file in the Treasury Dept. to 
sustain the charge of official misconduct. 

Abner Stith 5!f to Willie P. Mangum 

Paris Ten. December 20th. 1849 

My Dear Sir. 

It has been a long time since we met, and perhaps you have 
almost forgotten that such a person as the one whose name 
you see subscribed to this, ever existed, while your own being 
recorded among the most distinguished men of the nation, has 
attracted the notice of all classes in the community. Our lots 
have been vastly different during the long time since we met 

53 The rest of the letter is in manuscript. 

M A native of Lawrenceville, Virginia, Abner Stith, graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1813, and became a tutor at his alma mater from 1814 to 1816. He moved to 
Tennessee, gave up the practice of law, became a planter and taught school. Grant, Alumni Hist. 
of U. N. C, 595; Livingston, Law Register, 1851, 562. 

The Mangum Papers 173 

with each other. You by the suffrages of your fellow citizens, 
have been elevated to the highest places in the councils of the 
nation, while I have led a comparative insignificant life. Though 
we differ in station and influence, yet we agree in political opin- 
ion, and nothing more completely than in the elevation of gen- 
eral Taylor to the presidency. I have always lived a very private 
life since I have been to this country which is some twenty years 
and more,- indeed so great was my fondness for private life 
that I retired from the practice of law when I first came to the 
west, and devoted myself to the cultivation of cotton. The failure 
of the cotton crop in this country is the chief cause of the very 
limited means which I now possess- for I followed it too long. 
For the last eight or nine years I have supported my family by 
teaching school- which with the patronage afforded to schools 
in this country is a precarious dependence. But now in my old 
age I would gladly procure some of the patronage of the gov- 
ernment, if there is an office or an appointment at disposal which 
I might be thought qualified to fill. And as you are a friend of 
long standing and possess great influence with the heads of de- 
partment, I thought perhaps you would cheerfully exert your 
interest in my behalf. I have a great desire to obtain the con- 
sulship in Cuba, if open to appointment. The present incumbent 
General Campbell has been for a long time in that station, hav- 
ing been appointed I believe by Mr. Van Buren, and even his 
political friends are in favor of rotation in office.- If that post 
cannot be obtained, some other appointment that would pay 
pretty well would be gladly accepted. As to my qualifications 
you have some idea, and for further satisfaction on the subject 
I refer you to general I. G. Harris the house member from this 
district, and with whom I have been for a long time personally 
acquainted. Though he is a political opponent, I think he will 
do me justice. This is the first time I have ever asked for a favor 
of the government; and should not at this time but for the 
ascendency of those principles which I have always maintained. 
Please urge my humble claim and let me know as soon as pos- 
sible the result and you will entitle yourself to the lasting 
gratitude of an old friend 

Abner Stith 

N. B. Please show this to Judge Badger and I have no doubt 
he will coopperate with you. 

174 State Department of Archives and History 

Asher Ayers 55 to Col. Abner Parker. 

[31 December, 1849] 
Col Parker 

Dr Sir 

As Orrange 56 & his wife Sara desirus that I should 
buy them, I will pay you on your return from Alabama twelve 
hundred & Seventy five Dollars for them & their daughter pro- 
vided they are as good as you recommend & sound - if I am 
sufficiently well pleased in the mean time shall not object to 
giving you twenty five Dolls more ($1300) if this arrangement 
suits you may send them in in the morning. 

Asher Ayers 
[word illegible] Dcr. 31/49 


C. L. Hinton to Charity A. Mangum. 

Raleigh June 13th 1850 
Mrs. Mangum 

I have just received a Tellegraphic despatch from Mr Man- 
gum dated on yesterday desiring me to inform you forthwith 
that he will leave in a day or two for home. He would leave 
immediately but as the vote on the compromise [of 1850] is 
expected to be taken he must necessarily wait untill that event 
which may possibly detain him a day or two. 

With the most sincere regard 
Your Obt Servt 
C L Hinton 

P. M. at Red Mountain be pleased to send this to Mrs. M. 
on it arrival 

C L H 

"Mangum's neighbor. 

"Orange was one of Mangum's slaves. 

The Mangum Papers 175 

Kittie Mangum 1 to Martha P. Mangum 

Sycamore Grove [Mississippi] June 14 th /50 

My dearest Cousin 

You cannot imagine for one moment how rejoyced I was 
on receiving your kind letter I had formed an idea that you had 
either forgotten or forsaken me but I am happy to say the idea 
was incorrect. Oh! my dear Cousin what pleasure it does afford 
me to hear from the land that gave me birth (N Carolina) The 
excuse that you forwarded in relation to your long silence is 
very plausible, and I will endeavor my cousin to forget the past 
and look forward to the future with sweet anticipation, when 
we shall have a verbal conversation. 

I have no news of interest to tell you. The Past season has 
been very disagreeable and in consequence of the rains the 
crops are very indiffernt Notwithstanding Father has a fine 
stand of cotton, and his corn crop is better than he has had for 
several years, Though it is of but little consequence as his mill 
produces him more than abundance. I had a most awful time 
getting home from Aberdeen — the prairies mud was from one 
to three feet deep for miles till we reached the timbered land, 
and I then had to encounter with high waters Father's carriage 
& driver, was three weeks from home I relate this mearly to 
give you an idea what a country ours is in winter but in 
summer it is quite the reverse, it is dry and pleasant. Father 
is much dissatisfied with the country and says he will move yet 
to a healthy country Though he is building him a fine house 
and making considerable improvements and still buying land 
which looks not much like it. he bought a half section a few 
days past adjoining him of the best of land from Maj Borland 
an agent for the Choctaw orphan Indians he is direct from 
Washington Citty and says Uncle looks very well and looks 
younger than Father. 

Father is trying to get Uncle Priestley to move and propose 
to settle near him provided he will move to a healthy country 
and a rich soil- Father think it will be to the interest of Uncles 
children to get to a new and healthy country; where they can take 
the start with the rising improvements of the same. 

daughter of Walter A. Mangum. 

176 State Department of Archives and History 

I am now going to school to a Miss Morehead a cousin to 
Gov Morehead of N C. & Gov Morehead of Kentucky so you 
see she is of great desent. Father gives her three hundred dol- 
lars, per year and has an Academy erected on his land half mile 
from home near a good spring; and we have preaching in it every 
third Sabbath by the Methodists at 11 O'clock & at four by a 
Babtist Minister I am still taking Music lessons and progress 
tolerably well but find some difficulties in it for Father will not 
let me go on without understanding the principal- Bettie & Lucy 
are also taking Music Lessons and other studies also my little 
brothers are going to the same school. & are learning very fast 

Well what shall I say of your name-sake; one thing I can 
say she is the smartest and the most beautiful child that I ever 
saw. and she is perfectly idolized by the family principally, for 
her name. Pa makes himself perfectly foolish about her. He says 
she is exactly like her Cousin Pattie. he says he loves her nearly 
as well as she loves you. he calls her Pattie Passons. let me give 
you a description of her- she is as plump as a pig has dark hair 
black eyes & Brunette skin, Mother says her eyes are as keen as 
Uncle Willie's, and with all a sweet and interesting child. But 
I still have my favorite and she is great deal more hansome than 
Pattie and I think more interesting, it is Mary, we call her Puss 
for affection Pa says she is very much like our Grand-Mother 
Mangum, she has white fleecy hair very delicate complection, & 
the softest hazle eyes that I ever saw and has a big Mouth which 
you know is hereditary with the Mangums . . . 2 

Father Mother & Children join me in love to you all. Write 
me soon. My Cousin ever remember me as your true and affec- 
tionate cousin 

Kittie Mangum 

As a memento of affection I send a lock of my hair and wish me 
one in return from you and also [illegible] of father's 

^Two paragraphs about Walter A. Mangum's health and Kittie's pets are omitted. 

The Mangum Papers 177 

P. H. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 

HILLSBORO , June 21 st . 1850- 

Dear Sir, 

The frailty of my Buggy Wheels forbids my taking Sally 
down- as I should have to carry an additional trunk, were I 
to accompany her. Willie therefore goes down to return on to- 
morrow; as it is indispensable for me to go to the Forest immedi- 
ately. — 

I send you the receipts for the money, applied towards the 
payment of your debts during your late absence from home. You 
will doubtless perceive, that they correspond with the accounts 
I have heretofore given you by letter- The evidences of your 
claims for the hire of slaves in Georgia- &C, are in the hands of 
Charity- to which you had better direct your attention- & make 
your arrangements, in due time, for the disposition of the slaves 
at the end of this year, & for the collection of the hires for the 
present year, when they shall fall due.- 

At the last Term of our County Court, was the regular time 
for taking Judgment by D r Young, upon a Bond- executed by 
you to him, & endorsed to a third person. The writ was returned 
at a former Term, & the claim is either in Execution or has been 
paid. That matter calls for your immediate attention, as the debt 
was primarily yours. & the writ was not executed on you by 
reason of your absence.- 

I wrote you last week but I learn you left Washington before 
my letter reached. In that I informed you that the Sh rf f did not 
sell your slaves at May court, for the reason that my notice to 
him of your failure to write me at the Forest, did not reach him 
in time to levy & advertise, by five days- and that the shrff 
expected at May Court, to receive instructions at an early period, 
to have the money- & upon receiving such instructions, he would 
have to proceed to sell on the first 4th. Monday of the month 
that then next ensued the time of such instructions .- 

It occurred to me, that in view of these things, that in carry- 
ing Charity to the North, you would not increase the necessary 
expense by incuring the unnecessary expense of carrying an un- 
necessary number of persons with her. But you know your 
pecuniary recources better than I do. — 

178 State Department of Archives and History 

I write you these matters now, lest I may not see you- altho' 
the children brought up word that you were coming to Hills- 
boro' before you left for the north.- 

It would be well for you to come up that your friends may 
see you. What you have here would be glad to see you. You could 
come up in my Buggy & Willie could ride up your Black mare, 
or one of the carriage horses, & you could return on the same 

Your attention to your stock, I think, is very necessary. It 
seems to me, that your stock of horses ought to be reduced down 
to the smallest number, for which you have a necessary use. 
Corn throughout the middle of the state, is now demanding from 
$3.50 - to $4. - pr Barrell ; & there is every prospect of the grow- 
ing oat crop being cut off by the drought- which is always an 
important crop in this country; and to say the least a gloomy 
prospect for a corn crop this year.- I will mention likewise that 
you would do well to have a settlement with Jno Lockhart, that 
he may account for the slave Simpson sold by him.- 


P. H. Mangum 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washt. 25th. June 1850. 
My dear Mangum 

Come back to us forthwith, if you possibly can. We shall 
be hard run, 3 if not defeated in the Senate without your vote. 
Sebastian 4 has come over to us, as confidently asserted, and as 
I believe. On the other hand, Berrien has left us, and Morton 
cannot be relied on for the Compromise. 

Your friend 
H. Clay. 
The Honble W. P. Mangum. 

3 In June, 1850, the extremists at the South were holding the Nashville Convention. Seward 
in New York was adamant in his views. Taylor was following Seward's lead. As a result of 
these forces, Clay became discouraged about the passage of the Compromise measures. Public 
opinion began to stir in support of the measures, but it was not powerful until after June. Mangum 
was in North Carolina at the time of this letter. Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union: Fruits of 
Manifest Destiny, I, 320-324; Van Deusen, Life of Clay, 406-408. 

*William King Sebastian, Senator from Arkansas, 1848-1861, although a Democrat, favored 
the Compromise. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1505. In the fight against the Omnibus Bill, John M. 
Berrien lined up with Jefferson Davis and John Y. Mason. Jackson Morton, Whig Senator from 
Florida, was opposed to the Compromise. Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, I, 313. 


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The Mangum Papers 179 

D. R. Atchison to Willie P. Mangum. 

Senate Chamber 
June 28th 1850 

Hon W P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

You must come forth with to this city, you are wanted. 5 
We cannot get on without you, and even with you the fate of our 
Bill, the ' 'Compromise" is doubtful, the senate vote will be 
taken on Wednesday next. No news of importance, except such 
as is public. 

Your friend 

D. R. Atchison 

This damned administration has set itself seriously about the 
unholy work of dissolveing the Union of these States. 

DR. A 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Friday 5th July 1850. 
My dear Love. 

I arrived here safely. We have had a hot day, but where I 
live, is Nova Zembla to the line, when compared with Balti- 
more. — 

I have again failed to send to the children, books. My Love, let 
me guard you & our daughters agt. raw fruits. — I hope to see 

6 In 1849 Mangum was very much disappointed with the growing influence of Seward and 
the anti-slavery leaders over Taylor. In the spring he made a fiery speech on the rights of the 
South. In the fall of 1849 he became very alarmed over the report which Clingman, of North 
Carolina, and Foote, of Mississippi, gave him that the Northern Whig Senators had promised 
to vote for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and for the Wilmot Proviso. But 
by the end of the year he became more moderate. He was a member of the Committee of 
Thirteen and worked closely with Clay for Compromise. With Badger he exerted considerable 
influence on Webster to get him to speak for the Compromise on March 7. When the several 
issues came up for the Senate vote, Mangum did not vote on the Texas boundary and the Utah 
and California bills. He could not support those, but he did not want to prevent their passage. 
He voted for the New Mexico and fugitive slave laws. On the exclusion of the slave trade in 
the District of Columbia he voted "no." Clingman says that although Webster, Clay, Calhoun, 
and Benton disliked each other, each of them considered Mangum his friend. His influence for 
Compromise was strong. Selections from the Speeches and Writings of Hon. Thomas L. Cling- 
man of North Carolina with Additions and Explanatory Notes, Raleigh, 1877, pp. 231-233; 
Cole, Whig Party in the South, 165; Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C." 310-317; Boyd, "Draft of 
Life of Mangum," Chapter VIII. 

180 State Department of Archives and History 

you in a day or two. 6 — I feel for you & them, as much interest, 
as if I were a young lover. — I trust, you cannot doubt it; if they 
do, they are simply ungrateful. — 

I will write, when I am to come. — 

The Compromize looks better, than when I saw you. 

Bell spoke today 7 — the most prosing speech in concentric 
circles, I have seen or heard. — Miss Patty understands "Con- 
centric circles," if not Doctr. Smith does. — 

Give my whole respects to the Doctr. & say to him that I 
extremely desire he will see these young ladies duly punished, 
& their teeth made as good as may be. — 

I fear, you cannot enjoy health in your hot City. — 

Ask Doctr. Smith where you can best go. — 

Let me know his answer, any where, except the shore or wa- 
ter is better for you. — You are Hill people, — & to be well — 
must go to the Hills & good water. 

Yours affectionately 
W. P. Mangum 

[Addressed : ] 

To Mrs. C. A. Mangum. 
Barnum's Hotel 
City of Baltimore 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 


V2 past 4 oclock P.M. July 10th, 1850. 

My dear Love. 

I am as well as usual with the exception of a slight uneasiness 
in my bowels. — 

This City, is in deep gloom. — The sudden, & until yesterday, 
the unexpected death of the President shocks beyond anything 
I have witnessed every one. 

6 Mangum's wife with her daughter were in Baltimore, where she was receiving medical 

7 Bell spoke for three days, July 3-5. Parks, John Bell, 253-254. 

The Mangum Papers 181 

He fell a victim to a slight indiscretion. The most temperate 
of all men, in the most of things, he yet had a habit of eating too 
much, the same that killed President Harrison. 

On Thursday last the 4th of July - the very warm & oppres- 
sive day, that I had the happiness to spend with my dear family- 
The President was exposed at the Washington Monument to 
the extreme heat of the sun in hearing Gen: Foote's orations- 
He returned home with great thirst, & drank immoderately of 
water. - He was a great drinker of water, frequently drinking 
nearly two gallons before dinner, - (one of my besetting in- 
dulgences). He dined perhaps immoderately - eating vege- 
tables of all sorts - especially those the very worst and most 
pernicious - cabbages & cucumbers - made for four footed ani- 
mals & not Bipeds - & the obvious consequences was, he had 
Cholera Morbus (as I had last week). He suffered it to go on, 
Thursday night & Friday refusing to send for a Physician until 
Saturday — 

If taken in time, he might have been easily saved. — His loss 
to his family ( for he was one of the best of husbands & Fathers ) 
cannot be easily estimated - it is immense & irreparable. — I 
called yesterday evening at dark to enquire after his health — 
Of course, I did not see him, but left with a strong impression, 
he wd. not live through the night- He died at 35 minutes past 
10 oclock. — 

The effect of Gen: Taylors death upon the Country, cannot 
yet be estimated. — I certainly will not venture to you, any con- 
jectures of mine, after my sad mistakes to you in 1841, after 
Gen. Harrison's death — & yet, I owe it to candour to say, that 
I have like impressions, to those then expressed to you. — May 
God grant them to be realized. — 

Everyone here begins to fear the Cholera. — The utmost care 
in diet ought to be observed. — Avoid vegetables & fruits, of all 
kinds. — Eat those meats & in moderation, to which you are most 
accustomed. — Attend to the bowels. — This must not & cannot 
be neglected with prudence or safety. — 

I intended to see you this evening, I cannot. Tomorrow, I 
may be in Baltimore early in the day, or at 7 O.C. in the even- 

8 Henry S. Foote spoke at the laying of the cornerstone of the Washington Monument, July 4. 

182 State Department of Archives and History 

I hope you are all careful of yourselves, & in improved 

The funeral here will take place, as I hear, I am not sure, 
on Saturday next. 

I hear, that Gen. Scott from New York is ordered here, with 
six or eight companies, they cannot arrive before Friday even- 
ing. — So the Attorney Genl. Hon. Reverdy Johnson informed me 
this morning. — 

God bless you my Love & my dear Children. 

W. P. Mangum. 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Martha P. Mangum 

Walnut Hall July 16th, 1850 
Dear Cousin, 

We received your letter a few days ago, and knowing that 
you are anxious to hear from home, I hasten to answer it by 
return of mail. We are all very much gratified to learn that Aunt 
is doing so well and will not have to undergo the pain of an 
operation. It is, no doubt, a great relief to all of you. You can 
now breath freer, and your trip commenced under such distress- 
ing circumstances will, I hope, prove but a pleasure trip after 
all, and that er'e long we will have the pleasure of welcoming 
Aunt in fine health and spirits, back to old Orange. I arrived 
here on Monday after you left. Since then Willy and myself have 
pursued the "even tenor of our ways" without interruption — 
with a single exception which I will mention — he courting Miss 
S ... W ... I wooing Coke. What a wonderful effect the charm- 
ing creature has had on your little brother! But the truth is, 
Cousin, that though Willy is deeply smitten with her charms, 
yet he fears very much for the fate of the Compromise Bill to 
which, you know, she is a sworn enemy, and if she can't be gain- 
ed over will in all probability be injurious to it. So Willy thinks 
that if he can possibly be so fortunate as to gain her affections 
she will become more friendly to the compromise, and he can 
moreover make her a good whig, and thus ensure the success of 
our candidates at the coming election. Such are the chivalrous 

The Mangum Papers 183 

and patriotic sentiments of my little Cousin, but unfortunately 
— I am now about to relate the sad interruption — when his hopes 
seemed about to be crowned with success; a rival presented 
himself in the person of his cousin Len, 9 who having come down 
to spend a short time with him, meets with the aforesaid lady 
who happened to come over that day to read the news, and 
"horrible! horrible! horrible! O most horrible"! the gallant boy 
is smitten with her charms, terrible predicament! "What must 
I do?" he soliloquizes to himself. "Is it possible for me unaided 
to make an impression on one so lovely? one from whose eye 
sparkles command and on whose forehead dignity towers? I fear 
not, so I will consult with my cousin Willy, he may be of some 
service to me since she often visits his father's house." Off he 
goes to hunt for his cousin, he finds him and expresses a wish 
to have a consultation, they go off together and Len makes know 
his distress and asks assistance. "What!["] cried Willy with 
astonishment, "do you ask me to assist you in obtaining one at 
whose feet I have so long bowed and poured forth a love as 
warm, as pure, and as unalloyed as the rays of a tropical sun? 
never! never and, sir, if you have any magnanimity of soul about 
you, you will desist from any more attempts to gain her hand, 
for I tell you I loved her first." "I don't care if you did sir,["] 
replied Len, his countenance inflamed with passion, ["]I have as 
much right to love that beautiful creature as you have, sir, and 
I intend to do it, sir, whether you like it or not, sir." "Then you 
shall fight sir," replied Willy giving vent to his passion. It was 
enough. "With eyes darting fury and countenances distorted with 
rage" they dashed upon each other. Heavens what a fight was 
there! They knocked, they tussled, they tuged together until 
both were exhausted and then mutually loosening their hold 
they stood facing each other a few steps apart. "Now will you 
surrender the prize to me," cried Len. ["] Never ["] responded 
Willy, ["jwill I surrender while I have one spark of life remain- 
ing." The battle raged again with renewed fury. About this time 
Miss Polly happening to be passing near the spot where they were 
engaged, was attracted by the noise and hastened to separate 
them, but what could one puny woman do when two such heroes 
were contending? at last by her cries she drew all on the planta- 
tion to the scene of action, and after considerable difficulty we 
succeeded in getting them apart. "Sir,["] said Willy to Len, ["]! 

8 Leonard Henderson Mangum, Priestley's son. 

184 State Department of Archives and History 

received you at my father's house as a cousin and a friend, you 
have contemned my hospitality and shown yourself my enemy, I 
therefore challenge you to meet me in mortal combat! ["] "I will 
accept your challenge on one condition, ["] replied Len, ["]and 
that is that we procure an elegant pair of duelling pistols, for 
I will not consent to shoot for such a prize with an ordinary 
weapon." The justness of this proposition being acknowledged 
by his antagonist it was readily assented to, and upon further 
consultation they have requested me to ask you to procure 
suitable weapons, and bring them when you return home, they 
have agreed to suspend hostilities until then. 

We are all getting along very well. Miss Mary Turner was 
married on the tenth inst, to Dr Hooker. I was at the wedding. 
Willy and myself send our love to all. Miss Polly sends her love 
to "Charity and the gals," and says she is getting on very well. 
Nothing of any importance in the neighborhood. Great Heavens! 
Cousin, what do you think? I understand that the "Star 
of the East" is engaged to be married. What a pity, what a pity! 
What do you reckon will become of poor us? I'll try at any rate 
to "live until the day of my death" and then that will be the 
last of me. where, where, where, you see I can't keep from 
crying, so good bye, Write soon and give us an account of Aunt's 
health &c &c &c. 

Yrs affectionately 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 

Miss Martha P Mangum. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Walnut Hall July 22nd, 1850. 
My Dear Sister, 

We received your letter a few days ago, and were delighted 
to hear from you and to learn that mother enjoyed much better 
health than when she left home, and that you were so much 
pleased with Baltimore. Cousin Willie arrived a few days after 
you left which you are well aware of as I expect you have re- 
ceived his letter ere now. Tell mother her little boy has been 


"Webster at Franklin: the Home of his Childhood.'' 

A lithograph published in Boston by J. H. Bufford in 1861. From the original print in the 
possession of Mr. Mangum Weeks, Alexandria, Virginia. 

The Mangum Papers 185 

very well. Mr. Dean's school 10 commences on the sixth of next 
month please inform me in your next letter if I must go to school 
before your return home. Tell sister as I am to have a most 
catholic brother please let me see him before you bring matters 
to a close. I hope sister Mary is well as you did not mention 
her in your last letter. Cousin Willie has slandered me prodi- 
giously as Dominie Sampson would say. While I have been 
making love to my arithmetic with all the arts of a practiced 
lover, he has been spelbound by the powerful charms of Mrs. B. 
the ugliest widow south of the Virginia line. So you see that 
it is he that is so bad of, and not Len and myself as he men- 
tioned in his letter to you. As for the pistols, he wants them 
for himself. For he and Short V. have had a quarrel about this 
same widow, and from what I can learn I think Short has chal- 
lenged him. I shall try to keep them from fighting until you 
return home, and then we may all possibly compromise the 
matter. We are all well and send our love to mother and father 
and the rest of you. Write soon. 

Your affectionate br 

Wm P Mangum 


Miss Martha P. Mangum 
(Barnum's Hotel) 
Baltimore, Md. 

Willie P. Mangum and others to President Fillmore 11 

[July 1850] 

The undersigned have great confidence in recommending 
The Hon. William A. Graham of N. Carolina as well qualified 
for the duties of a place in your Cabinet. 

Geo. E. Badger E. Deberry 

W. P. Mangum. David Outlaw 

A. W. Shepperd J. P. Caldwell 

Edw. Stanly 

10 J. A. Dean headed the South Lowell Academy in Orange County. 

u The original is in the Millard Fillmore Papers, Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N. Y. 

186 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum to Millard Fillmore 12 

Senate Chamber. 6th August 1850 

My dear Sir 

If you have not determined upon your Secretary of War, per- 
mit me again to suggest, that I think, a transfer of Gov r . Graham 
to that department, would not only comport with the best inter- 
ests of the Public Service, but w d meet with the most cordial 
approbation of the public. - In that event, the Navy c d be easily 
filled in a satisfactory manner. Say, Judge Hopkins 13 of Mobile, 
whom I know as a classmate, besides having kept my eye on 
him through life - is a man of the very highest character, & of 
decided talent. 

I have conversed with several gentlemen to-day on this sub- 
ject; & upon the whole, I can think of nothing better. - 

Judge Sharkey or Mr. Toombs 14 w d either make a brilliant 
head of that Dept. - yet I feel that under all the circumstances, 
the appt. of either might have to encounter strong & plausible 
objections. - 

By the bye, suffer me to congratulate the new adm n . upon 
the admirable message of this morning - & the no less admirable 
letter to the Gov r . of Texas. 15 - I have heard but one opinion upon 
both in the Senate. - They are right & will defy successfully the 
severest scrutiny. 

With the highest respect 
Your friend & ob* sevt. 
Willie P. Mangum 

The President 
of the U. States 

12 The original is in the Millard Fillmore Papers, Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N. Y. 

"Arthur F. Hopkins, a former judge of the Alabama supreme court, and an active Whig 
leader, became the president of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. William Garnett, Reminiscences of 
Public Men in Alabama for Forty Years, With an Appendix, Atlanta, 1872, 377-381. 

14 He refers to Robert Toombs and William L. Sharkey, chief justice of the Mississippi 
supreme court, who had presided over the Nashvill Convention in June. He supported the 
Compromise of 1850. Hamilton, Taylor: Soldier in the White House, 372; Nevins, Ordeal of 
the Union, I. 248. 316. 321. 

^On June 14, 1850, P. H. Bell, the governor of Texas, wrote Taylor that he had sent 
Texan commissioners to extend the jurisdiction of the state over the counties of the Northwest. 
He complained that the United States officials had interfered with the commissioners. When 
Fillmore became President, he replied to the governor and also sent a message to Congress explaining 
that the United States had conquered this region in the Mexican War. Hillsborough Recorder, 
August 21, 1850. See also Nevins, Ordeal of Union, I, 328-331, 341, 349. 

The Mangum Papers 187 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin 16 

Senate Chamber 7th August 1850. 

My dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to you Mr. Joseph K. Hartwell of P. 
Lawrence N. York, as a first rate Whig, & a most respectful & 
reliable gentleman.- He has done much service in the cause, & 
is entitled to the respectful consideration of his Whig friends, 
among whom, he may enumerate The President and the Secre- 
tary of State.- 

With entire respect 
Yours mo. truly. 

Willie P. Mangum 


The Hon. Mr. Corwin 
Sec. of the Treasury 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 17 

Senate Chamber. 3 rd . Sept. 1850 
My dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to you M r . La Fayette Brown, a son 
of M r . James Brown formerly of Caswell N°. Ca. and a nephew 
of my late Colleague in the Senate. The Hon: Bedford Brown. - 

M r . Brown has been in the service of one of the departments, 
& I learn that M r . Edwards of the Pension office will vouch for 
his punctuality, efficiency & fidelity in the discharge of his 
duties. - 

His small income has been almost a matter of life or death, 
to his Father, to whom he has been a dutiful Son. - 

His employment I hear, was but temporary. - It has expired. - 

May I commend him to your kindness? You may find some 
occasion possibly to be of service to him of which I am sure 
you w d . most cheerfully avail yourself. - 

The Father has been long under the weather, & the Son's 
income was of the highest importance to him. - 

lc The original is in the Thomas Corwin Papers, Library of Congress. 

17 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

188 State Department of Archives and History 

I heard this morning that M rs . Graham had arrived, to whom 
I beg you to present me. - I sh d . make my respects in person, but 
that I propose, to leave this evening for a few days to meet my 
family. - I am sure it will give you pleasure to hear that M rs . 
Mangum is doing very Well - Our daughters are all well: 

As always 

Most truly & respectfully 
Yrs. &C. &C. 

Willie P. Mangum 

The Hon: W. A. Graham 

James Graham to Willie P. Mangum and George E. Badger 18 

Lincoln NC Sept 14 th . 1850 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

Hon G. E. Badger The people of Western NC are more neglected 
and worse treated by the General Government than any other 
part of the united states in regard to mail facilities. In Gen 1 
Jackson's administration we had four horse post Coaches run- 
ing and carrying the mail with quick speed in one half of the 
western counties of this state, under Polk's and Cave Johnston's 
misrule we were deprived of every Single four horse post Coach, 
and cut down to a few two horse shabby Hacks travelling about 
three miles an hour. That is the sort of conveyance from Salis- 
bury, by Lincolnton, to Ashville; and about one third of the 
time the Shabby Horses & Hacks break down and fail and loose 
the trip, to the great annoyance and vexation of the passengers 
and news-paper reader's. This ought not to be so. Well now we 
have got rid of Polk, and Cave Johnston no longer sits astradle of 
the P O Department. I in common with every reading man want 
a change for the better in the mode and speed of our mail trans- 
portation. We want the mail again transported in four post 
coaches at the rate of 7 or 8 miles per hour. So that we can get 
the News while it is news. An old newspaper, is like an old 
Almanac. It's out of date and of no value. The present line 

18 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

The Mangum Papers 189 

pays very little because very few persons will take papers car- 
ried in such an uncertain shabby Snail line. But if the Depart- 
ment would put us on a par with other states by increasing the 
speed of conveyance and give us a good four horse post Coach 
through the central mail line of the state; then a large number 
of persons would take paper's and the post offices on the line 
would pay well to the Government. But Cave Johnston killed 
the Goose that laid the golden Eggs - Now, Gentlemen, I ask 
the favor of both of you, or either of you, to go to the Post Mas- 
ter General, and insist upon our being restored to our ancient 
priviliges. All the people of all the states have had their mail 
facilities improved and advanced and increased in speed, but 
NC; and we are treading backwards. We are worse off now 
than we were 12 years ago in mail matters - we of NC get 
nothing from the Gen 1 Government but mail facilities, and sure- 
ly we ought to demand and have our equal rights in that De- 
partment. If the Government can afford to send mail steamers 
to the Pacific and across the Atlantic to Europe, surely she can 
afford to put one line of four hose post coaches on the great 
central mail Rout through the patriotic and union loving state 
of North Carolina & I think the mail ought to go faster than a 
man can walk (or at the rate of 3 miles an hour). I think it is 
a reproach and degradation to the state to be thus treated; 
And I trust our Senators and Representatives will no longer 
submit in silence to it - Let us have a stage line from Raleigh 
to Asheville travelling at the rate of 8 miles an hour: or any 
way 6 miles an hour. Then the small lateral lines can diverge 
from the main-Central trunk, and supply the smaller post offi- 
ces - Beside, A good Line of stages through the central route 
of the state would blaze the way for the contemplated central 
Rail Road from Raleigh toward the western part of the state. 

I have an abiding conviction that the present Post Master 
Gen 1 whom I have the pleasure of knowing personally will be 
disposed to do us justice in making the mail line all we ask 
and so much need. But he, a New yorker, cannot understand 
the subject and the changes & improvements proposed, unless 
he have the explanations & comments of a North Carolinean to 
develope the general advantages. 

Your attention to this subject at your earliest convenience 
will greatly diffuse useful knowledge among our people, if your 

190 State Department of Archives and History 

effort shall be crowned with success and confer a peculiar 
favour on your friend 

James Graham 

[Endorsed on back:] 1850 Hon James Graham to Hon Willie P. 

Mangum & Hon. Geo. E. Badger 
Treatment of Western N Carolina 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 19 

Washington City. 
16 th . Sept r . 1950 

The Hon: M r . Graham. 
Secretary of the Navy. 

My dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to you M r . Carlisle, 20 who will hand 
you this note. - Mr. Carlisle is a member of the bar of this City 
of high professional & personal standing. 

His friends desire that he may receive the appointment of 
Judge Advocate in the Case of Commodore Jones, if such a case 
shall be ordered. 

Mr. Carlisle's professional attainments & his high personal 
character, I am very sure, would enable him to give entire satis- 
faction to the Department & to the public. - These would be 
vouched for, I suppose, by every intelligent gentleman of this 
City. - 

He has many friends who would be much gratified at any 
honorable & favorable appreciation at your hands. 

With entire respect 
Y r . friend & ob*. Ser*. 
Willie P. Mangum 

19 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

^James Mandeville Carlisle, 1814-1877, after receiving a classical training, was admitted 
to the Washington bar in 1837. His knowledge of French and Spanish enabled him to help 
with cases involving land claims in Louisiana and Florida. He was frequently consulted by the 
legations of Latin America. In 1849 be obtained wide publicity as the junior counsel to Horace 
Mann in defense of Daniel Drayton and Edward Sayres, who were tried for larceny in assisting 
slaves to escape. D. A. B. Ill, 494. 

The Mangum Papers 191 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Corwin 21 

Senate Chamber 26th Sept 1850 
My dear Sir. 

You have learned I presume, that Mr. Peters 22 - the collector 
at New Orleans was rejected last night by a strict party vote. 

His high personal character & eminent qualifications were 
uncontested.- He was rejected solely upon political grounds.- 
It cannot be reversed. Who ought to be his successor? 

I have often heard Mr. Debuys (William I think) spoken 
of by Whig friends in terms of the highest commendation- 
especially, by the late Senator Burrow.- Remembering this, I 
had this morning, a conversation with Mr. Soulle asking if the 
party would accept Mr. Debuys- He answered they would, & be 
gratified to throw in his way such advantages- his circumstances 
being impaired. I do not know Mr. D. personally- Mr. Conrad 
undoubtedly knew him well. I thought it might not be wholly 
useless, to make this suggestion to you.- 

The appointment I shd. think, from what I have heard wd. 
be eminently popular in Louisiana.- I hope that Mr. Peters will 
make them fear him- They obviously fear him & I think, they 
do not feel well assured that they have acted with wisdom and 

Yrs truly 

W. P. Mangum 

The Hon. Mr. Corwin 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 23 

Washington 1 st . Octo '50 
My dear Sir. 

Permit me to introduce to you M r . Harvey 24 one of the Edi- 
tors of the North American, Phil a . - 

21 The original is in the Thomas Corwin Papers, Library of Congress. 

^Samuel J. Peters, an ardent Whig who helped nominate and elect Taylor, was president 
of the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce. He was nominated for Collector of Customs in 
1849 but was rejected by the Senate on the grounds that he was engaged in a business that would 
profit from his office. Actually, the vote for rejection was partisan. Pierre Soule, a Democrat on the 
Senate Committee, led the fight against him. The Whigs voted for confirmation. Rita Katherine 
Carey, "Samuel Jarvis Peters," The Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXX, 439-480; Hamilton, 
Taylor: Soldier in the White House. 90, 100, 137, 138, 207. 

23 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

^James E. Harvey. See above, IV, 159n. 

192 State Department of Archives and History 

I think your formerly knew him. - He at all events, remem- 
bers you, & with great respect. - 

He desired a renewal [of] his acquaintance with you. in 
which you cannot but have pleasure. 

Mo. truly Yr 8 . 
Willie P. Mangum 
Hon. M r . Graham 

General Winfield Scott to Willie P. Mangum 

General Scott 
requests the pleasure of the 
Hon. W. P. Mangum's company 
tomorrow (tuesday) evening at 
8 o'clock. 25 

De Menon Buildings, 
Nov. 2 5/50 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Gadsby's 30th Nov. Saturday, 1850 

My dear Love, 

You will feel surprise to receive this note, and not see me. - 
For two days past, I shd. have been in Baltimore, but have not 
been well enough until today. - I have been very unwell the 
whole of this week - undoubtedly bilious - so my physician 
thinks. - I am up to day, & dressed this morning early. 

My purpose was to go to Baltimore this evening - but upon 
a little thought, have determined to postpone my return for 
the following reasons - 1st. Our daughters ought to have some 
"shoulder covering" visettes or something of that sort- They 
could not be got tomorrow.- 2ndly. As we have spent much 

^Mangum was already helping to groom Scott for nomination as the Whig candidate in 1852. 

The Mangum Papers 193 

money I desire to be present in Congress on the first day, so 
that my pay may run on. — I shall be in Baltimore certainly, if 
I live & am able to travel, Monday night. Let our daughters get 
the things they ought to have, & they will be paid for on Mon- 
day night or Tuesday morning either. — We must come on here 
on Tuesday. — 

I have had great trouble in getting Lodgings, and I am not 
suited yet. — Though I have had several persons to aid me, while 
I was sick.— 

Mr. Badger & Mr. Clingman have just come on from Ra- 
leigh. — I have to day had a long conversation with both of 
them - seperately of course - as they do not speak to each 
other. — There is a great deal of Manoeuvreing, & no little excite- 
ment in Raleigh & a strong disposition on the part of many to 
go to extreme lengths. — From what I can learn the democracy 
in the Legislature (which is in the ascendant) will do anything 
to make political Capital. — 

Their first purpose was to make a push at both Badger & 
me. — I hear they have misgivings, as to an assault upon me, but 
are resolved to push at Mr. Badger, & pass the most insulting 
resolutions - as for instance - "That he misrepresents the State, 
& that he neither deserves or possesses the Confidence of the 
people of North Carolina." — 

I hear that our people are generally enjoying good health. — 

As the Cars will be off in five minutes, I will only add, that 
you must be ready to leave Baltimore on Tuesday morning, by 
the 9 Oclock train. 

Affectionately Yrs 

Willie P. Mangum 
To Mrs. C. A. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 26 

Gadsby's Hotel 30 th Nov 1850 

My dear Sir. 

I trust you will not deem it indelicate in me to Commend 
to your favorable notice the matter of estimates for Professor 

^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

194 State Department of Archives and History 

Espy. 27 - Whenever they have been omitted, it has given much 
trouble in Congress, yet his friends have generally succeeded in 
their efforts in his behalf. - 

I need not say to you [that] Congressional opinion in regard 
to the [torn] of Professor Espy's enquiries & investigations has 
greatly changed within the last ten years. - 

What was ten years ago regarded by very many as chimerical, 
if not worse, has been gradually growing in the favorable esti- 
mation of the enlightened - until now in the opinion of many of 
the first Philosophers both in Europe & America, a very high 
value is attached to the results already attained, & expected 
from his enquiries. - Again begging pardon for troubling you. 

I am as ever, My dear Sir truly yrs. 
Willie P. Mangum 

Hon: M r . Graham 
Sec. of the Navy 

[Endorsed on back:] 1850 Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Estimates for Mr Espy. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Sunday 1st deer. 1850 

My dear Love. 

I remained in this City last night with great reluctance, but 
events have turned out, that render me glad that I did. — 

I wrote you that I had not suited myself in rooms- I intended 
to return to my old boarding House, in which we should have 
been compelled to dine [torn] parlor, in which I receive com- 
pany (agre[torn] [torn]venience, & not quite decent, where 
there ladies) or dine in one of our chambers.- I went to day up- 
on the Capitol Hill where I prefer living, at the suggestion of 
Gen. Duff Green & engaged three rooms in the (dont be scared) 

^A graduate of Transylvania College, James Pollard Espy, 1785-1860, taught school in 
Ohio and Philadelphia. About 1835 he began giving his full time to lectures and study on 
meteorology, especially to his theories on storms. In 1842 Congress appointed him meteorologist 
of the War Department and in 1848 of the Navy Department. He made daily weather fore- 
casts. After 1852 he was with the Smithsonian Institution. D. A. B., VI, 185-186. 

The Mangum Papers 195 

third story, the dining room on the second story & the public 
parlor on the first floor. — All of which is decently furnished, 
with a good piano & another instrument, the name of which I 
dont remember. I am told they will keep a good house, and I 
told them all that I wd. give & they agreed to it. There are 
two ladies whom I have not seen. — 

The three rooms look West upon the Capitol, and are in 
the largest, best built, & most respectable row upon Capitol 

I have a large chamber for you & me - next room north & 
adjoining, for our daughters, large enough for a double & a 
single bed, with dressing table, wardrobe &c. &c. & north of 
the last a small room with a good fire place, for my study & to 
receive comany on business, &c. &c. — The next floor below as 
I have said is the dining room, large & handsome, - & below 
that the Common parlor, large & decently furnished- Upon the 
whole as desira[ble] [ro]oms, as I have looked into except in 
[torn]se, & upon living terms. The others have [been] out- 
rageous in their charges. 

You may expect me tomorrow night & be prepared to leave 
on Tuesday at 9 oclock. 


W. P. Mangum 

To Mrs. C. A. Mangum 

The bell rings for the cars to go out. 

W. P. M 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 28 

Tuesday 3 rd deer. 1850 
My dear Sir: 

I read this morning with great care, your report as well as 
that of the Secretary of the Interior. The latter is creditable & 
business like; but with yours, I was so much gratified, that I 
cannot easily forego the pleasure of saying so to you. — You 
had a new field opened to you, & well & ably have you occupied 

28 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, State Department of Archives and 
History, Raleigh, N. C. 

196 State Department of Archives and History 

every portion of it. — The report is to be properly characterized, 
as I think, by a bold originality of conception & a fearlessness 
of responsibility too rare in that class of State Papers, — 

If I do not greatly err, it will give you more reputation in 
the Country, than anything you have hitherto produced before 
the public. — 

You have had to grapple with a system, built up by a Series 
of abuses, & to use the knife — that fearful & unpopular instru- 
ment — somewhat unsparingly. 

Wise & judicious men will in the main, sustain you. — 

Touching lineal promotion upon the principle of Seniority, 29 
after reaching a certain grade, is a subject of infinite intrinsic 
difficulties. — I considered that subject a Whole Summer, with 
all the aids, I could derive, from the most intelligent & exper- 
ienced naval officers, & never could reach a Satisfactory solu- 

I do not think you have, but the object is most desirable, & 
will prove of inevitable & incalculable necessity in these arduous 
National Conflicts, that we may not hope to escape. 

Upon the whole, your intelligent friends cannot but read it, 
with great satisfaction & pride. 

Yours as ever, 

Willie P. Mangum 

To The Hon. W. A. Graham. 
Sec. Navy. 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 30 

Senate Chamber 19 th . dec r . 1850 

My dear Sir: 

I saw M r . Webster 31 last week, and had a full conversation 
with him in regard to the appointment of M r . Waddell 32 to the 
Havanna. - I pressed him as far as I could with delicacy. - M r . 
Webster evidently felt some embarrassment, & has not I think, 

^On November 30, 1850, Graham made his annual report as Secretary of the Navy. He 
recommended an "entire reorganization." Among other things, he recommended that all promo- 
tions of naval officers of the rank of captain and above be on the basis of merit rather than 
seniority. Senate Exec. Documents, 31 Cong., 2 sess., I, 202; Walter Clark, "William Alexander 
Graham," The North Carolina Booklet, XVI, No. 1 (July, 1916), p. 8. 

80 The original is in the William A Graham Papers, Universty of North Carolina. 

^When Fillmore became President, he reorganized his Cabinet. In his new Cabinet Webster 
was made Secretary of State. 

^Mangum and Graham had unsuccessfully pressed for the appointment of Hugh Waddell 
for a diplomatic position. 

The Mangum Papers 197 

come to a fixed determination in regard to the matter. - He told 
me that he had not mentioned the Subject to the President, & 
remarked that the President might have some Views of his own, 
& have fixed upon some one. - M r . W. thought the appointment 
ought to go to the South, & said that M r . Gaines 33 of Mobile was 
most pressed for it. - I urged that the dispensing of patronage 
to a hopeless state, was little else than a waste of it. - He ad- 
verted to the premature announcement; I explained as well as I 
could, & said that indiscretion had been corrected. - 

M r . W. requested me to see you on the subject, which I hoped 
to do, but as no favorable occasion has offered, I drop you this 
note. - I think a judicious pressure will be successful, though 
M r . Shepherd (who has had a long interview with M r . Webster) 
thinks otherwise, & that the app*. will go to Alabama. - Mr. W. 
adverted to the age of M r . Gaines, (who appears to be a very 
old man) and expressed apprehension that he might not have 
sufficient vigor & activity for the duties of that station. 

M r . W. spoke most kindly of M r . Waddell, & enquired if there 
was nothing in N°. Ca. that w d . suit him, or if there was not 
something elsewhere. - upon the negative to the first branch of 
the enquiry. - I remarked, that Mr Waddell ought to have gone 
to Madrid, & that his friends w d . not consent that he sh d take an 
inferior diplomatic appointment, with Barringer greatly his in- 
ferior, placed above him. - 

I have been thus tedious & detailed to put you in possession 
of the whole case. - 

I know of nothing further that I can do, & the whole case 
will have to devolve on you. 

I am sure Waddell will feel that he is the most unfortunate 
of men, if he shall fail, & will think he has but little cause to be 
proud of his friends. - It must be so. we can do nothing better. 

Yours Mo. truly. 
Willie P. Mangum 

To Hon: W. A. Graham 

83 George Strothers Gaines. 

198 State Department of Archives and History 

Robert Ransom to Willie P. Mangum 

Home, Bindal Creek- N°. Ca. De cr . 29th. 1850. 

Honl. W. P. Mangum. 

D r Sir- 
Without your consent, or any compromise with you or our 
friends, I have thought proper to introduce your name, among 
the many others for our Candidate for Governor (through 
the Register of yesterday.) 34 Hoping you will not decline 
the Honour, if we shall select you, notwithstanding your long 
life spent in the service of our State and Union, for which every 
true Whig and lover of country is grateful, many of whom wish 
to evince that gratitude, by calling you to the administration of 
our State. 

With great respect & high regard 

Rob. Ransom 


Willie P. Mangum to Sally & Patty Mangum. 


5th. Feby 1851. 


Miss Sally & Patty. 

Mrs. Stevens, I hear, has a fine boy.- When I heard it, 
last Saturday Morning. I sent a name by John, which may or 
may not be accepted.- I sent "Tom Corwin," or The "Wagon 
boy" - They are all asking him for office, and think will give the 
name for the office. — This is Washington. They are all well here, 
and I am still in my room, where I intend to stay Upon hearing 
that I thought of moving, great sensation was produced; & the 
old Lady Mrs. Durham came up and made a regular speech & 

^The election did not occur until 1852. By that time Mangum had become unpopular 
with Nonh Carolina Whigs because of his support of General Scott for President. 

The Mangum Papers 199 

a most graceful speech, & said that Mrs. M. & especially, the 
young ladies (did she ever see you?) that she loved so much 
wd. never have thought of such a thing. 

I sd. if she was sure of that, I as an humble husband wd. not 
think of it. — She sd. she was as sure of it, as she was that we 
had rain & sunshine — I, of course, told her I shd. stay. — 

Your rooms are occupied by a bride & bridegroom from Con- 
necticut. — I have not seen them. 

A Lieut. Webb of the Navy, lady & child are here, & occupy 
the room on the dining room floor to the left as you go up. — 

Lieut. Guest & lady are still here & much gratified at the 
reminiscencies you sent them. 

Lieut. Guest was to day confirmed by the Senate as Lieut. 
& not until to day unanimously. — 

Nothing particular in public. — Many invitations have been 
sent for your Mother & you, since you left. 

I may hunt them up some day, & send them to you, - that 
you may remember - if it ever comes in the way. 

Mrs. Graham came to the Senate soon after you left & ex- 
pressed her regret, that she had not known of your departure, as 
she desired you both to spend the winter with her & her Cousin 
Miss Washington 

Yours affectionately 
W. P. Mangum 

J. A. Dean and B. F. Larrabee to Charity A. Mangum 

South Lowell Academy 
Orange Co. N. C. Feb. 11th. 1851 
Mrs. Mangum- 

Here follows our Monthly report of your Son William for 
the Month ending Feb. 1st. 1851. Recitations, diligence & deport- 
ment marked on a Scale from 1. to 5. 
Spelling 5 Latin 4.9 

Defining 5 Declamation 8.5. Scale- 1 to 10 

Arithmetic 4.9 Diligence 5. 

Writing 4. Deportment 5. 

Absent 18 ^ days. ex. 

200 State Department of Archives and History 

William has hardly been here long enough to get the student's 
armor on, but what he has had time to do, has been well done- 
Williams mind seems the germ of a Strong & ready one, & he 
appears to be disposed to give it all the advantage of a thorough 
cultivation- His behavior is manly & courteous- His health is 
good — 

With Great Respect 
Yours Truly 
J. A. Dean 
B. F. Larrabee 

Willie P. Mangum to Sallie & Patty Mangum. 

Washington City, Feby. 17th, 1851. 

My dear daughters Sallie & Patty. 

I am obliged to you both for the letters, I have received 
from each of you. — I wrote to your Mother some ten or twelve 
days ago, (I think earlier) but I feared the letter would fail, & 
be delayed a week. — I mean to have that altered, or quarrel 
with every one here. — 

I have not been in spirits to write to any of you. — The death 
of my dear brother, 1 with all his peculiarities, whom I regarded 
as the best, & most honest male friend that I had in the world, 
to be followed so soon, by the death of his oldest, & of course, 
most beloved Child, has so depressed me & my spirits, that I 
have not felt like my self of late - Not indeed, since I heard of the 
death of my brother. — I now write in the saddest spirits. — 

I have not been to the Senate for nearly a week. — I have 
been quite ill with head ache, & bilious tendencies. — I am to 
day much better, & Doctr Lindsley says I may go out tomor- 
row. — 

I fear, my dear Children, while I write you may be looking 
upon the dead. — It is horrible - & it seems, that the hand of God, 
is upon our house & name. 

iPriestley H. Mangum died September 17, 1850. His daughter Catherine died in the early 
part of 1851. Weeks, "Willie Person Mangum, Jr." Biog. Hist, of N. C, V. 258. 

The Mangum Papers 201 

If I cannot be a Christian, I fear, I shall be deranged. — 

God willing, I mean to see you all, immediately upon the 
adjournment of Congress, — which I have no desire to ever see 
again if God will preserve & protect me. 

With my best affections towards my dear children & their 
dear Mother. 

I am always theirs, while, they support their own & their 
Father's honor. 

Willie P. Mangum 

P.S. I owe Willie many apologies - Yet I shall not make them - 
loving him nearly as much as if he was my own son, he must 
overlook it & all 

W. P. M 


Of course my most affectionate regards to all the family, & 
my wishes - if they could preserve & sustain them, would be as 
durable as the Andes & of as sweet & delightful an odor as any 
of the beautiful & lovely flowers that bloom at the feet of the 

W. P. M. 

Willie P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum. 


Feby. 24th, 1851. 
My dear Son. 

I send herewith a letter that I reed, yesterday from Lewis, 2 
who is now in California. 

You must write to Lewis, that is, if you can write a decent 
hand - if not - not. — 

The last note, I saw from you, was in Baltimore. — The lines 
reminded me of the beautiful curvature of the rainbow. — You 
must have been reading Burke - the great Burke, of the British 
Parliament, on the "beautiful & sublime." Burke, I remember, - 

a Louis Thompson, Mangum's servant while in Washington. The letter was not found. 

202 State Department of Archives and History 

though I have not read it in thirty years, - says that the cur- 
valineal line - that is to say - the "neck of a dove," is the most 
beautiful thing in nature, - as far as mere form is concerned. — 

I am glad my Son, that you consult such high authorities - 
for Burke was a great man, & by far the most distinguished 
orator of his time, except Charles James Fox. — 

Tell Mother that I have been unwell for eight or ten days. 
I am now I hope, getting well, & feel pretty well. — Though to 
day, I do not go to the Senate, as it has been very rainy & damp. — 

Give my love to your dear Mother - & your Sisters. 

Your affectionate Father 
Willie P. Mangum. 

P. S. I hope to see you all, very soon after the adjournment of 
Congress — W. P. M. 


Wm. Preston Mangum 
No. Carolina. 

Willie P. Mangum to Francis Markoe 3 

Senate Chamber. 
Tuesday 26 [25] Feby 1851 
My dear Sir, 

I brought the subject of reorganizing the State Depart be- 
fore the Comm ee . of Foreign relations. 4 

The Comm ee . unanimously agreed to urge upon the Com- 
m ee . of Finance to insert the bill we reported in the appropria- 
tion bill, which is the only mode at this late period to accomplish 
the object. 

I have just had a conversation With M r . Hunter 5 the Chair 11 , 
of Finance & I am happy to inform you that he enters heartily 
into the matter, & so does his Colleague M r . Mason. 6 - I feel great 
confidence in the Complete success of this movement. 

^The original is in the Ford collection, New York Public Library. Francis Markoe was for 
many years a clerk in the Department of State. J. Q. Adams, Memoirs, X, 469; XI, 539; 
American Almanac, 1850, 100. 

*Mangum was a member of the Foreign Relations Committee of which Foote was chairman. 
The Senate considered a bill to reorganize the Department to make it more efficient along the lines 
recommended by Buchanan and Clayton. Cong. Globe, 31 Cong., 2 sess., 8, 800. 

5 R. M. T. Hunter, Senator from Virginia. 

6 James M. Mason, Senator from Virginia. 

The Mangum Papers 203 

Gen Bayley 7 of the House will advocate the measure with 
zeal, if the Senate shall insert the bill. 

I am My dear Sir, 

Very truly Yrs &c. &c. 
To M r . Markoe Willie P. Mangum 

of the State department 
W. P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 8 

Senate Chamber 

Thursday [27 February, 1851] 
My dear Sir. 

Yesterday M r . Markoe came to See me on business deeply 
interesting to M r . Webster & the State Department. - I charged 
him with a message having as much point & energy, yet kind- 
ness, as I could give it. - I proceeded upon the assumption that 
the nomination of M r . Waddell 9 w d . be agreeable to the Pres*. 
& that therefore, the whole matter was in the hands of M r . 
Webster. The answer indicates, that the difficulty is with the 
Pres*. I regard Waddell's case as hopeless. - I enclose the answer 
to you as by possibility, you may yet have some power over this 
subject. If the President objects - it is decisive - If, - as I have 
a strong impression, - the difficulty is with M r . W. it may yet 
be obviated. 

truly Yrs 
Hon. M r . Graham W. P. Mangum 

Navy department 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 10 

Thursday evening, Feby. 1851. 
My dear Sir. 

I wrote you a note this morning - M r . Webster came to the 
Senate afterwards & took a seat next mine (Upham's) I being 

7 Thomas Henry Bayly, Representative from Virginia. 

8 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

9 Francis Markoe wrote W. A. Graham February 27. 1851, explaining that Waddell would 
not be appointed as consul to Havana because North Carolina had a Cabinet post and a foreign 
minister. William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

10 The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

204 State Department of Archives and History 

out of my seat, & seeing it, resumed mine at once. - M r . Webster 
was evidently restless, & to relieve it, seemed to have some 
especial conversation with M r . Miller to his left, & after usual 
civilities, I could not with decency & a proper self-respect have 
anything more to say to him. - He left very soon, though con- 
tinued long after in the Senate Chamber. - n 

His course is unfriendly, & I can, show, - insincere & incon- 
sistent, if he shall "play out the play." - If this design be carried 
out - you may set me down in the opposition - remember, I live 
politically, as long as this adm n . - My opposition will be first dis- 
closed in reference to nominations from the State Department, 
whenever they are objectionable. - I thank God, that I yet have 
confidence in the Dem°. party when they shall be invoked to 
make mischief. One difference between Northern & Southern 
Statesmen (I have long seen it) is that the former suppose the 
hope or reception of office, is the great power to govern - The 
latter, - not less ambitious - w d . be ashamed, to admit it, or even 
to think it. - 

That is very much the difference between your colleague, 
& the best specimens of Southern Statesmen. - 

I say my opposition will commence with nominations emanat- 
ing from the State department. & I give you notice - that the 
adm n . has to go to work, to carry through "Peter Parley." That 
whole thing is wrong, & founded, (if what I hear, is right,) upon 
false pretences. - Save him if you can. - 

New England & personal friends - disregarding public Senti- 
ment - ought not to have the whole public patronage. - 

The great public has yet a little interest in the public serv- 
ice - God knows how long it will be so, under this Whig dynasty 
- for as I live, under Gen: Jackson when in Violent opposition, 
I could [do] no more to carry out the public wishes, than I could or 
can under this or the Harrison dynasty. I think it nearly time for 
you & me, & many other Whig, who has a just respect for his 
State to quit the Concern, go home, & as far as we may, enable 
them to learn more wisdom. - I am extremely hurt to hear that 
the President accords in this Course of policy.- If so, it will cost 
me personally, no more to Show resistance to him & his policy, 
than to the State dept.- 

My instincts have rarely failed me, & that the State (N°. C a .) 
will uphold her due pretension by withdrawing Confidence & 

u See the preceding letter. 

The Mangum Papers 205 

support from those who treat her with neglect, I feel as sure, as 
that I do, I am now living. - 

I have little hope that the wishes of the State will be grati- 
fied.- These Whigs - these conscience Whigs - are so timid & so 
pure that they scarcely ever act. - & if they are spurred to 
action, - they are afraid to do right, too pure to do wrong, & 
usually, or rather, often, seeking the "medio tutissimus" make 
themselves a laughing stock or ridiculous. - 

It does not befit you as a Cabinet Minister to receive this note 
- but as a No. Carolinian as you are, I have a right to ask you to 
read it. 

With respect. Yrs &C. &C. 
Willie P. Mangum 


The Hon: W m . A. Graham 

Willie P. Mangum to Thomas Cor win 12 

Washington the 1st of May 1851. 
My dear Sir. 

I received this morning another letter from Mr. Sandy 
Harris 13 in the Customs at Philadelphia.- He informs me that 
"nearly all the Democrats were removed (on the 29th) the rest 
will go the 1st of June."- He also states, "That the importers 
sent to him on the morning of that day, to know whether he 
deemed it necessary for them to call a meeting of the Chamber 
of Commerce or board of trade to endeavor to keep him in." He 
told them he preferred they would await the result in silence.- 

Some gentlemen went to the Collector & asked him to say 
whether he intended to remove Mr. H. & if any expression of 
the wishes by disinterested men of business could be useful to 
him.- The Collector promptly replied that he had no purpose 
to displace him, for he could not well do without him. 

Mr. Harris suggests that it is the desire of the Collector to 
be placed before the Department in regard to this matter, in 
a light to satisfy you that he has acted judiciously & for the good 
of the service.- I very much hope you will take the same view 

12 The original is in the Thomas Corwin Papers, Library of Congress. 
13 See above, I, 585n. See also the next letter. 

206 State Department of Archives and History 

of it, as I am very sure, it is the just one.- I shall be obliged to 
you, to return by my servant the letters of Mr. Harris, I en- 
closed to you. 

I still continue to invoke the forebearance of the Department 
in Mr. Harris' case upon the terms & conditions I indicated in 
my last note & if it be no departure from the usage & decorum 
of the Department to say to me, whether this appeal can be 
favorably regarded.- 

With much respect 
I am My dear Sir, 
Very truly Yrs 

Willie P. Mangum 

To The Hon: Mr. Corwin 

Sec. of the Treasury 

Willie P. Mangum to Sandy Harris 1 * 

Washington City 1st May 1851 
My dear Sir: 

I received your letter of the last week and at this instant yours 
of the 29th ult. 

I am much gratified to hear of the determination of Mr. 
Lewis - it is just what one would expect from him towards his 
Last Saturday, I enclosed your letters to Mr. Corwin, with 
a strong one written by myself 15 .- I have not yet received his 
answer.- I deferred writing to you until I should receive it, 
being in daily expectation of it.- 

I entered into the whole history of your case, in my letter 
to the Secretary.- I have not had the slightest apprehension of 
your removal. 

I had received a letter from home in regard to your ap- 
prehensions, and commenced a letter to Mr. Lewis, which I had 
not finished when I reed yours.- I then declared, and turned my 
attention to Mr. Corwin.- 

u The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 
^See above, 205. 

The Mangum Papers 207 

I have been detained here by indisposition. I am now nearly 
well. I will leave in a few days for home- My respects to Mrs. 

Yours truly, 

Willie P. Mangum 

P. S. Open the receipt of Mr. 
Corwin. I will enclose it, and 
also see or write to the President. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 


Monday night, 19th. May 1851. 

My dear Love, 

I have expected every week for the last six or eight to set 
off for home. 

But I have not been able. Except three days at one time, I 
have not been well enough to set out. It was then very warm, 
and as I had one or two days business to attend to here, I thought 
it would worry me so, as to knock me up- I waited to get 
stronger, (for I was so feeble, I could scarcely walk across my 
room) & instead of getting better I took to bed again.- For the 
last four or five days I have been better, though to day not so 
well. I have not been in the city in six weeks- I hope to leave 
this week, and think I shall.- I have at three periods had a 
strong impression that I shd. never see home again, & I am 
not apt to think so easily. 

The origin is to be found in the fall I had in the winter, 16 
which has well nigh cost me my life, even if it does not yet. 

I want to get home as much as any one can. 
Yr husband most truly and affectionately 

W. P. Mangum 

Mrs. C. A. Mangum. 

16 During the winter of 1850-1851 Mangum had a fall which eventually resulted in paralysis 
and his dearh. Boyd, "Draft of Life of Mangum," Chapter VIII, p. 4. 

208 State Department of Archives and History 



[May, 1851] 

THIS Institution is located at Oxford, Granville County, a 
town unsurpassed in the State for the reputation of its schools, 
the pleasantness of its scenery, its healthfulness and refined 

The Board of Trustees recently incorporated with charter 
privileges, design the establishment of an Institution for female 
education, adequate to the wants and demands of the present 
state of society. 


Rev. Samuel Wait 19 D. D., President, 

And Professor of Ancient Languages, and Moral 

and Intellectual Philosophy. 

Teacher of Mathemantical and Natural Science. 

Teacher of Modern Languages. 

Teacher of Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

Teacher of Ornamental Branches, 

Teacher of English, 

Teacher in the Preparatory Department. 

In regard to the President, the Board deem remark unneces- 
sary, as Dr. Wait has for twenty or thirty years been so favor- 
ably known to the Country for his devotion to the cause of 
Education. They have also in view accomplished teachers for 
the other Departments - all of which will be filled with prompt- 
ness as the wants of the Institution may require. A sufficient 
number will be engaged to allow the first Session to open in 
July - seasonable notice of which will be given in the public 

17 This is a printed circular. 

18 Oxford Female College was established by the Baptist in 1851 but because of debts it 
was sold to J. H. Mills in 1859. Johnson, Ante-Bellum N. C, 307; Paschal, History of 
Wake Forest College, I, 308n, 311, 327n. 

19 After graduation from Columbian College in Washington, Samuel Wait traveled South 
seeking funds for that institution. At New Bern he became the pastor of a Baptist congregation 
and helped to organize the North Carolina Baptist Convention and Wake Forest College, of 
which he became its president from 1834 to 1845. In 1851 to 1857 he was president of the 
Oxford Female College. Paschal, History of Wake Forest College I, 30-53, 379-387; "President 
Samuel Wait" The Wake Forest Student, XLIV, no. 4 (Jan. 1827), 187-198. 

The Mangum Papers 209 

The course of studies will be of an extensive and elevated 
character adapted to the varied and expanding capacities of the 
Pupils. It will embrace four Collegiate years in addition to the 
Preparatory Department; during which course pupils will be 
required to attend to such studies as shall cultivate habits of 
accurate and ready observation, develop the reasoning powers, 
improve the taste and fancy and store in the mind with useful 

On the completion of the course Diplomas will be conferred. 

The accomplishments of education will also receive due atten- 
tion. Ample facilities will be afforded pupils to perfect them- 
selves in all the ornamental branches, such as Music, Drawing, 
Painting, Needle Work, &c. 

Moral and Religious Instruction will receive the attention 
its importance demands, and while the pupils will be required 
to attend divine service, once at least, on the Sabbath, they will 
be allowed to attend where their parents or guardians may re- 

The Discipline of the Institution will be kind and parental, 
while all improper influences will be carefully excluded. Ample 
facilities for instruction will be afforded, such as Lectures, Li- 
brary, Apparatus, &c. 

Letters to the young ladies should be directed to the care of 
the President, post paid, and all instructions given by parents 
in regard to correspondence will be carefully attended to. 

Expenses. In the Preparatory Department, tuition will be 
from $10 to $12 per Session; in the Collegiate Course $20, with- 
out any extra charges for Languages or higher English through- 
out the course. Any pupil or her parents can select her studies 
and pursue Latin, French, or any of the higher branches at $10 
for each study. 

Extra Expenses. Music will be $20; use of instrument $3. 
The same on the Guitar. Drawing, Painting, Needle work, &c, 
each $10. 

Steward's Department. Arrangements have been made for 
boarding young ladies in the College under the immediate care 
of the President, and this is particularly recommended, though 
parents, under proper regulations, will be allowed to board their 

210 State Department of Archives and History 

daughters in town. The price of board and washing in College, 
will be $8 per month. 

By order of the Board. 

J. J. James, 20 President. 
T. T. Grandy, Secretary. 
May 1851. 

J. H. Horner 21 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Tally Ho, Granville N. C. 
June 23rd 1851. 
Judge Mangum 

Dr. Sir, The writing, set forth as the will of my Grand Father, 
David Parker, to which you are one of the subscribing witnesses, 
has been contested by myself & will come on for trial in Aug- 
ust next. Harrison Parker Exr. has sued out a commission to 
take your deposition, And as, in consequence of my school, it 
will be out of my power to attend in person, I trust you will do 
me the favor, when yr deposition is taken, to give a full and lucid 
statement of the whole transaction- As I doubt not their ques- 
tions will be so framed as to keep in the dark every thing in which 
yr answers would be unfavourable. From a remark made by 
you to Mekans Carrington on the day the will was made viz, 
that in yr opinion "the will could not stand" I am inclined to 
believe that yr evidence must be unfavorable to the validity of 
the will. I am aware that whatever you may say in the matter 
will be conclusive & I am perfectly willing to abide by it- But 
the general character of the two other witnesses is so bad and I 
find so many who would not believe them on oath, that I 

^J. J. James married Mary L. Mangum, the daughter of Priestley H. Mangum. For several 
years James was editor of the Biblical Recorder. Weeks, "Willie Person Mangum, Jr.," Biog. 
Hist, of N. C, V, 258. 

ffl james Hunter Horner was the son of William Horner. The family connection is as 

Arthur Mangum I 

I I 

William P. Mangum Arthur II 

Willie P. Mangum Clara m. David Parker 


Harrison Parker David Parker daughter m. William Horner 

J. H. Horner 

The Mangum Papers 211 

should not feel safe to depend upon them, the more especially 
their interest and feelings being on the other side. I know not 
what Jones & Russ will say, but such being their characters it 
does not matter. 

I was induced to contest the will from cretain acknowledge- 
ments of the Parkers and from finding a good many of the 
neighbors and intimate acquaintance of my Grand Father who 
believe that the old man at the time was incompetent to ex- 
ecute a will & besides these I have conversed with no one who 
does not believe that the old man was wholly in the hands of 
his sons and that the will was made by their direction and in 
accordance with their wishes. I should be glad to hear from 
you on the subject, but fear, that yr. engagements will not 
leave you leisure to write me. 

With high regard, 
Yr Hum: Servt 
J. H. Horner 

Hon: W. P. Mangum. 


A. Nesbit 22 to Walter A. Mangum. 

Seguin Texas 
July 28th, 1851 

Dear Sir 

I received your letter and as I was too busy last mail I only 
sent you one of our catalogues of our school here and expected 
that would be a sufficient answer to a part of your letter. Gen 
Wane was here and was much pleased. I was very glad to hear 
from you and hope you will write me again and also shall be 
very happy to see you and your family here at my house and 
anything that I can do for you I will do with much pleasure to 
aid you in the selection of a place to suit you or give you informa- 
tion of the titles or in fact anything you may desire. 

We have a fine healthy country with the best soil in the 
world good water and the best range for horses cattle or sheep 
- a very good country in places for hogs and I have every since 

^Apparently a former Mississippi neighbor of Walter A. Mangum. 

212 State Department of Archives and History 

I kept house made and cured my own bacon. We have no tor- 
nados and as to the northers they are only a sudden and severe 
change of weather and never last but three days, - it is true it 
is cold and we feel it but there is no danger and they need not 
be dreaded half as much as they are represented abroad - We 
have no navigation at least to within 90 miles of us but the 
roads are better than any you ever saw and oxen are no expence 
so that hauling is cheap and we will have a rail road within 20 
miles of us in a year - property is rising here and you had better 
come or send soon and secure you a place which you can do 
within any distance of our town that you may want say at from 
two to five Dollars and in any size tracts I know of some 2214 
acres of very fine land about 4 miles from town — and ther[e] on 
the river of some 3000 - about six — and indeed many tracts 
closer by but smaller - come on you can get a place and we can 
show you better cotton and more corn than any other place in 
Texas- A bale to the acre is easy of cotton - and from 35 to 50 
Bush of Corn - Sugar is raised sixty miles below us but we raise 
it here very well. Wheat has done well - a field of 80 acres within 
3 miles of town averaged 30 Bush this year this was a relative 
of Mr Simmons a Mr Grinage - oats and millet do finely - but 
for Stock such as mules cattle or sheep there is no country can 
beat us the country is undulating but not hilly here down the 
Country it is more level and above us more hilly- There appears 
to all new comers to be a scarcity of timber but we have great 
abundance for all our wants - we need less and take better care 
of it- Irish potatoes do well here and almost all sections of Texas 
has some ground fit for sweet ones and we raise great abund- 
ance I have now a large garden with plenty of them both kinds - 
beats cabbage and in fact all the vegetables and some more than 
you have The weavel injures corn sometimes but it is altogether 
according to the mode of cribing it and we have conquered them 
entirely in that way and I never have weavel - we can remedy 
all these small matters — The land is the richest I ever saw the 
finest climate the best range and in every respect the choice of 
all countries I have ever seen you can get lands here on all 
kinds of terms I believe the best plan is to come in and rent a 
house - hire out negroes the first year and buy at your leisure 
and you are sure to get a good bargain but if you come on to 
buy you are necessarily hurried and no one will sell on a credit 
as their is an uncertainty but when a man is here and his prop- 

The Mangum Papers 213 

erty he can operate well and make his improvements at his 
leisure get pay for the hire of negroes say in corn cattle and 
every thing he may want and then he can go to work full handed 
and get a good bargain and has time to pick it out and the time 
that he may loose by waiting he will gain at last - our weather 
is hot but not sultry the sea-breeze is strong and effectual we 
have but little rains but need but little and can do with less than 
any country and that is the secret of our good health - a dry 
country a good breeze no marshy low land, no overflow, and 
yet a rich country and productive in the highest degree — Our 
mesquit timber short and scrubby answers for fencing by putting 
it in the ground and it last[s] for ever — We have neither mus- 
quitoes - horse flies or buffalo knats — I never saw one of the 
latter in Texas. Musquitoes are plenty in the lower country — 
Society is good here as good as in any country — We have a 
church and 4 different preachers a good court house &c &c. We 
have plenty of peaches figs pomgranates quinces &c if we will 
only plant and raise them- I will at any time give you full parti- 
culars of all things touching your enquiries or that of your 
friends and will be pleased to hear from you — 

I have no hesitation in saying that we have the best country 
in Texas as I have seen it all and then Texas is the best country 
in the world- Anything I can do for you I will do and shall 
expect you & family at my house till you can do better remem- 
ber me with regards to your family and any old acquaintances. 

Your mot obt sert 
A. Nesbit 

W. A. Mangum Esq 
Charleston Mi 

Kinchen Mayo 23 to Walter A. Mangum. 

Bearden Lavaca County Texas 
August 29th 1851 
My old Friend 

I received your letter last week and learnt in it you wished 
to move to Texas and wished me to discribe the Country where 

^Apparently Walter got reports on Texas from several friends. 

214 State Department of Archives and History 

I live I will say to you our Country is healthyer than where you 
live tho we have some sickness and deaths I have had no sick- 
ness in my family this year and my doctors bill since I have been 
here say 4 years has been about $30 I had my shoulder dislocated 
was $10 and I paid $5 to another Doctor which could have avoid- 
ed and was not necessary the balance I used as patent medicines 
our cases were light chills and fevers 3 healthy years and one 
sickly one we have in our country chills and fevers some few 
congestions &c but in common our cases are more light and 
fewer of them our lands produce corn say about 6 Barrels to the 
acre Cotten 2000 lbs we have some few worms this year for 
the first tho I have none in our neighbourhood. Sugar cane does 
finely I prefer cotten raising tho there is not much difference 
good for sweet and Irish potatoes wheat does tolerable well in 
the rolling lands oats very fine rye I have not seen any tryed as 
yet land is cheap from 12 ! /2 Cts to $1. per acre in unimproved 
lands our country is rich and productive on the rivers but the 
uplands are not so good we have no bufalo gnats our insects are 
musketoes and but few of them from the coast 30 miles and a 
pleasant breeze but the sun very hot you will find the larger 
the water course the more unhealthy because larger bottoms &c. 
attends them there are male & Femal schools with us but scat- 
tering & few as our country is new the range is good for all stock 
of all kinds cattle takes the lead cows and calves are from $8 
to 10 there are a great many cattle here but are very dear they 
are money up it costs nothing to raise them it [is] nearly so with 
mules and horses hogs does fine so does sheep and goats there is 
grass both summer & winter range our Country is very level 
I live 35 miles from Texana & 55 miles from port Lavaca I can 
hall 8 bales weighing 500 lbs to market our navigation is worth 
nothing from the Coast tho that is always ready we cand send 
& receive at any time is is always ready our society is the same 
as Missi. only a great many Catholicks we have a Christian 
Church here if you see any of our able brothers send them to 
Texana where is a fine opening our waters are good either wells 
springs or river we have all kinds of people from every nation 
tho very kind when you come you had better hire your hands 
out till you get all streight as they hire well for money our 
cows next to money you can get land here which is good at $1. 
if you purchased in richer and more extensive valleys you will 
pay 2 or more and more sickly. I live on the Lavaca river address 
me at Bearsden P. O. Lavaca County Texas. The post office is at 

The Mangum Papers 215 

my house so I wish you great suckcess in your move yours 
Respecfull &c. 

Kinchen Mayo. 

hands hire from 12 to 20 dollars per mo we have a great Prairarie 
country & timber scarce in places to I have a plenty 

K. M. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City. 

29th. of September, 1851; 
My dear Love. 

I have been to bed to night nearly three hours, & have risen 
to say to you, that I remember that if we live until tomorrow 
night, we shall have been together as husband & wife for thirty- 
two years, & during that whole time, and it is long - I have 
never felt the least diminution of confidence in my dear - dear 
wife, or the least diminution of affection. — I hope & believe she 
thinks so, though perhaps, nobody else may do so.- 

My poor wife - neglected as she may seem to be, as the 
world has some right to think her, - I love, as I have always 
loved her, better than all the world our dear children, not ex- 
cepted. — 

My dear Wife, I hope thinks so - & I do not know, when I 
forgot her in my life, except when H. Parker left here. — I did 
not send her some Sarsaparilla. — I tell you my Love, you can 
get as good, or nearly as good from Mr. Heartt in Hillsboro as 
you can get here. — The difference is all a notion. 

I have been nearly dead, & have often thought I should 
never see home again. — 

Seven weeks ago, I left the Capitol Hill after my land lady 
was burnt to death & died, & came to the United States Hotel, 
on Pennsylvania Avenue, where I have a pleasant room, & live 
much better, & my general health has much improved. — I hope 
my Love to see you soon. Yet I am as weak as a child. — I wrote 
a deposition for H. Parker last Thursday & have been in bed 
ever since, this is the first time since, I have put pen to paper, 
though often requested. — 

216 State Department of Archives and History 

Yesterday, I thought, I should die- My nephew Willie, who 
lives in the same house with me is very kind, & I hope my 
family will always be kind to him. — I have been nearly dead- 
My injury of last winter nearly cost me my life.- I had to be 
treated for it by Doctr. May, until, I was so reduced, that I 
could not walk without assistance, across my room. I several 
times never expected to see you again, & whom could I desire 
more to see? 

In addition to all this, I have been much depressed in 
spirits. — 

I hope my Love to be home soon. I am not now able. — 

Whatever may come - My dear Love, always think, whether 
I die here, or in North Carolina, (& as to me I care not much 
about it.) I die your true & affectionate husband, with a 
thorough conviction, that you have made me the most true & 
affectionate wife, I could have got in the world. — 

With all my heart & love, 
I am most truly & sincerely 
Your affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 


As to our daughter Sallie, Let her get married at once. W.P.M 
To Mrs. Charity A Mangum (my dear wife). 

Willie P. Mangum to William A. Graham 2 * 

Irving Hotel [Washington] 
31 st . deer. 1851 
My dear Sir. 

I am ashamed of not having made my poor respects to M rs . 
Graham & her family before this; & especially, as it was par- 
ticularly enjoined by my daughters Sally & Patty who both re- 
member with a proper spirit, M rs . G's civilities & kindnesses 
towards them. - I have not even paid my respects to the Presi- 
dent whom I hold in high respect & even much more. - 

I am not now well, & will not be out to morrow. My coal fire 
in my chamber will be my death, unless I change my firing, 
which the "Policy" of my Landlord will not admit of. - 

^The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

The Mangum Papers 217 

Permit me to request you to remember to put me right with 
the President, for these small things in this artificial world. - 
I mean the great world of Washington - are sometimes marked, 
& taken to mean more than they do. - 

But as Kossuth & his cause make all the sensation for the 
moment, these little things may not be remembered. - 

Are not we the American's especially, the Great Cities, who 
affect by "a nod" to govern the American World, greater fools 
than any in Christendom? save & excepting, the artizans of 
London & Manchester & peradventure, the Miners of Cornwall, 
who sometimes see the Sun once a week, or once a year. - 

The world is yet but an experiment, and Government hardly 
[less] so, as its solution is in rapid progress I fear - to Catastro- 
phy. - These are the imaginings of old age. & I am old, & yet 
have little faith. - 

I go for Louis Napoleon, a poor devil, I fear, & wish he had 
the Vigor of his great uncle - without his world-wide ambition, 
& then he w d . govern France as she can be only Governed. 

truly, always 
W. P. Mangum 

To Gov. Graham 25 

Samuel D. Morgan 26 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Macon Georgia Deer 31st 1851 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C 

Dear Sir it is my duty to inform you of the death of 
your negro woman Judy which took place on the 30th this Inst, 
at 12 Oclock P M. 

I had her intered to day she left a child two weeakes old, 
and as the Doct. says she acted imprudent in attempting to git 
up too soon and took cold which caused her death, for my part 
I cannot say; for I have no confidence in a Georgia Doctr, and 
if I ever had, - I've quite enough now in the shape of bills agt. 

^Mangum's calling card was enclosed. 
26 See above. II, 79, and below, V, 261. 

218 State Department of Archives and History 

you, to disgust any one with whole fraternity of Physicians 
there is one bill of 93$. and one of $36.50 besides the bill agt 
Judy, and I shall not pay any of them unless they make con- 
siderable reduction. I reachd Macon on the 18th and have been 
trying ever since to hire out & collect hire for past years, and 
have 4 to hire yet and have only collected one note of 320$ 
think I will be compelled to sue on one or two notes I have hired 
out both of your women Sarah for 80$ and Hulda for 110$ 
but could have Hulda to take the child by taking her from 
the gentlemon hired to, and Hulda is very mutch opposed to 
taking the child, besides it would cost more than the child is 
worth, for I cannot hire her out for anything with that child, 
it not being her own, and I think she would hardly Raise so 
delicate a child as that seemes to be, without the attention of 
some white person, 

Mrs. Mcdonald who hired Judy proposes to keep the child 
til I can hear from you. She would give something for it if you 
would sell it, I think, or would Raise it if she can for half it 
may be worth at some future time. I think she is a Lady and 
will do what is wright. Though if she undertakes to keep it for 
compensation it will cost more than the child is worth. Please 
write me what you will have done with it now it may suit 
me to bring a negro woman back home that I have for sale in 
Consequence of her health, if so and you wish me I could have 
her to take it to No. Caro. by Publick Conveyance when I come. 
I aim however to sell my woman if her health will admit, in 
haste I have the honour to be your Obt. Svt. 

Verry Respectfully 

Sam. D. Morgan 


Hon. W. P. Mangum 
Red Mountain 
N. C 


If Mr. Mangum is not at home his Lady will oblige me to 
answer this immediately- S.D.M 

The Mangum Papers 219 


Willie P. Mangum to John M. Clayton 1 

Washington City, 29th Jan: 1852 

I have reed, your note of the 26th. inst. & reply, that being 
detained in Washington with extreme illness by reason of an 
accidental injury & living & being treated at large expense, I 
upon leaving here, took up the due bill I gave you, & substituted 
one for the principal & interest payable in Dec. last. 

I did not return on account of ill health, until the middle of 
the month, & in a day or two thereafter I paid your agent, a 
young lawyer- whose name I cannot at this instant certainly 
call- I think, Marsell $100. & I told him I wd. pay the balance 
soon. I have not seen him since, but will pay it when he calls 
on me. 

Your obedient servt. 
W. P. Mangum 
Hon. J. M. Clayton 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum 

Washington City 
Tuesday night, Feby. 3 rd . 1852. 
My dear Love. 

I reproach myself for not having written to you more fre- 
quently.- But until last friday was a week, I have been in a very 
variable & decidedly bad health- I have been better, as the 
weather has moderated until Saturday, it then became cloudy, 
rainy & warm, & I have not been as well since. Yesterday, I 
did not go to the Senate- I was too unwell. — To day I did, but 
was quite unwell.- I live at the Irving House- more than a mile 
to the Capitol not far from Willards towards the Presidents, & 
am making arrangements to go to George Town, where I shall 
live cheaper & have more exercise.- 

^he original is in the John M. Clayton Papers, Library of Congress. 

220 State Department of Archives and History 

I am always desirous of hearing from you, my dear Love, 
for as I grow older, and become more isolated from the world 
with a narrower circle of friends, I feel my attachment constant- 
ly increased towards the few, I w d . at any moment, trust with 
my life & soul. 

My health, though I live with the utmost care requires 
country air & exercise, otherwise I cannot live long.r You must 
not be surprized to see me ride up some evening in less than 
three weeks.- You will not desire to see me, from my duties, & 
yet you must bear it as well as you can.- 

I am not well enough to do business, & must go to the Coun- 
try to recruit, & where shall I go so well, as to meet my dear & 
beloved Wife, in whose affections & kindness, I have as much 
confidence as I have in the Providence of God. I say this without 
profanation, as I hope & believe. 

Two or three weeks at home, I trust, will help me.- I must 
get well or die soon.- 

I was so reduced last year in health & spirits that I find it 
hard, to recover- I pray God, I may. — Write to me my Love, if 
it be but a line.- 

I hope W m . is doing well. I have all confidence in you, & 
beg you not to indulge him too much, & spoil him- 

I hope My dear Patty is well & happy. Your other daughters, 
I never hear from- I hope they are well & happy — 

If you see me my dear Love, in two or three weeks, will you 
meet me with a kiss?- Say yes or no, by the next post. 

If you say no. I will go North.- Whatever may come to us, 
my Love, always know & believe that no one on earth is as dear 
to me as my old & dearly beloved wife- one whom I know, & 
can trust as I can any thing in Heaven, always abating the mere 
weakness of our frail mortality .- 

I am my dear Love. 

Your truly affectionate husband 
Willie P. Mangum 


Mrs. Charity A. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 221 

Charity A. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 2 

Feb. 17 th . "52. 
My dear Husband, 

I received your kind and affectionate letter with true and 
sincere pleasure, you must know how trying it is to me not to 
hear from you oftener, I thank you most kindly for the confi- 
dence you have in me and I hope always to deserve it, — I do 
desire so much to see you, Come home my dear Husband and 
I will receive you with open arms, You ask if I would give you 
a kiss, you know too well I would say yes with all my heart, for 
I do not feel like myself when my Husband stays so long from 
me, Come my Husband we should be thankfull to see you. I do 
hope and trust you will soon be well. I had a letter from Sally 
last week, She was well and also Mary and were so anxious to 
hear from Father, and also to get home, we are looking for the 
Col. every day, Sally says she must stay one month and she 
will not have time to see Mother in uuch a little while. What 
has become of Willie Mangum we should be glad to hear from 
him occasionally, I hope he is doing well. I have had such a 
severe cold that my eyes are still weak from the effects of it. 
Willy is usefull and assists Patty and myself a good deal. 

I Shall look all the time for you. I desire you to get your 
health so much and think if you would be prudent in all things, 
and also patient you would get well. Patty and Willie join 
Mother in warmest love to dear Father and are so happy at 
the hope of seeing him soon. 

Your truly devoted wife. 
C. A. Mangum. 

Dennis Heartt to 

Hillsborough, N. C. March 31st. 1852. 

Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 24th is received, and I feel sensible of the honor 
you have conferred upon me by the freedom with which you 
have expressed your views in relation to the coming Presi- 

The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

222 State Department of Archives and History 

dential canvass. I have also read with interest the letter which 
you enclosed for my perusal; it contains some important consider- 
ations. It would give me more freedom of action, sometimes, to 
be supported by the advice and counsel of political friends. In 
this respect my contemporaries at Raleigh seem to have enjoyed 
peculiar advantages, especially my friend of the Standard. I 
have never been in his office without finding some of his political 
associates present, and have reason to believe that they assist 
him greatly by writing for or advising with him. I have none 
of this sort of assistance; rarely so much as an expression of 
approval of the course I was pursuing. Isolated as I have been, 
with no advisers but my own reflections, and guided only by 
the lights to be obtained by my own observations, it should not 
be wondered at if I sometimes mistake the true policy which 
should be pursued by the Whigs. In most that you have said in 
your letters I agree entirely; and I am not prepared to say that 
you are not correct in all. There are difficulties involved in the 
questions at issue which I do not profess to be far-seeing enough 
to solve. It is certain that Mr. Fillmore is entitled to "the respect, 
confidence and support of the country"; his firm, consistent, 
statesmanlike and rational course has secured this for him in the 
South. In this State there appears to be little difference of opin- 
ion among the Whigs; all are for Fillmore. Whether an equal 
degree of unanimity could be brought about if another should 
receive the nomination admits of some doubt. I have heard some 
strong expressions of dislike to Gen. Scott, but whether that 
feeling is of much extent I am not able to say. His reception in 
the South will depend much on the manner and the circumstances 
under which he is brought out. The consideration mentioned 
in the letter of Mr. D. 3 which you enclosed to me, may have an 
important bearing upon the matter at issue. If the removal 
alluded to was that of a United States Marshal "because of his 
disinclination to execute Federal [fugitive slave] laws," it will 
very naturally create for Mr. Fillmore feelings of sympathy in 
the South, and consequently in the same degree prejudice Gen. 
Scott, if he should receive the nomination in his stead. And I 
understand such a Marshall has been appointed in New York as 
a delegate to the National Convention. Though something might 
be done to afford "those who have assumed a false position an 
opportunity to return gracefully to their public duties," is it not 

3 Probably John Davis, of Massachusetts. The enclosure was not found. 

The Mangum Papers 223 

possible for them to spoil all the grace of the action by being 
too punctillious? Still it is important that some accomodation 
should be made, and that the question should not come, before 
the country with sectional features. There is much force in the 
observation of Mr. D. that "if the South shall insist, finally, on 
the nomination of Mr. Fillmore, the compromise measures will 
be submitted to the country under that nomination; if he is de- 
feated, the political demagogues of the country will obtain a 
triumph, and the conservatives, at the North, Will be crushed." 
If an issue can be made up which will avoid such a result, heartily 
should I rejoice in it. 

I have much confidence in Gen. Scott. I consider him high- 
minded, honorable, patriotic, and withall a good Whig. If he gets 
the nomination it will give me great pleasure to throw into the 
scale all the influence my feeble abilities and limited means will 
enable me to exert. You will see by the last numbers of the 
Recorder, that though our perference, at present, is for Mr. Fill- 
more, it is not our intention that injustice shall be done to Gen. 
Scott. As you request, I return Mr. Davis's letter to you enclosed 
in this, and remain, with much respect, 

very truly yours, 
Dennis Heartt. 

David Outlaw to Willie P. Mangum 

House of Reps 
April 6th 1852. 

I received yesterday your note informing me that the Whigs 
of the Senate had directed you as their Chairman to confer 
with the Whigs of the House as to the time when they would 
meet the Whigs of the Senate in general caucus, to fix the time 
and place of meeting of the National Whig Convention. 4 

4 By the spring of 1852 the Southern and Northern wings of the Whig Party had about 
come to the parting of the ways. Seward and other anti-slavery Whig leaders at the North 
refused to endorse the finality of the Compromise, especially the Fugitive Slave Law. They began 
pushing General Scott as their candidate for President, although the Southern Whigs endorsed 
Fillmore. On April 9 a caucus of the Whigs from both houses of Congress met to decide on 
the location of their national convention. Humphrey Marshall, David Outlaw, and Meredith 
Gentry led a fight to have this caucus commit itself to the finality of the Compromise. Before 
a vote came on the resolution, adjournment until April 20 was agreed to. Before adjournment 
Mangum, who presided, announced that he would rule the resolution out of order at the next 
meeting. At the adjourned meeting Mangum's ruling was sustained. As a result many Southern 
Whigs left the caucus and the rump selected Baltimore as the meeting place. Cole, Whig Party 
in the South, 232-239. 

224 State Department of Archives and History 

It is true at the beginning of session I presided at a meet- 
ing of the Whigs of the House, but that meeting was called for 
a special purpose, and when that purpose was accomplished, it 
adjourned without day. Now I entertain the opinion, upon re- 
flection, that my functions as chairman then ceased, at least 
there is very great doubt whether I have any more authority 
to act, than any other member of the party in the House. 

I have mentioned the subject to several members who after 
consultation will doubtless adopt such course as they deem 
most expedient and respectful to the body of which you are 
chairman. - 

With great respect 
Your obt sevt 
David Outlaw 

Hon Mr. Mangum of the Senate — 


Letter from Willie P. Mangum, read at the Clay Festival, 

at the Apollo. 

Washington, April 10, 1852. 

DEAR SIR:- I have had the honor of receiving your invita- 
tion to assist at the "Clay Festival" to be given in the City of 
New York on the 12th instant, in honor of our illustrious fellow 
citizen, Henry Clay, of Kentucky. 

I have deferred a reply until the latest period, with an 
anxious hope that my engagements might enable me to join 
in the manifestation of respect to one entitled to the love, grati- 
tude and respect of every American citizen, and to the admira- 
tion and rspect of every liberal and enlightened human being 
in the civilized portion of the world. 

I have long and intimately known Mr. Clay in public and 
private life, and regard it as a providential blessing to have 
known so well one so great and so true. 

We shall scarcely look upon his like again. The finest model 
of study, as I verily believe, that the world can present to the 
young and ardent mind, fired with noble, and elevated aspira- 





Courtesy of the United States Military Academy 

Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, 1 786-1 S66. From the oil portrait by Robert Weir, in the 
possession of the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. 

The Mangum Papers 225 

tions. I am constrained to forego the pleasure I should receive in 
participating on this occasion with the distinguished citizens of 
the great emporium in these manifestations. 

I have desired to meet on some social occasion the citizens 
of New York - and the elite of the country - distinguished alike 
for the highest intelligence and refinement, and the most in- 
domitable spirit of enterprise and useful activity and efficiency. 

Be pleased to accept the assurance of my profound homage. 

Willie P. Mangum. 

Henry W. Miller 5 to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh April: 17./52 

My Dear Sir: I have just seen in the "Baltimore Sun" and one 
other paper, an account of your Speech in the Senate, 6 break- 
ing ground for Genl: Scott. I was glad to see it, because I be- 
lieve he is the only man in the Whig Party who can be elected. 
Believing that he is sound on the Compromise I go with you, & 
I believe, satisfied on that point, he can carry N. Carolina by a 
sweeping Majority- My preferences were for Mr Fillmore & 
would be now if I thought he could be elected. 

The Convention on the 26th will, perhaps unanimously ex- 
press a preference for Mr Fillmore, 7 but I hope they will also 
adopt a Resolution declaring confidence in both Genl Scott & 
Mr Webster.- 

6 See above, II, 507n. 

6 On April 15, 1852, Mangum made his speech in the Senate which was later published 
under the title Personal and Political Remarks of Mr. Mangum of North Carolina in Explanation 
of his Political Position in Relation to the Presidential Election. [Washington, D. C], Towers 
printer, n.d., 8 pp. After explaining his many absences from the Senate because of ill-health, 
and after announcing that he would close his political life with the "present session," he stated 
that in supporting Scott he was going against the expressed opinion of the Whigs of his state, 
although he did not feel that his constituents disapproved of Scott. He attempted to show that 
Scott was sound on slavery and that, if elected, he would enforce the Fugitive Slave Law. He 
believed Scott was the only Whig who could win. Although, he concluded, he was for Scott, 
he was a loyal Whig and would support his party's nominee. The speech is printed below, 
pps. 725-745. 

7 Mangum's endorsement of Scott was very unpopular with North Carolina Whigs although the 
state convention only mildly endorsed Fillmore and added that they would support any Whig 
nominee who endorsed the Compromise of 1850. Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C," 335-336. R. B. 
Gilliam, a former friend of Mangum, wrote W. A. Graham, June 2. 1852, "Mr. Mangum's 
demonstration in the Senate has had no effect, unless it has been to strengthen and consolidate 
the universal sentiment." And E. J. Hale, the editor of the Fayetteville Observer, wrote Graham 
April 21, 1852, "We are rather inclined to suppose, in these parts, that Mangum was not very 
sober when he commenced his speech, that he was very drunk when he finished it." William A. 
Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

Despite these criticisms of Mangum, he worked hard for Scott's nomination and election. 
Sentiment, however; was against him. See also Boyd, "Draft of Life of Mangum," Chapter VIII, 
PP. 5-8. 

226 State Department of Archives and History 

I hope you will publish your speech in pamphlet form and 
circulate it amongst us.- 

Yours Truly 

H W. Miller. 

Hamilton Fish to Willie P. Mangum 8 

Monday Session 
April 19, 1852 
My Dear Sir 

I am under the necessity of leaving this city for a few days. 
& consequently shall not be able to attend the Whig Caucus to- 
morrow evening- 

I mention this in order that my absence may not be at- 
tributed to an indifference to the important objects for which 
the meeting is called. If the Caucus would allow voting by 
proxy in case of absence, I would request you to cast a vote for 
me, upon all questions which may be submitted to the decision 
of the meeting- 

With Sincere regard 
yours faithfully 

Hamilton Fish 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

Report of Whig Congressional Caucus 

[20 April, 1852] 

WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION.— The following is the 
official report of the meeting of the Whig members of Congress: 

At a meeting of the Whig Members of Congress held in the 
Senate Chamber on Friday evening, April 9, 1852, the Hon. 
Willie P. Mangum, Senator from North Carolina, was called 
to the chair, and Joseph R. Chandler, of Pennsylvania, and 

8 A copy of this letter is in the Letter Copy Book N. P. 28. Hamilton Fish Papers, Library 
of Congress. 

The Mangum Papers 227 

Alfred Dockery, of North Carolina, were appointed secretaries. 
After some preliminary discussion, it was resolved that when 
the meeting adjourn it adjourn to meet on Tuesday evening, the 
20th instant. 

On Tuesday evening, April 20th, the Whig members of Con- 
gress assembled according to adjournment; and the subjoined 
resolution; recommending the time and place for holding the 
Whig National Convention, was adopted, and the following order 
made : 

Ordered, That the Chairman of this meeting cause the reso- 
lution, this evening adopted, recommending the time and place 
for holding the Whig National Convention, to be inserted in 
the Whig newspapers of this District, signed by himself, and 
countersigned by the Secretaries. 

Resolved, That it be recommended that the Whig National 
Convention, for the nomination of candidates for President and 
Vice President of the United States, be held in the city of Balti- 
more on Wednesday, the 16th day of June next. 

Willie P. Mangum, Chairman. 
Joseph R. Chandler, ) 

( Secretaries. 
Alfred Dockery, ) 


(Correspondence of the Baltimore Patriot.) 

Mangum's Position Denned. 

Washington, April 25, 9 1852 

In the Senate to-day, we have had a most interesting scene 
in the great political drama, now in course of presentation be- 
fore the country. It excited intense interest Yesterday. Mr 
Mangum intimated an intention to say, a few words in regard 
to matters in which he was personally interested. He was will- 
ing to meet the case then, if it was the pleasure of the Senate, 
but he would rather prefer to wait another day. As the bill for 
indemnity for French spoliations was then under consideration, 

^his should be April 15. 

228 State Department of Archives and History 

some supposed that he might have had some interest in the mat- 
ter, and all were anxious to know what was the precise subject 
in view. Today, after the journal was read, he rose to define 
his position, not on the French affair, but on the Presidency. 
The Senatorial seats and the lobbies were filled. 

Of all the candidates for the Presidency, Mr Mangum de- 
clared himself to be in favor of Gen. Scott. At the same time, 
he said he was free to admit that Mr. Fillmore was the favorite 
candidate of his own State, North Carolina, by the proportion 
of two to one of the Whigs. Nevertheless, he considered that 
Gen. Scott was the most available candidate in the country at 
large, and by judicious management, he thought that Gen. 
Scott could be elected, and that no other Whig candidate could. — 
Some contended that Gen. Scott had not so much talent as some 
other candidates. But it was not absolutely necessary for the 
Chief Magistrate to possess the highest order of intellect. All 
that was essential, was good common sense and correct princi- 
ples. Gen. Scott eminently possessed all these high qualifica- 
tions, and what was more, he was a national statesman, and 
was not wedded to the interests of any one section of the coun- 
try, but was devoted to the whole country. In regard to the 
compromise measures, he believed Gen. Scott could present as 
clean a bill of health, as either Mr. Fillmore, Mr. Webster, or 
any other prominent Whig. He had conversed with him and 
it was known that Gen. Scott was in favor of the compromise at 
the time it passed, and this ought to satisfy the most scrupu- 
lous — Mr. Mangum said he wished his friend from Michigan 
no harm, but he would find it mighty hard to beat the hero of 
the Mexican wars, in fair fight. — (Gen. Cass here smiled; as 
who should say, — give us a chance, and we will try without 
fear of the tall plume.) 

Willie P. Mangum has long been one of the most prominent 
Whigs in the country. He has had a brilliant career in the Sen- 
ate, and after the accession of Mr. Tyler to the Presidency, he 
was elected President pro tern of the Senate, and discharged 
his duties with dignity and advantage to the nation. He has 
always been a frank and high-minded gentleman, and stands 
high on the rolls of American statesmen. His views are, there- 
fore, entitled to great weight. 

Mr. Mangum said that he himself had been often referred 
to in the newspapers as having aspirations. But he had none 

The Mangum Papers 229 

such. He had been favored by his State to his heart's content, 
and beyond his merits. He was sorry to differ in opinion from 
the majority of the Whigs of his State. But he was willing to 
retire at their option. He was not a candidate for any office, and 
probably never should be again. But he would speak his senti- 
ments freely, even when differing in opinion from his own 
party in his State. In the course of nearly 30 years in the pub- 
lic service, he had never sought any Executive favor for him- 
self. But he was a party man, and wished for the success of his 
party. He believed that Gen. Scott was the most available 
candidate, and other things being equal, he should go for him. 
Nevertheless, he should go for any other Whig candidate who 
might be nominated fairly by the Convention. If a nomination 
were made unfairly he should hold himself in reserve! But he 
did not consider either Mr. Fillmore or Mr. Webster as available. 
These were the principal points of this remarkable speech. 
After he sat down, Mr. Gwin rose to enquire whether the Sen- 
ator from North Carolina was authorized to say that Gen. Scott 
would go for the compromise as a finality. Mr. Mangum said 
he had not had any conversation with Gen. Scott on the subject 
since December, 1850, and was not authorized to say any thing 
more than could be inferred from his general wishes, when the 
bill was under consideration; but this satisfied him that the 
General would produce as "clean a bill of health" as any other 
Whig candidate. He then asked Mr. Gwin if he would vote for 
General Scott if he were sound on this subject, to which Mr. 
Gwin frankly admitted he would not. Mr. Mangum then said 
that he would not yield to suggestions from his opponents. 

Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Willie P. Mangum 10 

LaGrange, Randolph, May 24. "52 

My own dearest Father, 

It was with the highest pleasure my dearest father that I 
received your kind & affectionate letter. — & the grateful news 
it brought of your improvement in health — what could have 
made your daughter so truly happy? & thankful as to have 
heard it. — for nothing in the world could make me so very 

10 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

230 State Department of Archives and History 

happy as to see both of my parents once more enjoying good 
health — & see them contented & happy. — I received a letter 
from Sister Martha Saturday saying that my dear Mother had 
entirely recovered from her cold & that all of the family were 
well. I was exceedingly glad to hear it, — Sister Martha was 
not well — She has had a cough through the entire winter & 
spring & has not recovered from it yet — I can not help from 
being uneasy about it — but I am so much in hopes that when 
warm weather comes that she will get well of it. 

I received a letter from Mary Mangum in Wake — saying 
they were all well & that Rebecca, Len, 11 Miss Martha & her- 
self were baptized the first Sunday in this month. 

Mrs Russ died about two weeks ago — of Consumption — 
she lingered a long time upon the verge of death — it was for 
weeks they were expecting her to die every day. 

A thousand thanks My dear father for the vegetable seed 
you sent me. — I was so very glad of them — they were very 
scarce with us this spring — & such a great variety you sent — 
We planted them very nicely — & I am so much in hopes that I 
shall have the exquisite happiness of dishing some of them up 
to you this Summer or fall, ah! that would be happiness indeed. 
I hope this will not be a long session — & that you will be able 
to come home as you anticipate by the middle of Summer, & I 
know the Col will bring me down home to see you, ah! I all- 
ready look to that time with so much pleasure, of seeing those 
who I so dearly love & I know love me. There are ties between 
children & parents that can never be broken, distance only 
serves to draw them tighter. — My visits home are an oasis, — 
there is nothing in the world that would make me so happy as to 
live near you & my dear Mother. 

It was so kind in you my dear father to write to your daugh- 
ter when I know how much pressed for time you must have 
been — but I can assure you it was duly appreciated by her, for 
never was a letter more gratefully received. 

How anxiously I wish you could be triumphant in your 
choice for the Presidential nominee — as the time draws nearer — 
with how much anxiety you are looking forward to it — surely 
you will go over to Baltimore to the Convention — I hope there 
will be no reason sufficiently strong to prevent you from go- 
ing — for there is nothing that will have its effect — like one ap- 

u Priestley Man gum's children. 

The Mangum Papers 231 

pearing in person. I know you can have more influence even 
with your friends by being there. 

I see that the entire State is for Fillmore & I presume all 
will be instructed — but some will be more apt to go with the 
current. I was glad you came out as you did for Scott. — It was 
so kind of you My dear father to send me your speech. That & 
your letter shall be kept together — I shall treasure them as 
long as I live, — I was reading yesterday a letter you wrote to 
me in "36 — when I was a girl at Louisburg, — which I prize more 
highly than any thing I possess, — that I always intend pre- 
serving. — Could My dear father find time to write to me again 
you do not know how highly I would prize it. Sister Martha 
sent me a very pretty compliment paid to you by your old friend 
the Independent, — it was taken from a New York paper — she 
says they are frequently copied in the state papers — we take 
only the Register — & he seems opposed to your course. The 
Col unites with warmest love to My dearest father. 

Your most truly devoted daughter, Sallie. 

Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 12 

At Home, Randolph, June 8 th . "52. 

My dearest Mother, 

I was truly distressed my dearest Mother to hear that you 
have had another attack of illness — I very much fear that you 
do not take sufficient care of yourself — your health is much 
more delicate than formerly — & will require much more at- 
tention [faded] which I sincerely trust you will bestow on it — 
for your children's sake my dearest Mother, if you cannot for 
your own. — for you cannot know how closely our happiness is 
linked with you — for if there was a Mother idolized by her chil- 
dren — it is you. I most truly hope with Sister Martha that now 
we may hope to have more uniform weather & your health 
will become better, but this weather don't seem much like it — 
for we had fire all day yesterday — & it is cool & cloudy this 
morning — I am afraid my dearest Mother you will think I am 
a good hand to promise but bad to perform, but I really will & 

^he original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

232 State Department of Archives and History 

must not procrastinate so — I took my writing materials over to 
Mrs. Leach's 13 the first of last week intending to send you a let- 
ter by Tuesday's mail — but General Leach and Lady came 
down & I concluded to go to the Greensboro examination, & 
with assistance I made a dress in a day — & a good many other 
things to do — so I could not possibly have time to write — & the 
mail did not come last Saturday — so I know you will excuse me 
this time — if I am a good child & do better in future. — we did 
not go to the salem Examination 14 as we expected — which was the 
week before, because I had not received my bonnet — but Mr My 
[torn] sent it on to Greensboro — it is a beautiful white crape 
trimmed with narrow ribbon — new style — & rich blond lace — 
a beautiful pink sprig of flowers out side — & geranium flowers 
& leaves in the cap — they are very pretty — pink strings — up- 
on the whole I think it is the prettiest bonnet I ever had — The 
Col made me a present of two beautiful silver candle sticks. & 
a very nice brass kettle — you may know I was pretty proud of 
them. I enjoyed myself very much at the examination, hurried 
all the time though — which took away a part of the pleasure — 
The Col had my daguerreotype taken four times — but each im- 
pression did me so much injustice that I would not take one 
of them — I thought I would wait — some time when I was pass- 
ing— & get Mr. Wild to take it— I think I looked about 35— & 
the Col. would have it taken in my bonnet because it became 
me so much — to make me look younger I suppose. The Col had 
to take Lindsey off & sell him last week — he was accused of 
putting hemlock in the milk of one of our neighbors — Mr 
Dears.' all the evidence they had against him was the Col dogs 
were there — which was none. The Col did not permit one of 
his servants to go on the plantation — Mr Dear said the Col 
should not keep Lindsey here another night — if he did he would 
run the law upon him — so we had to go right over to Mrs 
Leach's & the Col left next day — all believed he was innocent 
of it — which I have not any doubt but what he is. — but still 
public opinion would be against the Col he could not keep him — 
(even if he was cleared — but I do not want this spoken of out 
of the family — 

Tell sister Martha that I bet I have a great deal prettier & 
larger dahlia than she can show, but my cypress — only three 

"Sally A. Mangum married Colonel Martin W. Leach in 1851. 

14 She probably refers to Salem Female Academy, now Salem College, which Charity A. 
Mangum attended in 1810-1811. 

The Mangum Papers 233 

came up — & I wanted to have a circle. I must tell you — I have 
had a nice mess of snaps can she beat that — I cooked some 
spinach— the Col liked it very much — but I never did. — my 
seed my Father sent me came up finely — I am glad to hear that 
Sister Mary has gone — I hope to stay some time with Aunt 
Mary — I intend writing to Aunt Mary by Saturday's mail. My 
dear Mother I am so glad to hear that you intend to write to 
me as soon as you feel well enough — but My dearest Mother 
however glad I would be to get one from you I would not have 
you inconvenience yourself, but my dearest Mother how is my 
sisters cold — if you please send & get some Cherry pectoral for 
her, I know it will cure it. I am so truly thankful to hear you 
are taking sarsaparilla bitters — I hope & trust it will improve 
your health. I was truly proud to hear that Sister Mary & 
Brother William have been studying so well this spring. It is 
very kind in my sister to write to me every week — for nothing 
on earth could make me happier than to hear from my dear 
Mother & sisters & little Brother. The Col unites with me in 
warmest love to my Mother & sisters & Brother — give my love 
to Miss Polly — I hope she is well by this time. 

Your most affectionate daughter, 

PS. Tell Sister Mary to ask Aunt Mary to give her a bonnet so 
she can come home with me, when ever I come, very thin straws 
lined white pink or blue crape all woven mostly the lining 

PS. Tell Sister Martha that I have not got the letter the Col 
wrote me. — tell her to send to Mangum's & get the letter — & 
to keep it for me, but to let me know she has received it. I 
know they have opened it & read it) 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington 23rd June 1852. 
My dear Love. 

I am quite well, my health has been good - now that the 
nominations are made I shall go home sometimes next week - 
& hope My Love to find you all well. — 

234 State Department of Archives and History 

The nominations I may say, are mine. — I might have had 
it otherwise. 15 

It is best as it is. 

The Senate has just adjourned & I have but a moment to say 

God bless you all 
W. P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Washington 23rd June 1852. 
My dear daughter 

I have just written to your mother to say I am well, & will 
be at home in a week or ten days — I sent to Red Mountain — 
This I send to Dials Creek, though it may be too late for this 
week. — I am sure it is - therefore send to Red Mountain 

The nominations are made and are right. — I might have been 
second, but declined — The ill temper of No. Caro. is such that I 
thought it might hazard the vote. — 

I trust you are well. My health has been generally good, 
though I have not my former strength 

W. P. Mangum 

Poe Nesbit & Poe to Willie P. Mangum. 

[27 July, 1852] 
D. Dempsey Esqr 

1852 To Willie P. Mangum 

Apl 1st Hire of Slave John to 16th V2 Month 

@ 18$ pr Month $ 9.00 

May 10th Hire of John to 27th July Vk 

18$ pr Month $ 46.20 

$ 55.20 
Error deducted 5.20 


Reed the above a/c from S. D. Morgan 

for suit 
Poe Nesbit & Poe 
Atty at law. 

^Mangum was offered the nomination of Vice President but he declined. Boyd, "Draft of 
Life of Mangum," Chapter VUI, p. 8. 

The Mangum Papers 235 


D. Dempsey 

To a/c 

W. P. Mangum 



Poe Nesbit & Poe. 

William Schouler 16 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Boston Atlas office Aug 27th 1852 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

Allow me to thank you for telling the plain God's 
truth in regard to the Secretary of State in your speech the other 
day in the Senate. 17 It is time the truth should be told, of that 
gentleman, a more selfish bitter & malignant politician does 
not in my judgement live. He is doing all he can to break down 
the Whig party in this State and in the nation, but his doings 
will avail nothing we shall give the vote of our State for the 
Whig nominees by a glorious majority. I trust also the "Old 
North State" will do the same. For my part I dont want Web- 
sters support. It could be had undoubtedly for "a consideration" 
as it was in 1848 for Genl Taylor. 

I presume you referred to his mean contempable appoint- 
ment in your State of the Wilmington Commercial to publish 
the Laws. It is so mean that one can hardly believe it, but so 
it is. 

I shall always think with pleasure upon my interviews with 
you & pray God for your health & happiness. 

Yours with the highest respect 
Wm. Schouler. 

16 William Schouler, 1814-1872, a native of Scotland was in the Massachusetts legislature 
in 1844. 1845, 1847, 1849-1853. He edited the Cincinnati Gazette, and Columbus Ohio State 
Journal after he edited the Boston Atlas. He was the father of the historian, James Schouler. 
D. A. B. XVI, 460-461. 

17 In the Senate Mangum criticised Webster for giving the publication of laws to the 
Wilmington Commercial and Knoxville Whig, papers which refused to support Scott and Graham, 
the nominees of the party. Webster replied that the majority of the Whig Congressmen from 
North Carolina and Tennessee approved these two papers. Hillsborough Recorder, September 
15. 1852. 

236 State Department of Archives and History 

Leroy Pope, Jr., and others to Willie P. Mangum 18 

Memphis, Tenn. Sept 9th 52 

Dear Sir, 

The Whigs of Memphis and its vicinity have resolved to hold 
a grand Mass Convention, on the 13th and 14th of October next. 

The undersigned were appointed a committee to invite the 
presence and co-operation, at this our political Festival, of such 
individuals as have been most distinguished for their zeal, fideli- 
ty, and ability in upholding the Whig Banner. Among these 
noble champions we recognize your name and, as such, we 
tender to you a most earnest invitation to be with us. 

We are fully sensible of the magnitude of the issues involved 
in the Presidential Contest: We, therefore invoke the aid of 
your patriotic arm in giving such an impulse to the Whig Ball 
as will keep it in motion until the 2d of November shall encircle 
it in a blaze of victory. 

On behalf of ourselves, and those we represent, we promise 
you a most cordial and hospitable welcome. 

With Sentiments of high Consideration, 

Your Obedient Servants, 
LeRoy Pope, Jr. G. D. Searcy, 

Robertson Toppp, H. F. Felton, 

John W. Crockett, B. F. McKiernan, 

Jessee Williamson, J. B. Jamison, 

Smith P. Bankhead, Walter Coleman, 

J A. Carnes, R C. Brinkley, 

James L. Penn. 

18 Mangum was invited to attend many Whig rallies in the campaign of 1852. Because of 
the limitation of space I am omitting most of these invitations although reference to each 
omitted invitation is made in the front of this volume. 

The Mangum Papers 237 

F. H. Davidge 19 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington Septr 15, 1852. 
Hon Wylie P Mangum 

Dear Sir. 

Not having received a note from you on Sunday 
last, owing I suppose to the hurry of your departure, I now 
avail myself of your kind suggestion, to address you at Red 
Mountain, where, doubtless, you will have arrived before this 
can reach you. I should have written on Monday but was pre- 
vented by my going to Baltimore to meet the Association of 
Defenders of that City in 1814, before whom, as you will have 
seen by the Baltimore papers, I was most unexpectedly called 
on to make an address, the absence of Govr Lowe, who was to 
have addressed them On my return to Washington, yesterday 
morning, I found that Mr Hubbard 20 had entered upon the duties 
of P M General. The ceremony of introducing the Clerks has 
not yet taken place, with the exception of those who belong to 
one of the bureaux, which I do not exactly know. If you will 
be so good as to give me a letter of introduction to Mr H I shall 
be greatly obliged and it cannot fail to be of great service to me. 
I shall anxiously expect an answer. 

Yr friend 
F H Davidge 

The meeting in Monument Square on Monday night was the 
most splendid affair I ever witnessed. I have known Baltimore 
all my life, as you know, and have been actively engaged in 
politics in the most exciting times, but never did I behold any 
thing like the enthusiasm displayed on that occasion. The vast 
space was completely crammed with human beings and one set 
of speakers was not enough but addresses were delivered from 
two or three stands at the same time. You can form no adequate 
idea of the enthusiasm which prevailed. While the speakers 
were proceeding rockets were sent up and fire arms discharged 
as on some great jubilee while the crowd vented their feelings 

10 See above. 58n. 

^Samuel Dickinson Hubbard, 1799-1855, was a member of Congress in 1845-1849- In 
1852 Fillmore appointed him Postmaster General and he served until the inauguration of Pietce. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1124. 

238 State Department of Archives and History 

in loud hurras No one who saw that meeting can doubt for 
an instant that good staunch old Maryland will be right side up 
as she has always been. You are aware that I had great mis- 
givings in regard to my dear native State but now my doubts 
are at an end and I feel that all is right. 

There was a meeting of the Locofocos in Exchange place and 
the crowd was large amounting I would suppose to three or 
four thousand but there was no life in the concern and remarks 
intended to be very effective fell from the speakers, almost 
still born. It reminded me of the days when in the midst of de- 
feat the National Republican and Whig meetings used to listen 
very quietly to very good sense and all that from their orators 
but the prestige of failure hung like a cloud around them 
Locofocoism is doomed to be again vanquished in Maryland. 

I forgot to speak of the decorations and arrangements in 
Monument Square They were beautiful in the extreme. The 
transparencies belonging to the different clubs were arranged 
most tastefully upon the Court House terrace while at each 
end there appeared two tents formed by Convergeing lines of 
lamps. About half way up from the level of the Square, was 
the platform or main stand on which the Speakers and officers 
of the meeting were assembled. Just above their heads extend- 
ing the entire length of the terrace was inscribed in large char- 
acters "Scott, Graham & Union" "Captn. Richard France, Ma- 
yor" The battle Monument was also decorated with lamps in 
the most brilliant manner and between it and Barnum's Hotel, 
in front of Mr Johnsons house was another stand which was 
occupied during the whole evening by the two Bowies and other 
gifted Whig speakers. The mottoes and devices were of the 
most spirited and pointed kind. Among the latter were two 
or three huge bowls upon which were depicted battle scenes in 
which old Chippewa has been engaged while among the former 
were short sentences selected from the documents or sayings of 
the gallant Conqueror of Mexico, of the most pithy and effective 
kind. The Locos begin to look very blue. I heard to day that 
the Roman Catholic Bishops of Ohio and Virginia had both 
written letters in which they say that as a Church they take 
no part in elections but that the tolerance of Gen. Scott in 
Mexico and the protection extended to their ceremonies had 
been observed with gratitude and that intelligent Catholics 

The Mangum Papers 239 

would know how to vote. 21 This shews which way the wind is 
blowing but perhaps it is not well to talk too much about as 
some weak protestants might be induced to go in opposition to 
him merely to be opposed to the Catholics The result in Maine 
in most cheering remember 1840 when Maine went for Har- 
rison and there is hope that she will again prove the star in the 
East shining amidst the darkness. 


F. H. D. 

W. J. Madeira 22 to Willie P. Mangum 

Astor House N. York 
Sept*. 18 1852 

Hon. Willie P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

To comply with a promise I 
made you on the subject of the coming election, I can say in all 
confidance after a sojourn here and the interior for the last two 
weeks that New York may be set down with great certainty for 

Thurlow Weed Esq of Albany dined with me yesterday and 
expresses no doubt of the state for the General — 

I also state that you can place Maryland high on the list, and 
indeed from the indications Maine will cast her vote for him — 

There is a general apathy in the Democratic ranks here 
and I can see the same indications every where; as for Pennsyl- 
vania she has already voted. 

I trust that the old and true Whigs of North Carolina will 
sustain her position in the ranks — 

Sincerely & Truly Yours &c 
W. J. Madeira 
Penn a . 

a Both Pierce and Scott were accused of anti-Catholic views. Scott wrote a letter to the 
Boston Pilot in self defense. Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, II, 36. 
^See below, W. J. Madeira to Mangum, October 9, 1852. 

240 State Department of Archives and History 

Norman Miller 23 to Willie P. Mangum 

Martinsburg Berkeley County Virginia 

September 20 th 1852. 

Dear Sir. 

It is reported here, that you have said either on the floor of 
Congress or elsewhere that Gen. Scott, if elected to the Presi- 
dency, "would not veto" a Bill repealing the "Fugitive Slave 
law" should Congress pass such a Bill. 24 Please inform me at 
once whether or not you have ever made such a declaration, to 
any one, at any time. 

Yours truly 

Norman Miller 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 

W. T. G. Alston 25 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Weldon, N. C. 
Sept: 21st, 1852. 

Hon: W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir: 

Scott Stock is commanding a premium in this section of 
the country. We had a glorious meeting at Enfield, & much good 
was accomplished. 

I got Mr: Parker, Editor of the "Patriot," 26 to call a meet- 
ing of the citizens of Halifax & Northampton on thursday 30 
Inst., to designate the time & place, for a mass meeting & we 
have written to H. W. Miller & others, and we want to hear 
from you, when you can come, so that we can accommodate you 
all. I think it will be about the 15th. or 20th. prox: - We intend 

23 UnabIe to identify. 

^There was nothing in Mangum's speech to this effect. When Gwin, of California, asked 
Mangum if Scott would uphold the Fugitive Slave law, Mangum replied that he had not asked 
Scott this question but that as an honorable man Scott would enforce the law which was on the 
statute book. Cong. Globe, 32 Cong., I sess., 1079-1080. 

^He was a member of the legislature from Warren County in 1864-1865. N. C. Manual, 838. 

^The Weldon Patriot was established in 1850. Checklist of U. S. Newspapers in the Duke 
library, IV. 682. 

The Mangum Papers 241 

to have a meeting worthy of the "Old North State," "Our Gra- 
ham" & "Old Chippewa" At least 1,000 from Va will be here. 

Our friends are not doing their duty, will you please write 
to them in the diffire[n]t parts of the State & urge them to im- 
mediate action. What is doing in Clingmans district? 27 

Do get up the storm about Guilford, Salisbury, Edenton, 
Newbern &c. But little, very little is doing in the "Outlaws" 28 
District. We shall loose the State unless something is done. 

I am astonished at the Whigs not stumping the State, or 
rather the election. The Loco's know that it is best to let the 
matter rest until the election that they can loose nothing by 
abstai[nin]g from discussion hence their slothfulness in making 
a tickett. After the state, shall have been lost by a few hun- 
dred which we could easily have made by labor how chagrind 
& mortified we will feel- 
Please urge our friends to action 

We shall expect to hear from you by thursday & that you 
will [be] with us at the mass meeting. 

Your obt Servant 
W. T. G. Alston 

E. F. Lilly 29 to E. J. Hale 

Wadesboro N. C. 
22 nd . Sept 1852 

E. J. Hale Esq. 

D r . Sir You are aware no doubt that there is to be a 
mass meeting at Center Stanly Co. on the 1st. Wednesday of 
Oct. and as the desire for Honl. W. P. Mangum to be there ap- 
pears to be universal through all this country I have taken this 
liberty of asking you to urge him to attend by all means. 

It is plain to me as he was the first from our state to lead 
off for Scott, that no other man can do so much to heal the 
wounds of disappointment 

^Before the end of 1852 Thomas L. Clingman had gone over to the Democrats. His 
influence in the West had much to do with Scott's defeat in North Carolina. Boyd, "Draft of 
Life of Mangum," Chap. VIII, p. 8. 

^David Outlaw was for Fillmore. After Scott's nomination he stuck with the party but 
gave little support in the campaign. Cole, Whig Party in the South, 260-261. 

"He was a member of the legislature in 1833-1834 and 1840-1841. N. C. Manual, 708. 

242 State Department of Archives and History 

We need help or our State is gone, nothing short of a long, 
strong and continual pull will save us — I am full of zeal for 
our cause, but my humble position and limited acquaintance 
with Mr. Mangum render it impropper that I should address 
him — Let me predict something — it is this, that the attend- 
ance of Mangum & Badger at that meeting will recover 50 Of 
the 80 votes cast for Reid. that alone would be a sufficient in- 
ducement for them to attend, but I predict that the gain would 
be greater in Montgomery & this county 

I am now having the flag painted. 9 by 17 ft. with appro- 
priate inscriptions I believe it will be the largest meeting of 
the kind ever held in this section of country — Hopeing I shall 
have the pleasure of seeing you there with as many of your 
friends as you can prevail with to come, I 

am Sir your obedt. servt., 
E. F. Lilly 

Seaton Gales to Willie P. Mangum. 

Raleigh, Sept. 23, 1852. 

My dear Sir; 

I am authorized and requested, by the 
"Scott & Graham" Club, of this City, to beg that you will con- 
sent to address that Association, at your earliest convenience. 

There is a very great desire expressed here to hear you; and 
I am confident that a Speech from you will have a good effect. 

I am especially anxious for you to come, that you may fully 
appreciate the fact that, however harshly judged and unjustly 
censured elsewhere, on account of your Speech of April last, the 
Whigs of Raleigh are fully convinced and free to admit, that 
your motive was disinterested and your judgment correct. 

The indications, everywhere, are bright and cheering. North 
Carolina, with proper exertion, is safe. 

Truly and respy Yrs. 
Seaton Gales. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 243 

James E. Harvey to Willie P. Mangum. 


North American Office 
Sept. 25. 1852. 
My dear Judge. 

This letter will inform you, that my promise 
has not been forgotten, by being now redeemed. 

The Canvass in this State, after being retarded by an ap- 
parent apathy, is now progressing Vigorously & with a spirit 
which promises the most auspicious results. Scott's presence 
invoked that enthusiasm, which was needed to call out the 
popular sympathy & it is spreading like a prairie fire, through 
every County. Our intelligence from the Western Section, is 
more cheering, than at any previous contest & even in the 
infected districts, where Wilmot & John Van Buren have been 
Stumping among the Free soilers for Pierce & King, we expect 
to hold our own against this infamous coalition. Pennsylvania 
is certain for Scott & by a larger majority than Taylor received. 
The natives can do us no serious harm. They are powerless as 
an organization & for the most part, will follow their original 
political predilection in the Presidential election. We shall get 
a very considerable accession from the adopted Citizens, both 
German & Irish. 

New York is entirely safe, & the recent Nominations of the 
Whig State Convention, 30 have reconciled all feuds & united the 
party thoroughly. The fullest confidence prevails among our 
friends, as to the result & the best informed men at Albany 
speak with positive certainty of 15,000 majority. 

Ohio is improving every day & Scott's visit and some inci- 
dents connected with it, have made a profound impression. 
Hale's 31 presence there, will do no harm, whatever may be sup- 
posed to the contrary. 

On the whole, every thing looks well & far more satisfactory, 
than the signs authorized two months ago. Indeed, there is a 
manifest revival throughout the Country — a stirring up, which 

^The New York Whigs renominated Washington Hunt for governor and William Kent for 
lieutenant governor. Van Deusen. Thurlow Weed, 192. 

^John Parker Hale was Senator from New Hampshire in 1847-1853. Formerly a Democrat, 
he became strongly anti-slavery in his views. In 1852 he was the presidential candidate for the 
Free Soil Party. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1045. 

244 State Department of Archives and History 

was the thing needed to inspire courage & hope. The rank & 
file are now cheered, because they are persuaded, a great object 
may be gained & with us, they are toiling like men, who are 
sure of victory. 

We get various & conflicting reports from North Carolina. 
What is the whole truth? 

As ever 

Your friend 

James E. Harvey 

Martha Person Mangum to Mary S. Mangum 

Walnut Hall, Wednesday, 29th Sept. '52 

My dearest sister Mary. 

It is within a few minutes of nine — 
All have just retired & as I feel that sleep would not be entirely 
unwelcome to me just now, I shall warn you in time that I shall 
play for you to the tune of 'Short Metre' to night — having 
played on the piano to that of 'Long Metre' a greater part of 
the evening. — Father & Mother are very well as is the rest of 
the family & now that I think of it, I must tell you of the com- 
pliment that Father pays Sister & myself — he says that you 
write a prettyer hand than either of us — ask Sister what she 
thinks of that? he saw the scrap in Sister's letter of the 11th on 
which you had been writing your very prettiest — I should say, 
to surpass my most legible & lovely hand. By the way, Sister's 
of the 11th we received not until last Saturday — on the Tuesday 
before we had received her 17th now is it not provoking? I am 
pleased to hear my dear little lazy sister, that sister is teaching 
you to be a little more industrious. I trust you will learn to be 
almost as industrious as your sister Pattie. 

Father expects to be out in the campagn a good deal — & has 
been thinking of visiting the Western part of the State, but he 
is urged now to visit Wilmington, & they promis him a "grand 
reception" if he will either appoint a day, or be with them on 
the day that they suggest. I think he will go. — When I next 
write Mary & Rebecca will be with us to spend some weekes; 

The Mangum Papers 245 

they have given out going up the country, this Autumn. Jane 
Carrington is expected at home in the course of twelve or fifteen 
days. I presume you will see her. Priestly Edwards was mar- 
ried last evening to one of the late Mr. Jesse Mangum's daugh- 
ters, not an unequal match it is thought. I have not told you 
that Mr. Webber 32 is married to a lady who has learned to use 
a rifle, with the intention of accompanying him in an exploring 
expedition in some of the territories. A modern Die Vernon, 
I should say, very accomplished of course she must be, for him 
to have admired, he wrote to solicit Father's influence &c. 

If they were all awake they would doubtless unite with me 
in warmest & most affectionate love to both of my dearest Sis- 
ters. Tell sister not to make herself uneasy about me, for I again 
repeat, it is utterly unnecessary, but do let us hear from her 
regularly. I think I mentioned that Father was gratified at your 
having accompanied Sister home, as he thought one of us ought 
to have done so. 

Most affectionately, 
your sister, 

M. P. Mangum. 

Carolina R. Wade ss to Willie P. Mangum. 

Jefferson Ashtabula Co. Ohio 
October 1st— 1852 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 


I write at my husbands request, as he has 
not had a moment to himself since his return from Washington. 
He has been at home but one day as yet, his time having been 
fully occupied in canvassing the northern part of this state par- 
ticularly our own county and the district of which it is a part. 
After our state election which takes place the 12th. of this month 
he will visit other sections previous to the Presidential election. 
The Whigs of this district are using every effort to elect Judge 

^See above, IV. 2°4n. 

^Wife of Ben Wade, Senator from Ohio, who campaigned vigorously for Scott in Ohio. 
Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, II, 34. 

246 State Department of Archives and History 

Newton over Mr Giddings. 34 It will be a close run and should 
the latter finally gain his election, it will be by a very small 
majority, judging from present appearances. 

Mr. Wade was at home a short time to day on his way 
through town and wished me to say to you, that he has taken 
especial pains to ascertain the feeling in every part of the state 
with regard to Genl. Scott and from what he can learn and 
what he has himself seen, he has no hesitation in saying that 
Ohio will go for him by a very large majority in spite of "Free 
soil" and every other "ism." Many Freesoilers as well as Demo- 
crats throughout the state openly avow their intention of voting 
for the "Hero of Lundy's Lane" and very many more of both 
those parties will give their votes in his favor although they 
prefer to say nothing publicly, yet at the same time they are 
using their influence in a quiet way to the same effect. Mr. 
Wade is very anxious to know what you are doing and what 
are Genl. Scotts prospects in your state. — Will you write him 
at your earliest convenience. We hope for as favorable returns 
from North Carolina as we feel sure of in Ohio. 

Very Respectfully 

Caroline R. Wade 

Truman Smith to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington City 
Octr 9th 1852 
Hon. W. P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

. . . 

I deem it proper to report to you on the 
progress & the present state of the canvass. I wish in the first 
place to express my high satisfaction on account of the favorable 
intelligence what we are getting from all parts of the good "Old 
North State" I shall be greatly disappointed if your anticipa- 
tions confidently entertained and expressed for an early day of 
the late session are not more than realised And hence I wish 
to proffer to you my warmest congratulations on the wonderful 

^Joshua R. Giddings, a Free Soil candidate, defeated Eben Newton, the Whig Congressman 
in 1851-1853. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1010, 1351. 

The Mangum Papers 247 

revolution what has taken place at the South in favor of Scott 
in this you have obtained one of the greatest triumphs which has 
ever graced the life of a public man. A species of madness seems 
to have seized on the public mind in that section & your course 
was for a long time the subject of ungrateful reprehension and 
abuse but all now see this matter with the same eyes you and 
I saw it alone To this revolution this Committee by its publi- 
cations have contributed largely but you by your influence & 
character have contributed more. It has been my policy from 
the beginning to strike for the South for which I was derided 
when the campaign first opened but if the result does not prove 
I was right I shall be greatly disappointed. I am now satisfied we 
have made a mistake as to Geo. If we had thrown into that 
state in July 50,000 copies of the Life of Scott & then backed 
up with "the contrast" & "Pierce & his allies" we should have 
captured the state to a dead certainty. I have many letters from 
them complaining of want of light &c. Our friend Dawson 
faultered too much & hesitated too long but it can not be helped 
now — it is too late. 

If we carry Vert Mass R I and Conn* N York N Jersey Pa 
Del Md N. C. Ken, Tenn & La they will give us 148 electoral 
votes; just one half of the whole Number I have not a particle 
of doubt as to any one of these states but N Jersey where our 
friends fear a profuse application of money by Wm. Wright (the 
renegade) & others. But we hope for the State nevertheless. 
Connecticut is certain for Scott & Graham and "the God-like" 
can do no mischief in Mass Alas! how have the mighty fallen! 

We confidently expect to win California & have much hope 
of Florida From Ohio we have the best of intelligence — the 
Whigs there are working as Whigs never worked before & this 
committee are supporting them with all possible vigor. In 
Indiana & in all the states at the West & N W our friends are 
doing well & the probability is we shall get some votes in that 
quarter beside Ohio If we carry N Jersey my opinion is we shall 
elect Scott & Graham without Ohio or any N Western state 
With Ohio we elect our candidates triumphantly. On the other 
side of the Patomac our friends are thoroughly aroused — they 
speak of winning Va with considerable confidence & you need 
not be astonished if they do it In short I do not see how we can 
be beaten tho we may be by an extraordinary run of ill luck. 

248 State Department of Archives and History 

On the other hand we are quite as likely to carry the Country 
by 2/3ds of the Electoral votes 

Your faithful friend 
Truman Smith. 

W. J. Madeira 35 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Pittsburg [Pa.] Oct 9 1852 


Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

I reached here some three days since from a tour since 
the first of September through New York and Penna, and part 
of New Jersey, all three of which can be set down very con- 
fidently for Scott, and Maryland is now given to him; indeed 
it seems to me that Pearce will not get more states than was 
at first given to Scott. 

The leaders of the Pearce party in the eastern and northern 
states have come to the conclusion that the election will be a 
close one — - 

Our election as you are aware comes off on tuesday next 
and the feeling is so much in favour of Scott that we calculate 
upon electing the Whig canal commissioner, and in that event 
there will be no telling the majority for Scott — 

There can be little doubt of Scott carrying all the States 
carried by Taylor with Ohio and Indiana added to the list — 

As I passed through N. York the other day the betting was 
even upon Maine, as there is no certainty of that State going 
for Pearce; even Virginia I am informed by a friend is tottering 
under the weight of the New Hampshire Southern man 

With an ardent desire for our success I am 
Your Obt. Sert. 

W. J. Madeira 

^Sce above, 239. 

The Mangum Papers 249 

James Cooper 36 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Pottsville Oct 14, 1852. 

My dear Sir: 

Before this reaches you you will have learned the result of 
our election. The Whig candidates for State offices have been 
defeated by a majority rising 8000. This result, not at all un- 
expected is owing to several causes; - first our candidate for 
Canal Commissioner was a man of infamously bad character, 
for whom the warmest whigs voted with reluctance; secondly, 
there was not any thing like a thorough organization of the 
party throughout the State; and in the third place there was 
an unexpected falling off of more than 6000 votes in the city 
and county of Philadelphia. There are uncured and incurable 
animosities existing there which had their influence in bring- 
ing about the result. McMichael, 37 the editor of the North 
American, labored earnestly to keep the native candidate in 
the field in the III Congressional District, for the purpose of 
defeating the whig candidate, Jno. P. Sanderson. This, and 
other similar conduct on the part of men like Mr. McMichael 
was principally instrumental in keeping up a spirit of animosity 
amongst the different branches of the party in the city and 
county. Last year, although some 2000 whigs voted against 
Johnston in the City and County, his majority was 2700. This 
year without any cause of disaffection such as existed last 
year we are beaten from 1500 to 2500 in the city and county. 

But these causes will not exist in November; and unless the 
result in other states should be very discouraging we shall give 
state to Scott by a handsome majority. Many of the democrats, 
who will support Scott in November, were more than usually 
active at the late election, in order that by their zeal then, they 
might purchase remission for their contemplated sin against 
their party. I hope too we shall be better organized at the next 
than we were at the last election. 

In this county (Schuylkill) we were well organized and 
worked hard. The consequence was, that we produced a change 

^James Cooper, 1810-1863, was a member of Congress from Pennsylvania in 1829-1843 
and 1849-1853. He served as a member of the Pennsylvnia legislature in 1843, 1844, 1846 
and 1848 and as the state's attorney general in 1848. At the time of this letter he was in the 
Senate. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 846. 

^See above, IV, 32n. 

250 State Department of Archives and History 

of 1200 since the election of Governor Bigler 38 in 1851. At 
that Election the maj of Bigler in this County was 674; this 
year the average majority of our ticket is about 500. We shall 
increase this majority at the next election. 
Let me hear from you. 

Your friend in painful haste 
James Cooper 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

Dennis Heartt & Others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hillsborough, Octr. 18th. 1852 — 

Dear Sir, 

You are doubtless aware that the Grand Lodge of this 
State has recommended to all the subordinate Lodges under 
its jurisdiction the celebration of the Centennial Anniversary 
of the initiation of George Washington into the order of Ma- 
sons. The members of Eagle Lodge No. 71 design to comply 
with this recommendation; and to enable them to do so re- 
spectably they have need of your assistance. For that end they 
have appointed the undersigned as a committee to make the 
request that you will deliver an address on the occasion; which 
they earnestly do. The committee feel persuaded, that the de- 
sire which you entertain, in common with all our fellow citizens, 
to do honor to the man who has reflected so much honor upon 
his country, will prompt you to comply with this request of the 
Lodge, and trust that, should there be no serious obstacle in- 
tervening, you will indulge their wishes. 

The celebration is to take place on Friday the 5th of Novem- 

We remain, with much respect, your friends and brethren 
in the Fraternity 

Dennis Heartt James C. Turner 

Wm. Nelson George Laws 

Pride Jones John J. Freeland 
H. K. Nash Committee. 

^William Bigler was governor of Pennsylvania in 1851-1853 a,nd United States Senator 
from 1856 to 1861. Biog. Dir. of Cong,, 701. 

The Mangum Papers 251 

George Peckham 39 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Mercantile Library Assn. 

Clinton Hall, New York Octo. 25/52. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

I am requested by the Board of Trustees of this Institu- 
tion to invite you to deliver an address before the members 
(and the public) at any time between now and the 1st Jany 
next. — We have announced to the public that the late Hon 
Danl. Webster would during the month of Dec deliver an ad- 
dress before us. — The unexpected and melancholy death of 
that great man has placed us in somewhat, embarrassing cir- 
cumstances, as very little time is left, for us to supply his place. 
I presume you are not wholly unacquainted with our institu- 
tion. — We have over 4000 active paying members and more 
than 31000 vols. — Founded by the liberality of the merchants 
of New York it is supported only by them, as none but those 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, are entitled to membership. — 
I trust your engagements will not prevent you from ap- 
pearing before us. — The very numerous applications which 
have been made to us to invite you, have fully satisfied us, 
that the desire to see and hear you speak, is very strong. — 
Thackeray the english novelist will give us a course of six lec- 
tures during the mo. of November. — He visits this country up- 
on our invitation. — Trusting Sir that you will accept our in- 

I have the honor to be your obt. Servant 

George Peckham Prest. 

^He was in the dry goods business in New York City in 1844-1845. In 1819 the library 
committee of the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen recommended that steps be 
taken to educate the apprentices. The next year a library of 4,000 volumes was opened for these 
tradesmen. By 1829 the library had 10,000 volumes and by 1880 60,000. Courses for the 
poor were offered. In this period similar steps were followed in other cities. Philip Hone and 
other public spirited citizens supported the movement. Sidney Ditzion, "Mechanics and 
Mercantile Libraries," The Library Quarterly, X. (1940), 219-220; Bonner, New York: This 
World's Metropolis, 210. 

252 State Department of Archives and History 

Lemuel Draper* to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Oct 25, 1852 
Hon. Willie P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Allow me to urge upon you, if you can find it convenient 
to do so, the acceptance of the invitation of the Mercantile Li- 
brary Assn. to appear before them, and thus gratify your nu- 
merous friends in this city, all of whom, are anxious to see & 
hear you speak 

Respectfully Yours 
L. Draper. 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Oct. 26, 1852 
My dear Judge 

I mentioned to you last summer the "Mercantile Library 
Association" of this City. I then urged it & you consented to 
consider it, with a view to a favorable conclusion. 

These gentlemen had arranged with Mr Webster for one 
Lecture. They are under the impression now that Lecture won't 
be delivered within any reasonable period. 

They solicit you now, anew, to promise & prepare yourself 
to talk to them in December and you'll have to do it. There 
have been a horde of gallant spirits here that you haven't 
treated well. You had promised them again & again that you 
would pay Gotham a long visit and no Knickerbocker has greet- 
ed his eyes with the pleasant sight of one Willie P. Mangum of 
the Old North, within our hospitable domains. Ergo you have 
kept Punic faith and the Gods will punish you if you do not 
rescue your faith. 

At the head of the Association, to whom you arc to speak, 
is George Peckham, for six years a resident of your State. He 

*°Lemuel Draper was a clerk in New York City in 1847. Longwortb's New York Directory, 
1847-1848, p. 129. 

The Mangum Papers 253 

is one of our pets here, and is at the head of an Institution that 
numbers Four thousand clubs in counting rooms, in all the 
departments of trade, commerce & manufactures, as its mem- 

I can only say in brief, that from the hour you set forth un- 
til you return back again, the most sumptuous arrangements 
they can make for you will be done up by these gentlemen, in 
what you may have heard of as New York style. 

They beg me to say that there is one word in the Lexicon 
they wont understand as coming from you and that is - No 

With kind remembrances to your own family & from my 
own sick household 

I am affectionately & truly 
Yr friend 
N. Caroll 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 
& & 

Nicholas Carroll to Willie P. Mangum 

[26 October, 1852] 

Dear Judge 

Before I can hear from you in reply to the letter I have this 
day addressed you, the election will have been held. 

From the hour of the nomination to the present I have la- 
bored for the candidate you & your friends gave to us as the 
nominees of the Whig Party. With a whole heart & free will I 
have done this notwithstanding that many of us have been 
forced to believe in the truth of your joke aimed at me in the 
Senate Chamber immediately after the insinuation as applying 
to all the Clay men of the North & South that I was a dead man 
& you had made arrangements to attend my funeral & see me 
decently buried. 

Personally I care nothing - as little as you do for my own 
personal fortunes - political or otherwise. But I chose to re- 
ceive Gen. Scott in good faith & to hold him & you & all who 
supported him to the Platform & his public declarations in re- 
lation thereto. 


State Department of Archives and History 

Well now Cheiftain how of the fight? As Chairman of the 
Corresponding Com. I have waded through 1600 pages of manu- 
script letters from every State in the union, saving Arkansas & 
Texas and this is the result 

Scott sure 





N. Y. 




: Mass 

N. J. 




R. I. 














S. Ca 


N. Ca 



N. H. 


/7 states 

/12 states 

/12 si 

x clinched by a recent death 

Probabilities favor us in N. Y. Ohio, Md. Tenn, Wis. & Iowa. 
These would all told make 133 votes. We want 16 more votes. 
Can the South give them? 

It is a fixed fact that the Clay & Fillmore men at the North 
have borne the brunt of the fight - voice, pen & purse. Although 
I have had a hospital at home - my wifes eldest daughter just 
convalescent after six weeks serious illness of fever &c I have 
not halted day or night. Where my dear Judge have been your 
mailed men or men of mail all this time? 

God grant that you do not see here - a triumph to the country, 
I cannot look upon the election of so small a man as Pierce with- 
out a shudder. 

With renewed regard 
I am as ever 
Yr faithful fd. 
N. Carroll 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

The Mangum Papers 255 

P. D. Swaim 1 * 1 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Jackson Hill, N. C. Nov. 5, 1852 
Hon. W. P. Mangum: 

Dear Sir: 

In preserving the names of the distinguished men of 
North Carolina I would like to have yours. - Will you send your 
Autograph to a political admirer? 

Truly Yours 

P. D. Swaim. 
P. D. Swaim. 

W infield Scott's Campaign Sheet 1 * 2 


"The enemy's balls have thinned our ranks. His numbers 
are overwhelming. Directly the shock must come, and there 
is no retreat. We are in the beginning of a National War. Hull's 
ignominious surrender must be retrieved. Let us die, then, arms 
in hand! Our country demands the sacrifice. The example will 
not be lost. The blood of the slain will make heroes of the liv- 
ing! Who is ready for the sacrifice." (Scott's speech at the Bat- 
tle of Queenstown Hights.) 

John M. Crane 1 * 3 to Willie P. Mangum. 

San Francisco Nov 15th, 1852 

My dear Sir. 

You will see from the papers that we have been defeated in 
this State This result has been brought about from the course 
of the Indian Commissioners The active exertions of the federal 
officers the majority of whom are Locofocos - the emigrant 

^Unable to identify. 

^^his is a one-page leaflet with a picture of Scott at the top. Underneath the picture is 
this quotation from Scott's speech. The original leaflet is in the possession of Mangum Turner, 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 

43 See above, 63. 

256 State Department of Archives and History 

vote, the unpopularity of the Whig Administration and the 
open defection of the Fillmore and Webster men. Millard Fill- 
mores administration is too odious here for us to make any 
headway whatever. I thought and indeed was confident that 
Scotts personal popularity would be sufficient to over come 
all these difficulties, but in this I was mistaken Whigs here 
will fight especially against any man that T. Butler King 44 will 
advocate They were afraid (and many since the election have 
so said) that King would have full sway under Scott and they 
therefore voted for Pierce & King 

If Pierce is elected Whiggery will be below par. If Scott is 
it will be the same unless a regular turnout of all the present 
office holders take place 

The recent appointment of B. C. Saunders over Col. D. S. 
Turner as Collector of this port is one of the most insulting and 
agravating outrages which Fillmores imbecile and corrupt ad- 
ministration has been guilty of to our people. No one recom- 
mended Saunders for the place while on the other hand Col 
Turner was recommended to that place by a petition unan- 
imously signed by all the merchants of this City and by all the 
leading men of the State. Such a unanimous and powerful peti- 
tion has never gone before any President in the history of our 
government as the one for Col Turner Every person desired 
his appointment and yet the voice of this whole community 
has been strangled. Every senator will recognise the most 
prominent merchants and citizens of this State. I hope you will 
make a call upon the President for if so the Senate may see 
how our people are treated The President has it unless he or 
Corwin has destroyed it. It is your duty to call for it and let 
the country see how we are treated here. The defalcations here 
with Fillmores appointments amounts now to over three mil- 
lions of dollars Are you prepared to continue these monstrous 
evils by quietly sanctioning these appointments. We have no 
Whig in the Senate who will look and protect the Whig 
party here. Gwin is in with the President and manages all 
of these appointments Will you befriend us. Call upon the 
President for these two petitions (for there are two) for Col 
Turner so as to show the Senate how persons are appointed 
and how these defalcations take place. No Whig who has been 
recommended to the president for office in this State has been 

"Until October 1, 1852, Thomas Butler King was collector of the port of San Francisco. 
Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1185. 

The Mangum Papers 257 

appointed. It would have been far better to have had an open 
Locofoco Administration against us. Fillmore has behaved to 
the whigs of this State worse than Tyler ever did to the whole 
Whig party. I wish you would show this letter to Sen. Seward 
and to Truman Smith and ask their co-operation 

Yours truly 
James M Crane 

To Hon W P. Mangum 

N.B. If Scott is elected we shall demand the appointment of a 
Cabinet officer and we shall never be satisfied without it. 

J. M. C. 

John Livingston 1 * 5 to Willie P. Mangum 

157 Broadway, New York 
3 Dec: 1852 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

I am editing a Biographical Magazine which will con- 
tain the Portraits and Memoirs of those of our prominent liv- 
ing Citizens who are most distinguished either as Ministers, 
Lawyers, Doctors, Statesmen, Financiers, Merchants, Manufac- 
turers, Farmers, or in any other honorable vocation, and whose 
talents, energy and enterprise, while affording an instructive 
lesson to mankind, may seem worthy of being held up as ex- 
amples for emulation. By examining the number which I have 
this day sent to your address, you may form some idea of the 
plan and execution of the work, as the whole will be got up in 
about the same style. 

People seem to entertain a laudable desire to trace the his- 
tory and look upon the countenances, as well of those whose 
strong talents and energy have been successfully applied to the 
more practical pursuits of life, as of distinguished professional 
and military men. This shows a progress of public sentiment 
in the right direction, for no less honor and attention are due 

^John Livingston, a New York lawyer, issued a number of editions of his Law Register. In 
1853 he issued his Biographical Sketches of Distinguished Americans, now Living, New York, 
1853. 504 pp. 

258 State Department of Archives and History 

to those who have won universal regard by persevering efforts 
in enterprises which have developed the material treasures of 
the country, than to others who can boast of ostentatious vic- 

Moreover, it is peculiarly proper that the memory of per- 
sons who occupy positions of usefulness, besides being treasured 
in the hearts of relatives and friends, should have its public ac- 
cord also, for the double purpose of respect and emulation. To 
extend a knowledge of those whose substantial fame rests up- 
on their attainments, high character and success, must exert a 
wholesome influence on the rising generation of the American 
People. Something to interest and benefit mankind may be 
found in the life of every one. 

Having written thus much, I will say that, at the suggestion 
of a prominent gentleman of your State, we have fixed upon 
yours, as a proper name to occupy a place in this work; and per- 
mit me to add, I hope you will accept an invitation that will 
place your name and counterpart, where they can be seen and 
Known, "not for a day but for all time." 

If you shall accept the offered place, please forward to me 
at your earliest convenience, your likeness (a good Daguerreo- 
type of the same size as our Portraits is best) so that it may at 
once be put in the hands of our engravers. Please cause to be 
forwarded also, a memoir of yourself or such facts as will en- 
able us without much labor to prepare it. The memoir may oc- 
cupy from five to fifty octavo pages, according to your wishes. 

In conclusion permit me to request that you will send both 
the memoir and the Daguerreotype within sixty days from the 
time you receive this, as we have the work in rapid progress, 
and wish to avoid delay. 

You will find in the number forwarded, several engravings, 
executed in different styles. Should you send the Daguerreotype, 
please inform me which kind you prefer for your portrait. 

Very truly Your's 
John Livingston — 

PS. If you do not desire to subscribe for the work, you may re- 
turn to me the No. herewith sent and oblige 

J. L. 

The Mangum Papers 259 

J as. W. Schaumburg 1 ' 6 to [Willie P. Mangum] 


[30 December, 1852] 

My Most Esteemed Senator: It does indeed give me much re- 
gret that you will cease so soon to be a noble and great Sen- 
ator, but whether as a senator or again a member of the nu- 
merous commalty you will still be noble and great — in all the 
charming qualities of one of Nature's Noblemen. It is sad to 
think of what must come by & by as old father time sweeps 
along slaying as he passes on in his destroying course. Good 
Heaven! how I shrink into insignificance as small a creature as 
I am when I think for a moment of the past of the friends I 
loved so dearly gone gone [sic] forever — and how short is the 
time when the dear one's yourself, Atchison, Downs 47 and some 
few precious jewels will go as others have gone - really all is 
vanity and vexation of spirits - still we must wag on and do as if 
nothing has occurred- So go[od] a philosopher as you are laughs 
at the mutability of human affairs and estimate the [things] of 
life at their true value - baubles - a mere bagatelle. Shall we 
not, after the adjournment of this congress, hope to have you 
with us sometimes — in Washington or within striking distance. 
But for three or four good souls left of my friends and having 
business to attend to I would never care to go to Washington 
it is not what it used to be 20 years ago- 

Now that the Whig party is defunct and the Democratic 
party will sink to the devil by its on ponderosity — we must try 
and get Atchison into the Presidential chair and you will be 
his monitor of course to have and hold whatever you please. I 
think we can put him in in 1856. We will have glorious times 
then- I shall only aspire to regulate the elegancies Davy's re- 
ceptions and to look after the women folks - and with an eye 
to what is due to the inner man. 

Now let me ask you to read every word of the accompany- 
ing publication: 48 and if you do I will agree to hand over a 

46 In 1836 James W. Shaumburg resigned from the army at the time he was under arrest. 
In 1846 Tyler decided that he had never been out of the army and so added his name to the list 
of promotions. The Senate rejected Tyler's recommendation. Schaumburg was dismissed from 
the army in 1849. He tried, unsuccessfully, to gain reinstatement. Executive Journal of the 
Senate, 1845, pp. 405, 435-438, 451. 

47 He refers to David R. Atchison, Senator from Missouri, and Solomon W. Downs, Senator 
from Louisiana. 

48 This was not found. 

260 State Department of Archives and History 

demijohn of any thing you prefer, if you don't say I have "used 
up" the small potato head of the War department. I think I 
have given him the coup de grace which will send him back to 
his original insignificance. 

It is a very unsatisfactory business fighting with fools and 
knaves, and I have had much of it to do. 

I hope my dear Judge you are in fine health and spirits and 
wish you well with all my heart, and I have a heart I do assure 
you, many years of happiness and I will ever remember that 
I had the honor and happiness of your acquaintance. 

Jas. W. Schaumburg 

Deer. 30th 1852. 

P.S. If you ever come to Philada. write to me before hand and 
let me know so that I can bring you to our house to stay as long 
as you like. 

J. W. S. 

James B. Clay* 9 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Near St. Louis Deer. 31st. 1852 

My Dear Sir 

The suggestion of friends, as well as my own feel- 
ings, have prompted me to undertake to collect such facts and 
incidents, public and private, connected with my fathers life, as 
may seem to be worthy of preservation. The relations of friend- 
ship which so long existed between you and him, embolden me 
to approach you with confidence, and to feel sure that you will 
justly appreciate the motives which have induced my under- 

I regret extremely that the exigency of my affairs will not 
allow me to go this winter to Washington to seek in person in- 
formation, which could be had so much better in that manner, 
than by any correspondence, and which will so soon have passed 
down the stream of time. 

"Henry Clay's son, James Brown Clay, 1817-1864, was a Democratic member of Congress 
in 1857-1859. He identified himself with the Confederacy in the war of 1861-1865. Biog. 
Dir. of Cong., 820 

The Mangum Papers 261 

I especially wish to obtain a true history of my fathers con- 
nexion with that great series of measures, known as the adjust- 
ment or Compromise measures, of 1850, and beg that you will 
give me your knowledge of his efforts, within and without the 
halls of Congress to procure their adoption. May I ask also that 
you will do me the very great favor to communicate to me any 
reminiscences of him, facts incidents or anecdotes, which in 
your opinion may serve to illustrate his true character? At the 
same time I will feel very thankful to you for any advice or 
suggestions relating to my purpose with which you may think 
proper to oblige me. 

Whether the result of my efforts shall ever in any manner 
be made public, will afford subject for future consideration. I 
trust however that in that respect you will allow me to use my 
discretion with whatever you may be good enough to com- 
municate to me. 

I am Sir 

With high respect and esteem 
Your Obt Svt 

James B. Clay 

Honble. Willie P Mangum, 
&c &c &c. 


Sam D. Morgan 1 to Willie P. Mangum and Enclosure 

Macon Ga 

Jany the 1st 1853. 

Hon Willie P. Mangum 

Dr Sir 

Enclosed you will find an a/c of the sale of 
Stephen and check in your favor for the amt less cost & charges 
and my demands against you. You will see by a/c return trans- 
mitted in this, the moneys collected for hire I will check to A. 

iSee above. 217. 

262 State Department of Archives and History 

Parker, as directed, all of the notes that I made last winter are 
good though some of the Parties not yet ready to pay I hope 
to get it all before I leave for home Wages for 1853 for men 
from 150 to 180$. I shall return an a/c of hire rects & disburse- 
ments &c &c when I get home Docts bill for 1852 only Thirty 
Seven dollars Very cheap under the Circumstances, in hast I 
have the honour to be your — 

Obt Sevt &c 

Very Respectfully 
Sam. D. Morgan 
To Hon 1 . W m P. Mangum 
Washington City 

D. C. 


S. D. Morgan in a/c with Hon. W. P. Mangum 

To Sale of Stephen, less Cost & charges . . . $1000.00 

By bal due me for services last winter - - $26.56 

" Int 159 

" Your Note 50 

" amt pd N. M. Carrington p letter 50 20 

" Int 7 Months on 50 00 175 130.00 

To Amt due you after paying me as above. $860.90 

[Endorsed:] A/C Return — S. D. Morgan 1st May 1853. 

Benjamin Tappan 2 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Steubenville, Ohio, Jany 18-53 

Dear Sir 

My son Eli J. Tappan, who is the bearer of this has a 
plan for the publication of a new Edition of the Laws of the 
United States which I ask you to examine, & if it meets your 
approbation — support — 

a At this time he was United States Senator from Ohio. 

The Mangum Papers 263 

I am not enough acquainted with your colleague to author- 
ise my giving an introduction to him to my son & therefore ask 
such introduction as a further favor from you I am with much 

& esteem 
Your friend 
Ben j. Tappan. 

Honble Wilie P Mangum. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha Person Mangum 3 

Hillsborough Jan 22 nd 53. 

My dearest Sister. 

You cannot imagine how much heartfelt pleasure the recep- 
tion of your letter afforded me. Though it has been only a week 
since I left, I was as glad to hear from you and to receive some- 
thing which came from your hands as if it had been six months. 
But I must tell you how I like my school. Mr Graves 4 is a very 
pleasant-looking and seems to be an extremely clever and 
gentlemanly man and I have taken quite a fancy to him. Mr 
Killpatrick 5 to whom I recite all my lessons but the arithmetic 
seems to be a very good teacher and I like him nearly equally 
well. Mr Graves did not examine me at all. He placed me in 
the fourth book of Caesar in a class with fred. Pash John Berry 
and one of the turners. I will commence in virgil or ovid in the 
course of a few weeks. I am also in the highest arithmetic 
class and in Greek Geography, grammar, and walker dictionary 
All of which I had to purchase except my Greek, books. I have 
become acquained with nearly all the School boys and like them 
all especially Mr Grahams sons 6 very much. The School num- 
bers about 30 of whom there is only one a Dickens from tar- 
borough from a distance. Cousins William and Sarah 7 treat me 

sThe original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

4 Ralph H. Graves, the father of the well-known professor of mathematics at the University of 
North Carolina, was at this time principal of the Hillsborough Academy. The elder Graves 
graduated from the University in 1836. In addition to tutoring at the University, he taught in 
several private schools near Greensboro and Hillsboro. George T. Winston, "A Sketch of the 
Life and Character of Prof. R. H. Graves," The University Magazine, N. S. IX, no. 1 (1889), 

6 William M. Kirkpatrick was assistant principal at the Hillsborough Academy. Hillsborough 
Recorder, January 19, 1853. Later Preston studied at the South Lowell Academy under Professor 
Deans. A. W. Mangum, "William Preston Mangum," The University Monthly, N. S. Ill, no. 8 
(May 1884), 343-347. 

6 William A. Graham's sons. 

'William and Sarah (Bailey) Cain, his wife. 

264 State Department of Archives and History 

as kindly as possible, and on the whole I feel better contented 
than I could any where else from home. Tell Cousin rebecca 8 
as Sancho would say that you are known by the company you 
keep, or at least judged and that evil communications Corrupt 
good manners, that here I am considered one of the best boys 
in the world. Write often if only a few lines. You dont know 
how much I prize it. Instead of throwing your letter by "in 
disgust" I have read it at least two dozen times. I hope Sister 
Mary will soon recover. Give my love to all. Give mother two 
kisses for me though I know If I could see her I should almost 
devour her. Cousin william and Sarah Send their love to all. 

Your very affectionate brother 
Wm. Preston Mangum 

P. S. I have seen some carpetining that will be very suitable I 
think for your purpose. Some woolen at 75 cts. Some hemp as 
lasting and nearly as handsome at 35 cts and miserable cotton 
at 30. Please as an especial favor burn this horrible scrawl as 
soon as you have read it. 

W. P. M. 

Willie P. Mangum to Charity A. Mangum. 

Washington 25th Jan: 1853. 

My dear Love. 

I have not written to you as often as I ought to 
have done. — Except cold, I have been very well. 

I take little or no part in public affairs, except to vote. — 

I am bringing my mind to desire home, & it has been un- 
fortunate for all of us, that I had not done so, more than twenty 
years ago. — 

I am now an old man, & feel that I have mispent much of 
my life. Let that pass, it can not be recalled 

I have no news for you. — Has my nephew Willie 9 written 
to you? He is engaged to be married to a fine, fashionable & 
poor lady. — I heard of it soon after I came here. I did not speak 

8 Priestley Mangum's daughter. 

D Willie P. Mangum, Jr., Priestley's son, married an artist. Fannie Vaulx Ladd, Washington, 
D. C. in 1855. Stephen B. Weeks. "Willie Person Mangum. Jr.," Biog. Hist., of N. C, V, 261. 


4^<^^C4~^tL^? Z ^^ 


HON. WILLIE P. MANGUM, of Kobth Cajsomka, 

Willie Person Mangum. From a woodcut after a daguerreotype by J. Van- 

nerson, Whitehurst's Gallery, nublished in Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room 

Companion (Boston, 1853), IV, 88. 

The Mangum Papers 265 

to him on the subject, & he never spoke to me on the same, 
until about a fortnight ago. When I first heard of it, it gave me 
much pain — I thought it foolish & every way undesirable — 
When he mentioned it to me — I told him he had decreed for 
himself a life of misery & suffering — & that he was a simpleton. 
— He has hardly seen me since. 

I felt it my duty, to say to him what I thought. — It will be 
the ruin of his happiness in life. — 

I never would have married you or any one else, if I had 
not had a moral certainty, that I was able to support you in a 
plain way. — Let this pass — yet it gives me pain. — 

I am glad that our son William is at Hillsborough — 

I should send you some money in this, but I have not the 
notes — I will tomorrow send to Patty — I write to night, that 
this letter may surely get to you this week. — 

You will want flour, sugar & coffee — I shall write to our 
son, & send him something — 

The rest of my life, God willing, shall be devoted to you and 
our family — & the strongest reproach I feel, is that all of it has 
not been — 

At all events, I have never intermitted in my affections to 
my most dutiful & affectionate wife — & may God enable us 
to preserve those affections until the grave shall cover our mortal 

Your most affectionate 
& most trusting husband 
To Mrs. Cha: A. Mangum W. P. Mangum 

William S. Gregory 10 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Philad*. Feb 3/53 
Honored Sir — 

Being about to publish a work on "Autography" you will 
confer a special favor by forwarding your autograph to 

Yours Resp &c 
To Wm. S. Gregory 

Hon W P Mangum Box 585 Ph. P.O. 

"William S. Gregory was a merchant in Philadelphia. McElroy's Philadelphia Directory, 
1852. p. 172. 

266 State Department of Archives and History 

Charles W. Phifer to Willie P. Mangum. 

Chapel Hill Feb 7th 53 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

It is a custom at the University for those elected Ball-Man- 
agers to place the name of some individuals upon the ticket as 
attendant Managers in order that dignity may be given to the 
ticket and attraction to the occasion. 

You will natter my vanity by allowing me the privilege of 
placing your name upon our ticket as my attendant Manager. 

Indeed you could confer no greater favor upon me, except 
by honoring us with your presence at the ensuing Commence- 
ment on the 2d of June next. 

I am, dear Sir, with great respect 

Very sincerely Yours 
Chas. W. Phifer 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Hillsborough Feb 12th '53. 
My Dearest Sister 

Your last letter was a relief indeed to the sad and gloomy 
news contained in the preceding. To hear that Father from 
whom I have not heard one word since I left home was so well 
and in such good spirits and that Sister was so much better was 
indeed joyful news. I hope that Sister has perfectly recovered 
by this time Give her my love and kisses for me and tell her 
that I would give anything in the world to see her, and that 
on her return home she must be certain to stay the first night 
at Cousin Williams, 11 as I know Cousin William and Sarah would 
be delighted to see her and the Col. and then her little boy 
would be so sincerely so truly glad that he could not express 

lr William Cain. William Preston was staying at the Cains' while he was in school at 

The Mangum Papers 267 

one thousandth part of the pleasure he would feel. I like both 
the teacher and boys better if possible on farther acquaintance 
and as Cousin William has an excellent gun I have no want of 
amusement. I have obtained the carpeting and Sarsaparilla and 
will send them to Aunt Marys the first time uncle Henderson 
passes as he does not go down today on account of the bad 
weather. I also enclose some postage stamps which I was very 
sorry I could not send on tuesday but through the negligence 
and inattention of the postmaster he had become entirely de- 
stitute. And now My dearest sister as you have no excuse I 
hope you will write often. I know you would do so If you knew 
with what joy I greet the slightest note from you. kiss mother 
for me and tell her her little boy hopes If he cannot honor he 
will at least never disgrace his fathers name. Give my love to 
all and dont forget Miss Polly. Remember me to Aunt Letty 
and all the servants. 

Your Affectionate brother 
Wm. Preston Mangum. 


The number of books I had to obtain with the articles of 
clothing at once reduced my funds to a very low ebb. And as 
I have two other books to get and have given nothing to the 
servants I will need a small amount but please dont put your 
self to the slightest trouble or inconvenience as it is not at all 
necessary at present. "Cousin Sarah says that my Linens are 
getting rather thin," but they are all clean now they will last 
decently for more than a month yet. So you need put yourself 
to no trouble at present about either as I merely write to let you 
know in time. I hope you will take care of yourself My dear 
Sister in such damp and disagreeable weather as the present 
and in your anxiety for the pleasure and happiness of those 
around you will not entirely forget your own safety which If I 
may be so bold as to say is your only and a real Mangum failing. 

W. P Mangum. 

268 State Department of Archives and History 

Walter Lowrie 12 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Mission House 

New York Feb. 26, 1853 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir: 

The Bill from the House to organize the 
Terretory of Washington, has a proviso to the 1st Section, grant- 
ing the title to the land not exceeding 640 acres, now occupied 
as missionary stations, with the improvements thereon, to the 
several religious societies to which such missionary stations 
respectively belong. This is a provision of simple justice to 
these several societies, and my object in troubling you with this 
note, is to request respectfully that a similar proviso be added 
to the Bill to organize the Territory of Nebraska. The Board 
of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church have two mis- 
sionary stations in this territory [upon] which they have ex- 
pended large sums, and are justly entitled to have secured to 
them the improvements they have made, with the number of 
acres specified. The Methodist, Baptist, Friends, and Roman 
Catholics have also missionary stations in different parts of the 
territory, and they would all be embraced in the same provision 

I am Dear Sir, Sincerely and 
Respectfully Yours 
Walter Lowrie 

P. S. If objections be made to the grant of the land, it would 
do at least partial justice to give the right of pre-emption 
to 640 acres at the minimum price. This would enable 
the societies respectively to save their improvements. 

W. L. 

"Walter Lowrie, a former secretary of the United States Senate, was secretary of the Presby- 
terian Board of Missions from 1836 to his death in 1868. See above, II, 25n. 

The Mangum Papers 269 

Martha Person Mangum to William Preston Mangum 13 

Monday. Feb. 28 th . 1853. 

My dearest Preston. 

We received your affectionate letter on Saturday, when it 
should have come on Tuesday. — some negligence of the Post- 
masters. — I reproved myself for suffering a thought of complaint 
to enter my mind, when our dear boy is so noble, affectionate, 
and just what we would have him. Take care of yourself my 
dear boy, and adhere to that manly resolution at all times, and 
under all temptations, "to never disgrace, if you cannot honor 
your Father's name." And — but 'tis useless for me to attempt 
to predict what experience will certainly prove — the approval 
of your own conscience, the affection of your friends and rela- 
tives — and the respect and esteem of strangers — will as surely 
follow this course of conduct as the rising of the Sun follows 
the dawning of the day. All very well. Mother and sister, are 
as well as usual. All were so much gratified to get your letter. 
Cousin Priestley is just starting so I must conclude with our 
warmest love to you. I enclose $4 for you. is it enough for the 
present. Manage to write us a little note my dear boy every 
week or two. 

Your affectionate sister. 
M. P. Mangum. 

John Livingston to Willie P. Mangum 

157 Broadway. New York 
February 1853 

Hon W. P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir, 

I believe that some time since I wrote you 
soliciting your portrait and memoir for a large Biographical 
Work 14 I had then in press. The first two volumes are now 
published and in the hands of the respectable book sellers 
throughout the U. S. You may find them at Frank Taylor's — 

"The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
"See above. 257-258. 

270 State Department of Archives and History 

Taylor & Maury's and other book stores in Washington; and as 
yet I hope to obtain a sketch and daguerreotype of yourself, to be 
published in the third or fourth volume now in press and to be 
issued in a few months. I beg to call your attention to the 
work in the hope that when you see its extended plan and the 
superior manner of its execution you will be prevailed upon 
to accept a place in its pages. 

The engravings are done on steel by the first artists in this 
country and are accurate and good likenesses of their originals. 
We have projected the work on the most extended plan, and 
though it may contain the names of some who are of less dis- 
tinction than others, yet we hope to issue successive volumes 
till it shall embrace almost every distinguished man in the 
country, now living. 

If you shall accept the offered place, please forward to me 
a good Daguerreotype likeness same size as Foster page 1, 
Mason page 13, Justice McLean page 789, or any of the larger 
portraits in vols 1 or 2, and we will at once instruct our engraver 
to go on with the plate, and have it finished up by an artist, who 
as he is reckoned one of the first in this country, will be able to 
get up the same in such manner as to do its original no dis- 
credit. Please cause to be forwarded also, at the same time, a 
carefully written memoir of yourself, or such facts as will en- 
able me, without much labor to prepare it. The sketch may 
occupy from five to fifty octave pages according to your wishes. 

In conclusion permit [me] to request that you will send both 
the memoir and daguerreotype at your earliest convenience — - 
say from ten to sixty days from this date, as we desire to give 
your name in the third volume now in rapid progress and wish to 
avoid delay. You will find in the first two volumes that en- 
gravings are executed in different styles, which, please examine 
and say which you would prefer for a portrait of yourself — 

Respectfully Yours, 
John Livingston 

The Mangum Papers 271 

Willie P. Mangum to Robert P. Anderson 15 

Monday - Noon - 
[March 1853] 16 

My dear Sir: 

I am aware how much you may be enployed for outgoing 
Senators - for there is the unusual number of Sixteen. & there- 
fore I feel it a duty to be patient. - I very much desire to leave 
in two or three days, - & you will do me an especial favor to 
overhaul my boxes, throw away Speeches, useless documents 
but retain every letter & other useful thing. 17 

I have I think, books I may need - the laws of the United 
States — & others. - 

I will thank you to call when convenient, (it is little out of 
your way home or to the Capitol) & let me know your pro- 
gress. - I propose to leave the boxes here, I hope not more than 
two - & in the future order them to Petersburg, Va. to the care 
of some one I will designate, to be forwarded to me by Wagon 
or Rail Road. Give me good locks & keys & before I leave, will 
indicate my wishes as to the keys. — I have as well as I remem- 
ber some writing paper in one of the boxes - I desire it to be 
sent to my lodging. — I need it, & would like to buy a half ream 
of good letter paper, if you can tell me where it can be had. — 
I need it, having scarcely any on hand, & will not draw as 
usual - Call by, for a moment, & see me - I desire further in- 
structions as to documents &C &C. 

Yours truly, 
W. P. Mangum 

To Robert P. Anderson 
of the Capitol. - 
Wash n . 

^Anderson was the messenger for the Senate. 

16 Mangum's term expired in March, 1853. He stayed at Mrs. Stettinius' s, during the session 
of 1852-1853. I am, therefore, concluding this letter was written in March, 1853. 

"Apparently many of Mangum's papers were misplaced. The scarcity of papers for the 
years 1848-1853 is disappointing. Several searches have been made by the present editor and 
members of the Mangum family to locate these missing papers but without success. 

272 State Department of Archives and History 

Horace Bigelow to Willie P. Mangum 18 

Wareville Oneeda Co N. Y. 
March 23, 1853 
Hon Willie P. Mangum 

Honored Sir 

I would respectfully solicit at your hands a copy of Stans- 
burys Exploring expedition to the great salt lakes if there is 
any on hand and address if you please and oblige your very 

Obt servant 

Horace Bigelow 

William J. Fowler to Willie P. Mangum. 

Henrietta Monroe Co N. Y. March 29th 1853 
Dear Sir 

I would most respectfully solicit of you A Copy of your 
speech delivered in Senate March 14 with reference to the 
Clayton & Bulwer Treaty 19 & if convenient send several copies 
and much oblige your most 

obedient Servant 
Wm. J Fowler 
To Hon Willie P Mangum 
U S Senator 


R. P. Anderson 20 to Willie P. Mangum 

Senate Doct Room 
April 4th 1853. 
Hon. W P Mangum 

You promised me before you left you would let me know to 
whom I could consign your box in Petersburg, but I did not get 

"The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. The Stan*- 
bury report referred to in this letter was the report which Howard Stansbury, 1806-1863, an 
army engineer made after a two year exploring trip in 1849-1850. It wai published as the 
"Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lakes of Utah . . ,," Senate Exec. Docu- 
ment No. 3, 32 Cong., spec, sess.; D. A. B., XVII, 516. 

"On January 27, 1853, Cass introduced a resolution calling for a report by the Foreign 
Relations Committee on the British reservations to the ratification of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. 
Mangum, a member of the committee, asked a delay of the debate until executive session. He 
also wished to await Clayton's return to the Senate to participate in the debate. He urged 
the Senate not to invoke the Monroe Doctrine and resort to war over one or two islands. He 
hoped that there would be no effort to stir up trouble with Great Britain. Cong. Globe, 32 
Cong., 2 sess., 414. 417, 418. 

^See above, 271. 

The Mangum Papers 273 

the directions, will you please to send it we have sent by mail 
two bags of Presidents Mess & Doc. and will send to you all 
the Owen as soon as we hear from you, 
Hopeing to see you again in the Senate 

I remain with high esteem 
Yours Respectively 
R. P. Anderson 

[Penciled Note on envelope:] 

"Anderson who had charge of Father's papers, Books etc - 
at Washington.'* 

Asbury Dickins to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington, 18 April 1853. 
My dear Sir, 

I was much gratified by your very kind letter congratulating 
me on my re-election. As you seem not to have seen the pro- 
ceedings which led to it, I will acquaint you with them in a few 

Without previous intimation to any Senators with whom I 
conversed, and without notice Mr. Adams 21 brought forward a 
resolution that the Senate would during the present [session] 
elect their officers. Its immediate consideration was, of course, 
objected to, after having spoken to some of my friends, with a 
view to ascertain, what number might be counted on, I sug- 
gested that the resolution should be called up the next day, and 
so modified as to provide for an immediate election, and that 
the election should take place the day following. The object 
of this was to prevent combinations, which, with the loss of 
office seekers then in Washington, would immediately be made 
for disposing of all the offices of the Senate, leaving but little 
chance for the incumbents. This course, which seemed not to 
have been expected, was pursued. But, a caucus was called 
forthwith. My friends among whom were the high men of the 
South, went into it, and suggested me with spirit so that I ob- 
tained the nomination. Beale failed; but Holland succeeded, 
and chiefly by his insignificance. Mr. French, was my chief 

^Stephen Adams, Senator from Mississippi in 1852-1857. 

274 State Department of Archives and History 

competitor, though Mr. Hickey obtained one vote, both in cau- 
cus and Senate, understood to be the vote of Mr. Bright! Mr. 
French's friends were desirous that he should be appointed 
chief clerk, in the place of Mr. Macken, and this wish was ex- 
pressed in the caucus, but without being agreed to or opposed 
by my friends. The wish was made known to me and recom- 
mended by one of my friends; but I declined acceding to it. A 
good deal had been said about the reading, which I have al- 
ways admitted was not as good as the Senate was entitled to 
have, and on this occasion I said it was my intention to have a 
better reader as soon as one could be found. Mr. F's friends 
were, then, desirous that he should be appointed reading clerk; 
and a resolution was introduced by Mr. Adams, for appointing 
a reading clerk with the same salary as the chief Clerk's. I was 
willing to appoint him; but strongly advised to do so by Mr. 
Atchison, who thought it would benefit me, by satisfying them. 
Some of my friends, particularly Mr. Butler and Mr. Mason 
were altogether opposed to Mr. F's being employed in any 
way; and the resolution was finally rejected. The debate on 
the occasion was a curious one. Fault had been found with 
the reading. Mr. Hickey had done the reading for the last 
two sessions, and yet the very persons who had found fault 
with the reading, spoke in the highest terms of Mr. H's reading! 
Mr. Douglas even went so far as to say that he was the best 
officer of the Senate! He said, even to the Capt. that there was 
great dissatisfaction at the reading! — 

As well as, I remember, it was said that Mr. F. had 8 friends. 

The rule has not been restored; but I dare-say that there will 
be a new election at the next Congress. 

The interest you have always taken, and which you now 
manifest in my affairs, must be my apology for this, otherwise, 
tiresome story. 

Your health is, I hope, now re-established; and the health- 
ful and engaging pursuits in which you are now occupied will, 
I am sure, keep it so, politics have many attractions; but, by a 
man of your generous and independent nature, the exactions 
of party must be difficult to bear. We miss you very much at 
Washington, I more than any one. No sooner had you left us, 
than I had reason to see how much I had owed to your active 
friendship on all former occasions. 

The Mangum Papers 275 

My family desire to be particularly remembered to you. We 
also desire our kind remembrance to Mrs. Mangum and your 
daughters and son. When you find leisure and convenience 
come and pay me a visit. If I can, I will go during the vacation 
and see you. 

God bless you my good and constant friend, 

A. Dickins. 

Your franking privilege will expire at the meeting of Con- 
gress in December next. 

Free - Asbury Dickins, 
Secretary of the Senate. 

Martha P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum. 

May 5th 1853. 
My dearest Preston, 

I have just concluded a letter to sister and have but one 
moment left in which to write to my dear boy, who I trust 
is well and doing his utmost to deserve the approbation of his 
parents. Father will be up at May court, and hopes by that 
time to see you in your new clothes. Mother has not been so 
well for a day or two - but I trust will soon regain her wonted 
health under a course of medicine that she has commenced. 
Father says that he has seen none of your letters since his ar- 
rival at home, that he should like to see some, it is best he says 
to write a round copy hand - at first after learning to write that 
well, you can form one yourself. I told you in my last how 
much pleased he was with our dear boy, he says that he don't 
wish to see in his family a finished gentleman, at 15, 17, or even 
20 years old - for says he, if he be finished at either of those 
ages, he will be finished upon a very small and contemptible 
model - he wants to see his son gradually in both mind and 
body- The noble oak is slow in growth and often ungraceful in 
its infancy & yet comes to tower as the prince, indeed, the 
King — the Monarch of all anglo-saxon forests, in both England 
& America - none of your frenchified tulips which he either de- 

276 State Department of Archives and History 

spises or seems to despise. The post is waiting and I must close 
with our warmest love to our dear boy. 

Your affectionate sister 
M. P. Mangum. 

William Archer to Willie P. Mangum. 

[14 May, 1853] 

Judge Mangum. 

Sir, I am sorry to trouble you in the bosom of Domestic re- 
pose, which I hope you are enjoying in the happy Family Cir- 
cle, that, at our time of life is much required. 

If you have opened your Miscellaneous papers; and can find 
my Pacific Rail Road papers, you would do me a great favour to 
send them to me, as I hope to be able to make good use of them 
next session, there are a number of the party men here, trying 
to make primary arrangements; Hammlin, 22 and Shields, and 
Brodhead are here and Hunter, it is said that they are to make 
this great work is to be the hobby Horse of the party, to secure 
another term; and if they cannot succeed with the present in- 
cumbent, - the Virginy doctrine is to be abandoned, and they 
will run Hunter, in by Steam, at Sixty miles an hour. Hammlin, 
and Shields, and Dodge 23 favours the northern Rout, for the 
Road, from the north point of Iowa, to the head of the Columbia 
River, then to follow that River, to its mouth; they seem to say 
that Generals, Frost and Snow; are both Democrates, and will 
agree to remove north of 54', 40', verry doubtful; - Old Bullion, 24 
think that St. Louis, and the South pass, is the best Rout, Hun- 
ter and Wa[l]ker thinks that Memphis, by Little Rock, and San- 
ta Fee, is the best Rout; to branch at the Sirra Navada, to San 
Diego, and San Francisco. But Borland, has got his Commis- 
sion, and Instructions in his pocket to go to Central America, to 
secure the right of way by San Juan; But the Central Rout is 
favoured by the Strongest Party, Bullion, Hunter, Walker, an[d] 
Ellis, and de-Bows 25 of New Orleans, we believe the Hunter 

^He refers to Hannibal Hamlin, Senator from Maine; James Shields, Senator from Illinois; 
Richard Broadhead, Senator from Pennsylvania; and R. M. T. Hunter, Senator from Virginia. 
^Augustus C. Dodge, Senator from Iowa. 

^He refers to Thomas Hart Benton, R. M. T. Hunter, and Robert J. Walker. 
^He refers to the editor of DeBow's Review. 

The Mangum Papers 277 

party to be the Strongest; - Brod-head, seems to care little 
about the location, provided they use plenty of Iron. The Gov- 
ernment is moving on slowly displeasing both parties, the one 
believes they move so slow, and the other, becaus they move at 
all, The President seems plain, and cool, and begins to be used 
to the Harness; Marcy has thrown away the old patched Pants, 
and appears in a better plumbage; they are the only ones I 
have seen in their Robes of State. Our City is yet crowded with 
Patriots offering their Services, to the Government in any place, 
or position they can get, from a Foreign Mission, to a door 
keeper, or a Groom of the Stool, for the Royal Bed Chamber. 
The curses and foul language used, by many of the applicants, 
because they do not get place, they cry is they are suffering for 
pass; and some have been obliged to run away in the night, to 
be off from the boarding bill; there is little of any thing here 
but democracy; and the sound of democratic principles, and few 
that cries the loudest can give, no other defination; of the dem- 
ocratic cause, or faith, but the love of, or right to office, and 
to get all the Spoils they can; (honestly as the yanky, said to 
his Son, but at all events;) there are some of the old Van Buren 
defaulters appointed to office, that Swindled Uncle Sam, out of 
$50,000; while holding an office of $3,000 - a year. 

Sir if you can find those papers, pleas send them to the ad- 
dress of Mr. Dickins; as I expect to be absent from the City for 
some time, and his office is allways there, and papers address 
to it, are allways better attended to than to a Citizen; and some 
Strang discoveries hath been made, by papers of a private na- 
ture, bearing the official stamp, if they come to Dickins, 26 Ander- 
son will take charge of them, and deliver them to my order; I 
am sorrow to given you the trouble to look for them, we believe 
the old North State, will shake of her democratic faith at the 
next Election, and you will come back another term; 

I am Sir, with great Respect your Obedt Servant 

Wm Archer 

Washington City 
May 14th. 1853. 

P.S. I observe in this days paper that four exploiting parties 
have been appointed to explore the Rout for the Road, one party 
for the northern Rout, and [one] the St. Louis Rout, and two 

^Hc refers to Asbury Dickins and Robert Anderson. 

278 State Department of Archives and History 

parties for the Memphis Rout, on[e] to start from the Missis- 
sippi River, the other from San Diego, to meet at a pass in the 
Sirra Naveda, each party to have a strong force and protected 
by 30 mounted Rangers each party, and expected to Report next 
Session, which might be the most available Rout. 

Respectfully W. A. 


Judge Mangum 
Red Mountain. 

William S. Archer to Willie P. Mangum. 

[10 July 1853] 
Judge Mangum 

Sir. I am sorrow to trouble you, in your domestic retire- 
ment; to aske you to look for those R Road, papers; and to pray 
that you, could either look, or caus some one to look through 
your papers for them. "They were endorsed A. Specification 
and Estimate of a Rail Road of four tracks, and line of Teli- 
graph, from the National Metropolis to the Pacific Ocean." The 
administration has appointed Six Surveying parties to Examine, 
and Report on four Routs; as to practicability, cost of construc- 
tion and Length of Road by each Rout; and all to report to next 
Session if Possible. The prime ministry of England, said to our 
Minister A. Lawrence, befo he left london that if the U States 
could make and compleet that Road it would do more to Civi- 
lize, to Socilize to harmonize & Equalize the human Race, than 
any act, since Columbus discovered the new world; and the 
present party mean to have as much Credit and honour as 
Columbus if that should make their names, and actions immor- 
tal; It is not so much to Claim any part of the immortality from 
them, as to claim a small share of the Gold for making the 
Road, even if it should make them Immortal; we hope your 
State, will some what change their position, as you may come 
back to the Senate another term and receive a share of the Im- 
mortality, and a part of the Gold dust awakened up and speak 
about the mighty effects of this Immortality. I have the best of 
information that England is receiving about a million of dolls a 

The Mangum Papers 279 

day in dust from the mines of California, and that France, and 
Holland, about a like sum between them, and, we Estimate that 
all other nations together, equal to England makes about three 
million a day, taken, or we say stolen from the public domain 
in California. This sum, we propose, shall pay not less includ- 
ing the alloy found there, then twenty pr ct. this much we pro- 
pose to apply, the first million and half to build, and fit up a 
mint, to refine and coin all the gold collected in that Country; 
this is the fund, we propose to make this proposed Road. If you 
can find those papers, and send them on to me, as early as pos- 
sible, as they have to be all wrote over again, and several large 
ammendments inserted; collected since they were wrote. 

we shall hope to Receive those papers in a few days, and 
we shall look to the Result of your State Election, to see if your 
party succeeds that you may spend another term, here; and 
we feel proud to say that you could do much Good in regulating 
this act for this mighty work; which is expected to do so much 
Good, to the world; and this Gold, that could do so much 
Good to those that can take an active interest, to make, and 
conduct the Bill, through; please to send the papers to my own 
adress, I shall be here and ready, and happy to receive them, 
please excuse me for giving you so much trouble, and believe 
me to be your Obedt Servant &c. 

Wm Archer 
Washington City, July 10th, 1853. 

Rufus P. Jones to Willie P. Mangum. 

W. F. College August 23d 53. 

Hon 1 . 

Willie P. Mangum 

Esteemed Sir, It is my pleasing duty, to communicate to 
you, that you have been unanimously chosen to deliver an ad- 
dress before the Euzelian & Philomathesian societies of Wake 
Forest College, at our next annual commencement, on the Sec- 
ond Thursday in June next, address on the day preceeding. 27 

^See below, J. J. Williams to W. P. Mangum, October 23, 1853. 

280 State Department of Archives and History 

In making this choice we have been influenced by your 
eminent qualifications. Being so well experienced, in every de- 
partment of Literary and Political life, which renders you bet- 
ter qualified perhaps than any other, to admonish and instruct 
those who may be still engaged in the acquisition of an educa- 
tion, as well as, those who expect on that occasion to leave the 
consecrated walls of their "Alma Mater," and step out upon 
the arena of active life. 

We hope, and Sincerely desire that we may have the pleas- 
ure of listening to your Paternal advice & admonitions. 

By accepting you will place us under the strongest obliga- 
tions, and cement us to you, by the tenderest chords of friend- 
ship, which death alone may sever. 

Believe me most truly yours, 

Rufus. P. Jones- 
Cor. Sec. Philomathesian Society 

Louis Thompson 28 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Washington City Sept. 12th. [1853] 

Most Esteemed Sir. 

Mr. Mangum. i take my pen to write you a few lines and 
am in hopes they will finde you quite recovered from your late 
attact and also hope that your fameley are quite well i arrived 
in Washington a bout three weeks ago and went on to the north 
directly or i should have wrot to acquaint you of my return 
when i heard of your illness i was at the north but you cant 
for a moment tell how i regretted to hear you was so ill, and 
how mutch i wanted to come on and attend to you in your ill- 
ness for i think i could have attended to your wants better than 
enney person else but thank god i hear you have recovered 
from the sevearest — 

i would be verry happy indeed to hear from the Judg and 
know how he is and from The familey like wise Mr. Mangum i 
undstand that your time have expired in the Senate and as i 
have nothing to keep me in Washington i think of leaving hear 

^See above. 86n. This letter was probably written in 1853, for it refers to Mangum's term 
having expired. 

The Mangum Papers 281 

all to garther but i would be verry sorry to leave hear with 
out going to see you — i would gladley offer my self to you and 
your — f amiley if you had aney thing for me to do in what ever 
way you might chose i have severel offers made me hear but i 
have not taken up with none of them 

Pleas remember your servant Humberley to your familey 
and pleas write one line to let me know if you are quite well 
for i want to hear so bad 

i still remain your own most Humbel and faithful servant 

Louis Thompson. 

William Archer to Willie P. Mangum. 

[19 September, 1853] 

Judge Mangum 

Sir I am truly sorrow to trouble you in your happy retire- 
ment. But I again respectfully request you, 29 if you can find 
those Rail Road papers among your losse papers; that you would 
send them to me, my own vision is so much impaired that, I 
am obliged to employ another person to put them in order, and 
to engraft into them many other Illustrations, collected since 
they were formed, there, is quite a Rail Road, Fever here; 
speculators from all parts of the Country suggesting, and pres- 
sing different routs, and points of a Road, and how it should be 
made. As my vision is so much impaired I have not yet seen 
or learned how your State Election came off, whither your 
State legislature is Whig or not, if so we should be happy to 
see you here another term, and to be here, and to take an active 
part in this great Rail Road question, which would close your 
legislative life with as much glory as it began; and if I can 
get my proposition, of ways and means addopted; and I have 
yet no; opponent; this causes me to be the more desirous to 
get those papers, and I hope you will look through your loose 
papers, and forward them, hoping you may enjoy, uninterrupted 

^See above, W. S. Archer to W. P. Mangum, May 14, July 10, 1853. Mangum was 
frequently derelict about his correspondence. In this period his health was also very bad. 

282 State Department of Archives and History 

health, domestic happiness; and prosperity is the wish of your 
very Obedt Servt. — 

Wm Archer 

Sept— 19th 1853. 



J. J. Williams to Willie P. Mangum 

Wake Forest College 
Philomathesian Hall 
Oct 23d 1853 
Judge Mangum 

Respected Sir 

As up to our last meeting we had received no response 
to the the [sic] communication of our former sec, I was autho- 
rized again to address you and to urge you, by all means which 
courtesy would allow to accept the unanimous appointment to 
deliver our next annual address. To the anxious solicitations 
of the Society permit me to add my earnest desire that you 
will gratify & honor us by complying with our request 
Please respond immediately 

Very respectfully yours 
J. J. Williams 
Cor. Sec. Philo. Soc. 

Walter A. Thompson 31 to Willie P. Mangum. 

[1 November, 1853] 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir. 

Allow me to wait upon you for a fulfilment of your kind 
promise to further my endeavors after a situation in the Army. 

Ever since my tour of duty with the 1st. Mississippi Regi- 
ment of Volunteers in the War with Mexico, I have cherished a 

^See above, Rufus P. Jones to W. P. Mangum, August 23, 1853. 
^Merchant in Chapel Hill. Battle, History of U. N. C, I, 647. 

The Mangum Papers 283 

hope that fortune might at some time connect me permanently 
with the military service of my Country. The ties by which I 
was bound to Her who had devoted to the orphan child of her 
daughter, from his earliest infancy, all the care of a mother, 
has hitherto prevented me from prosecuting this intention very 
eagerly. Besides, I felt the difficulty arising from a want of ac- 
quaintance in those directions where some sort of personal in- 
terest is almost necessary to success. The first of these ob- 
stacles has now been removed by death; and the second I hope, 
has been partly done away with by the merited elevation of 
the gallant gentleman who was my Colonel upon the memor- 
able 22d and 23d days of February 1847. 

Under these circumstances I make bold Sir, to solicit your 
interest in my behalf. Rumor connects you in relations of 
friendship with many from whom in politics you have been di- 
vided, - among others, I understand with the Hon. Jefferson 
Davis. So closely was my fate bound up with his upon some 
occasions during the late war, that I sometimes feel like making 
an application immediately to him; but cooler thoughts remind 
me that Buena Vista must have engraved his name indelibly 
upon the hearts of many of his men - of whom, in turn he can 
retain but little recollection. May I then trespass upon your 
valuable time so far as to obtain from you a note to the Secre- 
tary of War directing his attention, in terms as favorable as 
you think my claims may warrant, to my humble aspirations. 

Those aspirations are for some place in the Commissary's 
Department, or on the Quarter-Master's staff corresponding in 
rank to a Captaincy. I prefer not to be in the Line in time of 
Peace, because my limited acquaintance with the Army unfit 
me for the labours of the drill-labours which I believe are at such 
times the main duties of most of those officers; but should a 
war break out- which the uncertain signs of the times render 
not improbable within the next few years - I trust that the sit- 
uation at which I aim would give its occupant the opportunity 
of an easy exchange into the line. 

With many obligations for the kind offices which you have 
so readily consented to do me in this matter, I am 

With Very Great Respect 
Your Obedient Sert. 
Chapel Hill N. C. Walter A. Thompson. 

November 1st 1853 

284 State Department of Archives and History 


David R. Atchison to Willie P. Mangum 

Feb 8 th 1854 

Hon W P Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Are you alive, and well, god preserve you one thousand 
years, we have the Niggers up in all their sable glory. 1 
write to me any thing or nothing, a line from you. will be to 
me, like the music of a harp touched by the hand of a hand of 
the days of old "mournful but Sweet." 

Your friend 
D. R. Atchison 

S. D. Morgan 2 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Macon Ga. Feby 11th 1854. 
Honble. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

My collections, I fear, will be bad, your notes made last 
year are all good, but there seems a prevailing disposition, or 
indisposition not to pay debts in Georgia at present. 

Money is very scarce and a great many failures taking place 
recently. I have been several days waiting or rather trying to 
get something to write, in the way of Settlements etc, that 
would afford you a more diffinite understanding of your busi- 
ness in Macon- 

I have thought it best to hire out your Servants in Ga as I 
could see no way of gitting them home I could see no suitable 
person going to No. Carolina and to hire some one especially 
to take them home, to North Carolina would cost two much, 

x He probably refers to the Kansas-Nebraska Bill which was before Congress at this time. 
2 See above, 217. 

The Mangum Papers 285 

though would be glad of your preference. I would bring them 
with me by publick conveyance, knowing that you had as live 
have them at home, but I am compelled to go to Florida your 
Negroes are all well & doing very well and desire to be hired 
again in Ga. And their hire will bee quite enough more than 
North Carolina wages to take them home next winter. Wages 
are something better than last winter, or at least promises are, 
better, besides I leave it discassionary [sic] with you at your 
option to take them home at any time of the year, that you may 
think proper so to do. 

Well relative to the loss of Duncan I am not in possession 
of as much information as I want, am waiting to see a gentle- 
man, who is now absent, for a short while from the City and 
who was an eye witness to the occurance. Saw Duncan Drowned 
and as I am told will tell me all the particulars, after which I 
will write you more particularly, or at least as soon as I ditermine 
which will be the most prudent course to persue. I shall of 
course endeavor to be prudent, but (My feelings are so rigidly 
opposed to any Man or Men that will act so as to cause their 
better principals to be suspected of Mai treatment to Slaves) 
and especially under Circumstances similar to the above I shall 
spare no pains to understand all the particulars, in hast, I am 
your Obt. Svt. & friend 

Very Respectfully 

S. D. Morgan 
Hon W. P. Mangum Sr. 

Caroline F. King to Willie P. Mangum 

Troy Seminary, [New York] Feb. 23, 1854. 

Mr. Mangum, 

Mrs. Willard the present Principal of the Institution is 
in receipt of your letter of the 8th. inst. making inquiry for a 
teacher to give instruction in the Academy at Red Mountain 
N. C. 3 

a Mangum donated the land for a girls' school at Red Mountain. During and for some years 
after the Civil War, his daughters ran the school. Weeks, "W, P. M.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, 
V, 256. See below, a "plot of Red Mountain Academy Lot." 

286 State Department of Archives and History 

She desires me to say in reply that she can recommend to 
you a young lady of superior acquirements, who is a thorough 
English scholar, and is also well qualified to give instruction 
in French, German, Drawing and Oil Painting. She is a person 
of fine manners, amiable disposition, and high moral principle. 
We are confident that both as a teacher and an example her in- 
fluence would be eminently salutary in the case of those com- 
mitted to her care. 

We wait to hear from you again before making a positive 

Caroline F. King, 
for Sarah L. Willard, 
Troy Female Seminary. 

Giles Mebane to Willie P. Mangum 

[2 March, 1854] 
Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

My D r Sir 

I introduce to your acquaintance Mr Thomas C Johnston 
an artist 4 - he wishes to have your portrait to take with him 
and would be pleased to have you sit for it. he will I have no 
doubt take an accurate likeness & I have told him that your 
portrait well taken might be of advantage to him in his pro- 
fession & he concurs with me in that opinion. You will find him 
a very clever gentleman - he is from Abington V a . We are all 
well. My compliments to your family 

Yours truly &c 
Giles Mebane 

White Oak Alamance 

March 2nd 1854 
[Address:] Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

By Mr Thos C Johnston 

4 See below. Thomas C. Johnston to W. P. Mangum, May 20, 1854. 

The Mangum Papers 287 

A. H. Belo to Willie P. Mangum 

Pythagorean Hall 
Germanton [N. C.,] March 17th 1854 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 


It becomes my pleasing task, to inform you, that this 
evening you have been unanimously elected an honorary mem- 
ber of the Pythagorean Literary Society, composed of students 
belonging to the Masonic Institute located at Germanton N. C. 
The acceptance of the election will be flattering & gratifying in 
the highest degree. 


A. H. Belo Cor. Sec 

M. H. Pinnix to Willie P. Mangum. 

Masonic Institute 
Germanton N. C. 
April 3 1854 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 


I have the honor of informing you, that at our last reg- 
ular meeting, you were unanimously elected an Honorary mem- 
ber of the Adelphian Literary Society, now in session at the 
Masonic Institute, Germanton, N. C. 

Allow me to add my solicitation to the request of the so- 
ciety, that you will accept. 

Most respectully, your obt. Servt. 
M. H. Pinnix Sec. 

288 State Department of Archives and History 


Plat of Land Given by Willie P. Mangum 
for Red Mountain Academy 5 

State of North Carolina [13 April, 1854] 
Orange County. 

This plot represents a Lot of 
Ground containing 5 acres 
Laid off Out of the Lands of 
Judge Mangum for Red Moun- 
tain Female academy. Bounded 
as follows. Beginning at a 
Stake or Rock in the Rox- 
s^uiq g stp g 1S8AV borough & Raleigh road Abner 

Parkers corner running from Thence South 6 chains 23 Links to 
Pointers Thence West 8 chains 3 Links to Pointers, Thence 
north 6 chains 23 Links to a Stake on Abner Parkers line, 
Thence his line East 8 chains 3 links to the beginning. Surveyed 
13th April 1854. 

Saml. Morgan ) 

( Ch. Car. S. M. Link 

Green A. Mangum) Surveyor. 

[Endorsed : ] 

Plot of Red Mountain Academy Lot 
5 Acres. 

East 8 chs 3 Lks. 









5 Acres 










ptrs. ptrs 


Frederick J. Hill and Others to Willie P. Mangum 


Wilmington, N. C. April 28th, 1854. 

Dear Sir: 

At a Meeting of the citizens of the Town of Wilmington, held 
last evening the annexed Preamble and Resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted. And in the discharge of the duty imposed up- 
on us under the second Resolution, we take the liberty of ad- 

6 See above. 285-286. 

The Mangum Papers 289 

dressing you, and, through you, the citizens of your County, 
with an earnest request that you will take the necessary action 
to assist us in carrying out the object of the Convention, by a 
representation of Delegates from your County. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obd't Serv'ts. 

Fred'k J. Hill, James T. Miller, 

A. J. DeRosset Jr., Wm. A. Wright, 

Sam'l J. Person, O. G. Parsley. 


Unanimously adopted at a Meeting of the Citizens of Wilmington, 

N. C, Held Thursday, April 27th 


Whereas, we have seen, with pleasure, the proceedings of a 
public meeting, lately held by the citizens of Duplin County, in 
relation to the improvement of Cape Fear Bar, of which the 
following resolution forms a part: 

"RESOLVED, That we recommend a Convention of Dele- 
gates from the several Counties composing this Congressional 
District, to meet in the town of Wilmington, on Thursday, the 
25th of May next, to give expression to the views and wishes of 
the people of this Congressional District, on the subject refer- 
red to in the preamble to these resolutions, and to request the 
Hon. William S. Ashe, the Representative in Congress from this 
District, to use his influence to cary into effect such wishes and 

And whereas, we are very grateful to our fellow-citizens of 
Duplin for this public expression of their views upon a subject 
in which the town of Wilmington and the whole State of North 
Carolina are so deeply interested; Therefore, RESOLVED, 

1st. That the recommendation contained in the above resolu- 
tion be adopted, and that our fellow citizens of this District, 
and of every County in the State, be invited to send Delegates, 
to meet with us in Convention, on Thursday, the 25th of May 

2d. That a Committee of Correspondence of five persons be 
appointed to communicate these proceedings to the several 
Counties of the State. 

290 State Department of Archives and History 

3d. That a Committee of four be appointed to make a Re- 
port to the Convention, embodying such facts and statements 
as may be best calculated to show the propriety and importance 
of the work. 

4th. That a Committee of five be appointed to make all ar- 
rangements for the accommodation of the Convention. 

5th. That fifty Delegates be appointed to represent the Coun- 
ty of New Hanover in that Convention. 

On motion of T. J. Norcom, Esq., the Magistrate of Police, 
O. G. Parsley, was added to the Committee of Correspondence. 

O. G. Parsley, M.P., Chairman. 

Alfred Martin, ) _ x . 

t u t tt i x Secretaries 

John L. Holmes,) 


William C. Mangum to Willie P. Mangum. 

Walton Ga. May 10 1854. 
Mr. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Will you inform me whither the widow Mangum is still 
living or not. That you may know to whom I allude, She is known 
universally, as Aunt Dicy Mangum. 6 I am the son of Durell 
Mangum, and he the Son of Arthur & Dicy Mangum, I have un- 
derstood that she is in indigent circumstances. I have written 
several letters, To different persons, for information concerning 
her, but none of my letters have been honored, your informa- 
tion with regard to he[r] will be received as a lasting favor. 

Yours Respectfully 
Wm. C. Mangum. 


Thomas C. Johnston 7 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Danville Va May 20th 1854.— 
Judge Mangum — 

Dear Sir; 

I will take the liberty of writing you a letter. — Since I 
have arrived in Danville, and have finished your Portrait, I 

6 See above. I, 84n. 
7 See above. 286n. 

The Mangum Papers 291 

find it recognized by many persons here — even by some who 
have not seen you since the Celebration at Yancey ville in 1840. 
I have also the best picture ever taken of Judge Ruffin, which 
is pronounced excellent by all who know him in Danville. He 
is much better known here than you are.- I find your portraits 
of considerable advantage to me in getting business in this place - 
although I had several engagements before I came, they have 
added to the number some half dozen others whom I should 
not have gotten so soon. During the time of my remaining I 
shall, as I promised you, copy this Head of yours for the bene- 
fit of your family, and will bring it with me as I pass in this 
fall should I not send it before that time. I cannot indeed im- 
magine any safer opportunity I can have of sending it - it could 
not be conveniently sent by stage from this point. — 

As I have the honor of painting you, which I do not think 
any one else has done, I desire They should certify to that fact 
who know you best — the family & others there - when you have 
seen it again. 

Since I have taken this Portrait of you, and have reflected 
upon its characteristics, I think there is still another air & posi- 
tion in which I should like to take you. I could make a draw- 
ing of you in that attitude which I could finish at my leisure. I 
take it that character is all in all essential to likeness - a mere 
portrait which is very recognizable, or, a mere painting of pretty 
colors and false outlines, is not a work of Art. The difference 
between a mere painter and an Artist is discovered in this par- 
ticular. We have had many fine Painters in the Country, but 
never yet in my opiniom but two or three Artists - and but one 
of that number who was perfectly skilled in the magic art of 
transfering the Soul and not the body alone to canvass. This 
was Gilbert Charles Stuart. Jarvis was only second to Stuart - 
and Sully still inferior to Jarvis, yet a finer painter than either 
of them. 

There are three more Heads I should like to paint in N. C. - 
Mr Badger, Judge Pearson and Mr. Graham, but they are so far 
apart I cannot conveniently get them all - I shall at least en- 
deavor to get Mr. Badger whether I get the other two or not. - 
I will try to get the picture I have of Henry Clay from Abing- 
don — I may go home some time during the summer, but if I do 
not go, I shall try and have it sent to Danville. I want to show 
it to you by all means, and if you think it a likeness I shall paint 

292 State Department of Archives and History 

a full length from it. As you remarked, a good likeness of Mr 
Clay would be valuable, for I have never seen one yet, unless this 
be considered so by those who know him best. No engraving I 
have ever seen of him is like him. The best portraits I have 
seen of him were only the body without the Soul — the Head 
without the mind - as I heard him say himself there had never 
been a likeness painted of him - he did not pretend to account 
for the cause, but it is easily to be accounted for in the simple 
fact that Clay in calm repose was not Clay at all. They have all 
painted him so- without life, consequently not to life. 

I suppose there is nothing I could write of Danville that 
would interest you — We have a big Masonic Celebration here 
on the 24 inst - the only thing of much interest here at present. - 
You[r] family will please accept of my best Respects, and I Re- 
main Your 

Obt. Servent 
Most Respectfully 

Thos. C. Johnston — 

Hon Wiley P. Mangum. 

C. C. Norton to Willie P. Mangum. 

Greensboro', 27th May, 1854. 

Mr. Wiley P. Mangum 

William Cain 


Brot to jail in this place today a negro man about 25 years 
of age, 5 feet 8 or 10 inches high, says his name is David- 8 Said 
boy says he belongs to W. P. Mangums children and William 
Cain is the guardian for said children. — 

8 See above, 169. 

The Mangum Papers 293 

You will therefore come forward, prove property, pay 
charges and take him away, should he belong to you. 
Let me hear from you soon. 

Yours respectfully 
C. C. Norton 
Jailer — 


Greene County 

James A. Dean to Willie P. Mangum. 

South Lowell N. C. 
June 2, 1854. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

I received your note last Monday morning. I was some- 
what dissappointed, and I must confess a little vexed, that our 
arrangement, - so satisfactory to all of us - had failed. I called 
to mind, however, Burns' philosophic declaration, that "The 
best laid schemes of mice and men, gang aft aglee"; and I claim- 
ed no exemption. 

We cannot, of course object reasonably, to the course that 
you took, though it would have been gratifying to all of us, if 
your name could have been announced as the speaker. 

We are about getting out a circular of this Institution; and 
if consistent with your views of propriety, 9 and your feelings, 
we should take it as a favor to be able to insert a short para- 
graph, from you, giving your opinions of the school. It would, 
we think do our school and essential service, for which we 
should feel ourselves under lasting obligations. 

8 See the following printed circular. 

294 State Department of Archives and History 

If you think favorably of the above request, please send by 
Wm. the desired paragraph. 

With high regards for yourself and family, 

I remain 

Your obt. servt. 
James A. Dean 

P.S. We have not been able to see Gov. Graham, according 
to your suggestions. 

Favor of Wm. Preston. 


Printed Circular of 


Rev. James A. Dean, M. A., Principal. 
Rev. Wm. W. Runyan, M. A., Associate. 

[8 June, 1854] 

The Twelfth Session of this Institution will commence on 
Thursday, July 13th, and classes will be fully organized the 
same day. The abilities of the Principal, as a teacher, are too 
well known to need any praise at our hands; it is sufficient to 
state that these abilities are more clearly displayed every ses- 
sion. Mr. Runyan, who was recently assistant editor of the 
National Magazine, came among us at the commencement of 
the present session, with the highest testimonials. He has fully 
sustained the character therein given; and the Committee feel 
great pleasure in being able to announce him as one of the 
teachers. The services of another gentleman who has just grad- 
uated with high distinction, are at our command, and will 
be secured, provided the number of students will justify it. The 
Committee feel confident that no School in the State can boast 
of teachers who more happily unite thorough literary qualifica- 
tions, with general ability and successful experience. 

This Institution has already sent out many excellent teachers; 
and the Normal Class will be re-organized and made more effi- 
cient than formerly. 

Students will be thoroughly prepared for any of our Col- 
leges, but especial attention will also be given to qualifying 

The Mangum Papers 295 

young men for the vocations of active life. It is a rule invariably 
observed, never to allow a student to pursue the higher branches 
exclusively, until all the elementary ones have been mastered. 
Students but little advanced will receive more attention than 
heretofore. Suitable text books will be provided, and the in- 
struction accommodated to their years; thus constituting, in ef- 
fect, a primary department. 

Vocal music has been introduced into the school, with grati- 
fying success. It now constitutes a part of the academic course, 
and is taught free of charge. Lectures are given frequently on 
topics of general interest, and on the branches that are taught. 
Weekly exercises in Composition, Declamation or Extemporane- 
ous Speaking, are required of all. 

Three Reports will be made each session, giving full and 
faithful statements of the student's standing and deportment. 

The Boarding House is ready for the reception of boarders; 
and, under the management of Rev. Hartwell Arnold and Lady, 
no pains will be spared, to make this temporary home of the 
student, both pleasant and free from exposure to evil. The com- 
munity is decidedly moral. There will be preaching at the Aca- 
demy nearly every Sabbath, and other religious exercises fre- 
quently. Every Student is required to recite a weekly recitation 
in the Bible. 

South Lowell is in a section of country that will compare 
favorably, for healthiness, with any portion of the State. Those 
wishing to escape the malarious atmosphere of the East in sum- 
mer, and the rigorous climate of the West in winter, will find 
this a particularly desirable locality. 

Board will be furnished at the Boarding House for $32.50 
per session, exclusive of lights. It can be obtained in excellent 
private families at prices somewhat less. Tuition is $15, for the 
classics, $12.50 for common English, and $10 for the primary 
branches. The sons of all ministers exclusively engaged in the 
pastoral work will be charged but half the above rates of tu- 
ition. It is desirable that one-half the charges be paid in ad- 
vance. Students will be held responsible for board and Tuition, 
from the time of entrance, unless compelled to leave by sick- 
ness or other unavoidable cause. By a law of the Institution, no 
student is allowed to contract debts, except for articles of neces- 
sity. Any instructions that parents may give, in writing, on this 
subject, will be strictly observed. 

296 State Department of Archives and History 

Students can come by public conveyance to Oxford, 25 miles 
N. East, or to Hillsboro', 12 miles West; and at either place, pri- 
vate conveyances can be readily obtained. 

Dr. A. W. Gay, ) 

Col. D. C. Parish, ) 

( Executive 
Rev. J. A. McMannin, ) 

( Committee. 
John B. Leathers, Esq.,) 

Williams Harris, Esq., ) 

South Lowell, June 8th, 1854. 

The following communication has been received from the 
Hon. W. P. Mangum, in response to a request that he would 
pen a paragraph, expressive of his opinion of the Institution: 

My Dear Sir: — I respond to your intimation with cheerful- 
ness. My opinion of South Lowell I would most sincerely ex- 
press in the following terms, to-wit: 

I regard the South Lowell Academy, under its present man- 
agement, as one of the best institutions of its grade in the State. 
As a School for the preparation of its pupils for matriculation at 
the University, or our most respectable Colleges, I think it would 
compare favorably with the best Schools in the State, for ac- 
curacy and thoroughness of instruction. 

In another respect, I regard it the best School I have known, 
for a numerous class of our North Carolina youths; I mean 
those, who, from the want of means, or other causes, do not 
contemplate prosecuting a regular collegiate course, but are 
yet laudably desirous of qualifying themselves for a respect- 
able standing in society by such culture as may be cheaply ob- 
tained by a limited academical course of study. Besides a 
thorough and accurate instruction in the ordinary branches, ex- 
ercises are required, and carefully superintended by the Princi- 
pal of the Academy, which, in my opinion, tend powerfully to 
the development of thought, and to train the pupil by the meth- 
ods best adopted to enable him to acquire exactness and readi- 

The Mangum Papers 297 

My estimate of the admirable qualifications of the Rev. Mr. 
Dean, for the management of such an institution, is high; and 
assisted as he is, by a gentleman of whom I knew less person- 
ally, but of whom I hear the best accounts, the School cannot 
but be efficient, and worthy of a liberal patronage. Its location 
is in one of the healthiest regions of the State, at a distance 
from all lures to idleness and dissipation; and the School is man- 
aged by a marked decision and promptness, happily blended 
with the gentler virtues, which inspire the pupil with absolute 
respect, united, very generally, with a sentiment of warm per- 
sonal regard. 

Entertaining the opinions of the School, which I have ex- 
pressed, I have placed my only son in charge of Mr. Dean, for 
several terms. His progress and improvement have been com- 
mensurate with my most sanguine expectations. 

Willie P. Mangum. 

James A. Dean to Willie P. Mangum 

South Lowell Academy. 
June 16 th /54. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir: 

Below you have our last Report of your son for the pres- 
ent session, 

Spelling & defining. Very good Composition. Very good 

Ancient Geography. 

Modern Do. 






























298 State Department of Archives and History 

W m9 standing continues very much the same as at former 
reports. It is in all respects satisfactory. 

Yours truly 
James A. Dean 

P.S. We should be glad to see you present on all the days of 
our examination, as also the members of your family. Gov. 
Graham states his inability to address us; so that our only 
source of hope is an address from you, and we hope we shall 
not be disappointed. D. 

Walter A. Mangum to Willie P. & Charity A. Mangum 

July 15th 1854— 

My Dear Brother & Sister 

I have seated myself for the purpose of informing you that 
we are all yet living, and doing as well perhaps as we deserve. 
I feel that we live too cold & inattentive to each other, for the 
future let us do better.- By this mail I forward you the N. 
Orleans Piciune, which contains Lucy's marriage also a card.- 
I have just returned all safe home, from this outrageous & 
interminable Mississippi Swamp upon a visit to see Mr. Wil- 
liams 10 in Ark. & must say that I am more than pleased with 
Mr. Williams, & feel thankful that our dear Brothers children 
are in such hands- (may every blessing attend them) My Bro- 
thers children has been as lost to me, but not forgotten, & as 
far as feelings is concerned I know no difference with my 
own, & endeavour to encourage mine to love them as brothers 
& sisters.- Mr. Bacon, is one of those high minded intelectual 
Virginians & one of our safest merchants in the City, they will 
reamain with us this Summer - he is a son of Lyttall Bacon of 
Meclandburg Cty Virga — I shall if I live leave Miss, this fall 
for Texas - probably settle in Robison Cty - all my children 
will go with me married or not. My Dear Sister Charity, (that 
cherished name Sister Charity) lost to me but never will be 
forgotten. Willie I expect will soon follow Lucy 11 — 

10 He probably refers to John R. Williams, who married Priestley's daughter, Rebecca. 
"Walter's children. 

The Mangum Papers 299 

I want Priestly to go to Texas & Willie 12 when he is fully 
prepared for the bar should by all means go to that Country 
I am told by knowing men, that is the place for lawyers - would 
you not do well to advise them to that course - if so Mr. Wil- 
liams will go - Tell Mr. Williams to write me - & remember me 
to all, all all, the families & accept for yourselves my & our very 
best feelings. . . . 13 

W. A. Mangum 


Allen Gunn H & others to Willie P. Mangum. 

Yanceyville Sept. 5th. 1854. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum, 


The people of Caswell, irrespective of party, propose on 
the 28th inst, to give a public dinner at Yanceyville, compli- 
mentary to their fellow citizen and representative the Hon. Jno. 
Kerr. Whatever diversity of sentiment may prevail obtain 
among us in regard to other questions of public policy, there is 
but one in regard to the all-absorbing question of the last ses- 
sion of Congress, known as the Nebraska bill; & we take the 
pleasure in testifying in some way our approbation of the 
course of our distinguished statesmen of the old North State 
who have given their support to this measure. 

We can fraternize on this ground of the Constitutional right 
of the South. 

We cordially invite you to be present with us on the occasion 
above alluded to. 

With high consideration 
Your obt servants 
Allen Gunn 
N M Roan 
E Graves Sr 
& A. C. Lindsey. 

"Priestley's children. 

13 A postscript from Kate Mangum about the health of the family is omitted. 
14 Allen Gunn represented Caswell County at the district Whig convention in Hillsboro 
in 1844. Hillsborough Recorder, August 29, 1844. 

300 State Department of Archives and History 

Thomas C. Johnston 15 to Willie P. Mangum. 

"Scuponong," Washington Co: N. C. 
Dec. 24th. 185[4] [1854?] 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir,- 

My excuse for writing you again is that I formally wrote 
to you, making you a promise of calling upon you - and, now, 
not having done so, and the time being past - I write again. The 
reason was as follows - I was solicited by some gentleman re- 
siding in this county to come down some time during the pres- 
ent winter. The information came through my Brother-in-Law 
residing in this county. I was coming by your house, but the 
morning I left Abingdon I received a letter from him, request- 
ing me to come on immediately to Tyrrell, as he was going to 
remove to Elizabeth City, and, if I did not get here before he 
left, he would not have the opportunity of conducting me around 
among the people. 

I am now engaged with Dr. Henry Lewis 16 and Mr. Charles 
Petagrue & Mr. Collin's of Lake Phelps. Will remain yet several 
weeks in Tyrrell & Washington - will return in the spring early 
to Wakefield in Wake County, on my way back into Orange. 
As N. C. has disgraced herself in the last election of U. S. Sen- 
ators, 17 but erected two small statues to Commemorate the 
event, it will not do for a small man, as myself, to presume even 
a sentence to you on Politics. I saw the Hon. W. C. Preston this 
summer in Abingdon. My grand father took me with him to 
see him — Mr. Preston had sent for him- I had therefore the 
pleasure of seeing this once great man in rather revived health, 
and improvement of mind. I told him that I had been at your 
house in N. C, and that I had brought your portrait with me 
to Virginia. He immediately proposed having it sent for, and I 
went home and brought it up myself. He said he would have 
recognized it any where, and asked me a great many questions 
about you. I told him you were in fine health &c - he replied he 
was exceeding glad to hear it - and that, if I ever saw you again 
he told me to say to you "As you should never meet again in the 

"See above. 290-291. 

"These were prominent men in the eastern part of the state near Edenton and New Bern. 

17 David S. Reid and Asa Biggs, both Democrats, were elected Senators from North Carolina. 

The Mangum Papers 301 

councils of the Nation, he hoped you should where there was cer- 
tainly less so-called Democracy of the people." I remember 
this expression, for he speaks quite rational - and he said your 
likeness reminded him of old & trying scenes. I told him you 
had a son named for him - I so understood you- it pleased him, 
for he did not remember to have known it - but he may, as his 
memory is the chief decay of mind. — I have by this means ex- 
plained the cause of my not fulfilling my promise to you be- 
fore I left your house, and since by letter which I took the 
liberty of writing you from Danville. I therefore, 

Remain Your Obt. Servt. 
Thos. C. Johnston 

Hon. Wiley P. Mangum. 


William Preston Mangum to [Martha P. Mangum] 

[January, 1855?] 

My Dearest Sister 

When I reached here very few of the students had arrived. 1 
The session commenced on Friday instead of Thursday as you 
supposed but I had only more time to have things arranged. I 
had to stay at Guthries one day as Mrs. Thompson had not 
opened her boarding house. I took a room with Willie and 
James Graham, but expect to move in with John Graham 2 to- 
day or monday, whose roommate has moved out to Craigs. He 
is on a very quiet passage and I think it in all respects prefer- 
able to my present room. An unusually large number of stu- 
dents came in yesterday and the day before, and those who ar- 
rive late will find difficulty in getting rooms even in the village. 
Mrs. Thompson has raised her price to $56. Most the other 
houses charge $60. The college room rent has been raised. The 
expenses for tuition board bed and washing and Mrs. Thomp- 

1 William Preston Mangum entered the University of North Carolina in January, 1855. 

2 James Augustus Graham, John Washington Graham, and William A. Graham, Jr., were 
all sons of Governor William A. Graham. They were also students at the University at this time. 
Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 228-229. 

302 State Department of Archives and History 

sons all [illegible] will take nearly all the money I have. The 
amount I had would as I hoped have been nearly sufficient If 
the prices had not been raised. I thought it best to write at 
once as I will have to pay the society expenses and some books 
soon. I shall need from 12 to $15. I do not Intend to spend one 
cent above what is absolutely necessary. I intend to study 
hard and show you all that I am neither so lazy or indifferent 
to my parents wishes as you suppose. Give my love to Father 
Mother and Sister Mary and please write soon. 

Your affectionate brother 
W. P. Mangum 

P.S. The amount I mention will be sufficient for the whole ses- 
sion. Please send my Horace. It is one of the books used 
in my class this session. 

W. P. M. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha Mangum 

Feb. 4th "55. 

I received your letter yesterday. I was very glad to hear 
that uncle Anderson reached home safely as travelling was 
rather dangerous in the condition of the roads. I have been very 
fortunate in obtaining a good room, for the Fresh, have usually 
to take any they can get. Though If I remain longer than this 
session I shall have to look out for another as two of Mr Gra- 
hams sons will enter college in June and of course room with 
their brothers. I board at Mrs. Thompsons some farther than 
Guthries where I first expected to board, but preferable in ev- 
ery other respect. I am very well pleased with the tutors and 
members of my class and like Chapel Hill much better than I 
expected. I have joined a club which lately obtained the charter 
from Princeton 3 . It is said to be of the highest standing and 
only found in the first colleges. Several members of my class 
belong to it. Tell Father that I have attended prayers very reg- 
ularly though it is not quite pleasant to get up so early these 
cold mornings. The weather has been very cold and snow is yet 

3 Probably he refers to the chapter of Delta Phi Fraternity which William Preston Mangum 
helped establish in the University of North Carolina in 1855. Herschel V. Johnson, "A Sketch 
of the Fraternities of the University of North Carolina (1851-1915)," University Magazine, 
N. S. XXXIII (1916), p. 129. 

The Mangum Papers 303 

on the ground. We have a holyday to day to go skating, which 
is usually given only in the coldest weather when it is impos- 
sible to do anything else. On reaching here I at once paid my 
tuition board and all necessary expenses, The money I brought 
would have been amply sufficient but the club expenses were 
about $18, which has brought my money rather low. I shall 
need about $10 as all are expected to contribute something to 
the ball and I have also to buy one or two books, It is not neces- 
sary at present, I merely write in time, It is said to be the per- 
fection of fine writing to express a great deal of meaning in a 
few words as the essence of myriads of rose leaves is concentrated 
in a single drop of precious perfume. Mr Webster and all great 
writers have excelled in this art. I think from your letter that 
you must be trying to imitate their example. But as you could 
hardly write all I would like to hear from home on one page I 
think you might favor me with 2 or 3 at least. You have not 
saved me from much trouble by the operation as I have read 
your letter 4 or 5 times which would be equivalent to reading 
a letter of 4 pages once. Please excuse this very hasty letter 
and write soon If only one page, 

Your affectionate brother 
Wm P Mangum 

Benjamin Hester and Others to General Assembly* 
Orange County, N. Carolina. 

[7 February, 1855] 

We, the undersigned subscribers, do Respectfully petition 
the Honorable General Assembly, now in session, to appoint 
the Hon. Willie P. Mangum a Justice of the peace. 

February the 7th. 1855. 

Benjamin Hester, Benjamin Chambers, John Weaver, 
E. D. Stanfield, G. W. Clements, R. Blacknall, 
Jno. P. Bailey, Simeon Hester, Albert Hester. 

the honerble Jug [sic] says ef You will a Point him will serve 

Yours Respectfully 

*The original is in the William A. Graham Papers, University of North Carolina. 

304 State Department of Archives and History 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum 

Washington April 11 th 1855. 

My Dear Uncle, 

I hope you will pardon me for delaying so long to fulfill my 
promise of writing to you, and I will try to atone for my past 
delinquency by being more punctual in future, — a promise, I 
suppose, that all procrastinating correspondents natter them- 
selves with — but in this instance it shall be a promise not un- 
fulfilled, so trusting to your kindness for forgiveness I shall pro- 
ceed without more excuse to give a short synopsis of my move- 
ments since I visited you last October. I then expected to be 
examined for admission to the bar as soon as I returned, but 
not reaching the City in time I was compelled to postpone my 
examination until February, when I was examined before the 
Supreme Court and admitted to practice in all the Courts of 
the State. The past winter was very severe and my health in 
consequence was not as good as usual, and that combined with 
rather a dislike to New York life has determined me to seek 
another field, and I know of no place that presents so fine an 
opening as Washington at this time. I have been here now some 
three weeks, and have been admitted to the bar. I shall prac- 
tice in all the Courts of the District, and before the Court of 
Claims recently established by Congress. I have associated my- 
self with Mr. Pigott, 5 a very clever gentleman from Beaufort 
N. Carolina, and who has been at the bar here some two years. 
The Claim Agency business as heretofore existing is now done 
away with, and none but lawyers will appear before the Court. 
I think we will succeed very well, our prospects at least look 
very fair. We have a few cases already, and among others I have 
received a letter from the widow of the late Colonel Creecy, 
in regard to a claim of her husband, about which you probably 
know more than anyone else. I enclose you the letter and 
hope you will write me all you know about it at your earliest 

Now, Uncle, I have a proposition to make to you, which I 
hope you will look upon favorably, it is that you practice be- 
fore this Court of Claims, it is equal in respectability to any 

5 Probably Jennings Pigott. 

The Mangum Papers 305 

Court in the Country, and your long and intimate acquaintance 
with the affairs of the government would give you great weight 
before the Court. My partner and myself would always be at 
our posts here, and it would only be necessary occasionally for 
you to visit Washington, and besides the pecuniary advantage 
to be derived from it, the exercise and change of air in going 
back and forth from Carolina here would be of immense ad- 
vantage to your health. What think you of it? It would afford 
me the greatest pleasure to see you again in Washington, and 
your many friends would welcome you back most heartily. Give 
my warmest love to aunt Charity and my Cousins, not for- 
getting to remember me kindly to Miss Polly Knight, and be- 
lieve me as ever 

Your affectionate nephew 
Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 


Hon. W. P. Mangum. 

P.S. The Court of Claims will organize in a very few weeks. 
I hope you are a "Know Nothing" 

W. P. M. 

Nancy N. Scott 6 to Willie P. Mangum. 

June 2nd 1855. 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir, 

You will perceive by the enclosed Prospectus that I have 
prepared for the press a life of the late Judge White of Tenn. 

When first commenced it was not designed for publication, 
but merely with a view to collect together such papers & facts 
as might enable some future historian to do justice to the 
character of one of Tennessees most gifted, patriotic & self 
sacrificing sons. 

6 She published in 1856 A Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Tennessee ... With Selections from His Speeches and Correspondence, Edited by Nancy N. 
Scott. Philadelphia, 1856. 455pp. The prospectus referred to in this letter is not in the Mangum 

306 State Department of Archives and History 

I have however yielded to the importunities of friends & con- 
sented with much trepidation to appear before the public. Not 
that I think, the fame of my grand father has so far suffered in 
public estimation- But when the history of the times in which 
he was an actor shall be written by unfriendly hands then will 
be felt the necessity of such a work as I now propose to issue & 
my only regret is, that some one more competent to do justice to 
the subject had not undertaken it. 

I am told it is all important to my success with those very 
formidable gentlemen the publishers, to have commendatory 
letters from distinguished persons- As a personal acquaintance 
therefore of Judge White's, I appeal to you for a certificate of 
his personal & private worth & of the value of my production. 

Very respectfully 
Nancy N. Scott. 

N.B. Please direct your communication to Miss N. N. Scott 

E. Tenn. 

J. P. M. Davis 7 to Charity A. Mangum. 

June 26th 1855. 
Oakland Cty California 
My Dear Aunt 

I have been thinking for a long time that I would write 
you a letter and let you know that I have not forgotten you I 
frequently think of your kind treatment to me when I was a 
boy and I have always loved you and nothing would please me 
better than to hear from you Uncle Wiley and all my Cousins 
and I hope you will write me particularly about each member 
of the family and if you dont feel like writing make one of my 
cousins write me a long letter 

We all landed in San Francisco on the twenteth of March 
1853, that is my Family Consisting of Wife & four children. 
Mother, Brother Edward Sarah Ann (my youngest Sister now 
just 16 years old) Sister Martha her husband (Mr. McKee) & 

7 James Paine Miller Davis, born in 1817, was the son of Edward Davis who married Ann 
Lillington Cain, Charity A. Mangum's sister. The McKee mentioned in the letter was Samuel Bell 
McKee who later became chief justice of the California supreme court. Groves, Alstons and 
Allstons, All, 428. 

The Mangum Papers 307 

their children. My Father came out here in 1850 Brother Wil- 
liam came out in 1849- William Edward & Sarah Ann are all 

We are all here except Susan She is still in Panola Miss She 
married Mr Armstrong they have three children they were 
well the last time we heard from them and doing well 

When I saw you last I was on my way to New York to at- 
tend Medical lectures I returned from there to Panola Miss 
there I commenced the practice of my profession I married a 
daughter of John Ragland of Milton NCI am now getting to 
be an old Man. We have one daughter, ten years old one 8 
years old one son 6 years old and one son 14 months old I am 
glad that I can say to you that I am doing very well I have an 
office (Cty Marshall) which is worth about 3000$ a year and 
I am practicing my profession which is worth about 150$ a 
month have my children going to School I have but little but 
what I have made by my own exertions. My Father spent the 
amt left me by Grandpa 8 but I hope and believe that I shall be 
able to raise my family and educate them and ocupy for my self 
and family a respectable position in society. Mr. McKee the 
husband of Sister Martha is a lawyer he is living here he is 
doing well and has a very interesting family Father is also liv- 
ing here he has a comfortable place and Mother is quite well 
and well satisfied She frequently speaks [of] writing to you 
We are all comfortably situated and doing very well I would 
like to see you all very much but in all probability we will never 
meet on earth but I cant see any good reason for the appearant 
coolness I know I love my relations and it would be a source of 
great pleasure to hear from you all often just to think that I 
have not heard from one of you for years it is too bad if you will 
answer this letter I will promise to write you or if any one of 
my cousins will write to me I will answer ther letter in my 
next I will say some thing about the Country & do give my love 
to all my relation and believe me your affectionate Nephew 

J. P. M. Davis. 

8 William Cain left Ann Lillington Cain's share of his property for her use during her life 
and after her death in trust for her children. Johnson, Ante-Bellum, N. C, 240. 

308 State Department of Archives and History 

J. P. Bagby to Willie P. Mangum 

So. Lowell N. C. 
July 14 th . 1855. 9 

To Hon W. P. Mangum, 

D r Sir, 

After examining your Son, I am of opinion that he can 
enter the Freshman class with ease, next Winter, provided he 
gives the close application to his studies, that he expresses him- 
self determined to. As my School is not regularly classed, I will 
find no difficulty in giving the requisite attention to him, in his 
particular studies. 

I have several young gentlemen preparing for Chapel Hill, 
but none so far advanced as he. 

With sentiments of high regar I am sir, 

Yours Most Respectfully, 
J. P. Bagby. 

Willie P. Mangum to Col. Martin W. Leach 10 

Orange— 26 th . July 1855 
To Col. Leach. 

Dear Sir. 

We received your letters of the 4 & 6th instant, & all 
were pleased to hear you were well. As to the determinnation 
to remain in Randolph, all think it best. — I have constantly 
looked to that result, & expressed it often to Sallie & the rest 
of the family. — 

A man must be engaged either for good or evil. — He cannot 
live without employment, to say nothing of the useless & hurt- 
ful expenses. — All the family concur in that opinion. & if you 
will be reasonable creatures, it is every way best, if not, then 
but little care may be had on the subject. 

°The date of this letter is probably incorrect, for Mangum's son entered the University in 
January. 1855. 

10 Sally's husband, Colonel Martin Washington Leach (1806-1869). was an older brother 
of Congressman General James Madison Leach. Sally married in 1851. Her husband was a large 
planter and capitalist of Randolph County. Weeks, W.P.M.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, V, 256-257. 
The original of this letter is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C 

The Mangum Papers 309 

I have had a most unusual sick family. & it is so at present. 
Mrs. Mangum is in bed, & I fear is to be very sick — Patty has 
been mostly confined for four or five weeks — She can now scarce- 
ly sit up an hour or two in the day — The doctors say she must 
go to the mountain country. I fear, she has scarcely strength to 
travel. — I hoped for your return daily, that I might have harness 
to carry her. — I have sent for Mrs. White to have a tongue put 
her Rockaway & will get harness in Hillsboro'. & be off, if she 
can go, as soon as I can. — Mary cannot bear exposure, 

She continued long weakly after her return from Hills- 
boro— My black family have been comparatively useless — the 
result I think, of their profligacy & vices — 

Crops are extremely promising, I mean of Corn — Tobacco, 
not so good. — too much rain. — The oat crop yielded immensely, 
after, up to the last moment almost, seeming not to promise a 
yield of the seed. Wheat not more than half — though more is 
claimed — I write for the Mail & must stop. We should be very 
glad to see you any hour. We all join in good wishes for you all. 

W. P. Mangum 


C. L. Mosby and others to Willie P. Mangum 

Lynchburg, Va., August 20th, 1855. 

Dear Sir: The American Party of Virginia propose to hold 
a Convention in the City of Lynchburg, on the 18th September 
next. Their wish is to bring together, for the purpose of pa- 
triotic consultation, not only members of the Order, but, as 
far as practicable, such enlightened gentlemen of this and 
other States as sympathetise with and favor the general views 
of the organization. It will be among the objects of the meet- 
ing to consult calmly in respect to the present political condi- 
tion of the Country, to declare, authoritatively, the principles of 
the American Order, and to present, as a basis of future action, 
a series of political truths, in the enforcement of which, mod- 
erate and conservative men of all parties may unite, and which, 

310 State Department of Archives and History 

respecting the interests of every section, will yet tend to secure 
the lasting union of the States! 

We are instructed to invite you to attend this Convention, 
and we respectfully add our earnest wish that you will do so 
and assist in its deliberations. 

An early answer is desirable, informing us certainly whether 
or not you may be expected. 

Most respectfully, we are, your Fellow Citizens, 

C. L. Mosby, H. A. Christian, 

James M'Donald, W. L. Saunders, 

B. H. Nowlin, Samuel Tyree, 

Alex. M'Donald, Chas. W. Christian, 

Ro. S. Payne, J. N. Gordon, 

Pleasant Preston, Wm. S. Hannah. 

D. E. Booker, 

Committee of Invitation. 

William C. Mangum 11 to Willie P. Mangum 

Dalton Ga Aug 22/55 
Hon W P Mangum 

Dr Sir 

Hope you will pardon me for troubling you, but owing 
to the exciting issues before the political world at present you 
will confer a favour by giving me your views on the great 
question. Know Nothings. It is creating great excitement in 
Georgia and being somewhat Undecided I [torn] have your 
views on the Subject, by doing so you will much Oblige 

Very respectfully 

Wm. C. Mangum 

PS. That you may know who I am I will simply state that I am 
a son of Durrell Mangum My Father and my self being at issue 
on this question is the principal reason that I make of you this 

W. C. M. 

u See above. 290. 

The Mangum Papers 311 

Willie P. Mangum to Martin W. Leach 12 

Tuesday Morning. 
20th Sept 1855. 
My dear Col. 

I write but a line, the Post waiting, to enable you to in- 
form Sally of the state of Patty. 

She has been worse since you left. Last week, I was at Hills- 
boro — the weather very hot. & she became worse — She is now 
better, & recovering in the slowest manner. 

The rest are well, you know all the rest. & the best. That 
all of us will, under God's Providence, probably have bread 

Nothing in the neighborhood worthy of communication. — 

Yours Mo — truly 
W. P. Mangum 
To Col. M. W. Leach 

Willie P. Mangum to Sally A. (Mangum) Leach 13 

At home 

Thursday Morning 27 th Sept. 1855 
My dear Sallie. 

I have time only to say we are well except Patty who is 
not. — She suffers from a Camanche appetite. — A Camanche 
sometimes, as I have proof, will eat 24 th . of beef in 24 hours. — 

Patty is the poorest of Creatures, but I hope, is rising. — She 
rode yesterday with Mary to the crossroads around by Mount 
Bethel, & home a distance of at least twelve miles, probably 
thirteen, and is now sitting by me, & says she has no soreness, or 
uneasiness. — 

She was to ride this morning into Granville — a distance of 
12. or 13 miles, but the morning being cloudy & cool, with a light 
rain in the night, the ride is postponed. — 

The crop of corn is likely to come off, something better than 
I supposed — We shall expect you after sowing wheat. — I, & 
still more her Grandmother, want to see Miss Mary Alma. — 
hope she & all of you are well. 

lii The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

13 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. Mary Alma 
Leach, mentioned in this letter, was Sallie's oldest child, born November 22, 1854. She later 
married Julian A. Turner. 

312 State Department of Archives and History 

Tell Col. Leach we shall expect you & not to disappoint us. 
If any inconveniences in coming, write us, & we will send for 
you. Patty hands me a scrap of Velvet, or rather a scrap of 
[illegible] which I enclose. — 

Our loves & kindest regards to all — 


Willie P. Mangum 

P.S. Your Mother requests me to say. The beautiful Miss Dickey 
regrets she did not go with you. & that if you want her, she will 
send her. 

write & say 
W. P. M. 


to Walter A. Mangum. 1 * 

Sumpter, Trinity Co, [Texas,] Oct. 3rd, 1855. 
Walter A. Mangum Esqr, 

Dear Sir, 

Your letter of the 14th Sept. came to hand yesterday and 
I hasten to answer your several inquiries. First I am truly grati- 
fied you are coming to Texas. Land is still cheap (only on some 
of the rivers and select neighbourhoods.) As regards the lands 
in this county the majority is considered poor; but a great deal 
very rich generally level; and occasionally small Prairies — 
there is some three or four Prairies in the County several miles 
in extent. Not extensive eneought to be unpleasant in the way of 
northers. We use well water, springs and &c - the water is gen- 
erally freestone and ordernarally cool and tolerable well tasted. 
I mean universaly. Some as good wells and springs as can be 
found in the South. Lands are cheaper in this county than any 
other in Easterm Texas from the fact that it has only come into 
notice recently and thinly setled generally by common Farmers 
though men of good character and clever people and improving 
every day. Since I have been in correspondence with you, I 
have taken more pains in assertaining where good settlements 

"Walter A. Mangum was frequently on the move. He seriously considered going to Texas in 
the 1850's. In 1856 he moved to Louisiana and in 1863 to Texas. Weeks, "W. P. M.." Biog. 
Hist, of N. C, V. 239. 

The Mangum Papers 313 

can be procured and I flatter myself you can be suited near me 
at a very small prise. There has been some sugar cane raised in 
this county on a limited scale for home consumption and grew 
finely. Cotton is the main crop for market and I have no 
hesitancy in saying that more can be made to the hand than 
can be gathered. It is but seldom the cattapillar interfers and I 
never heard of rust. I presume that the Boll worm visitations 
would be controled by the season. If very wet and the stalk 
luxuriant there will in all probability be more or less. I con- 
sider it a first rate cotton region. The lands are easy cleared 
and pleasant to cultivate; with the exception of what is called 
the Black lands they must be broke up early or they will get so 
hard that they can not be managed in a dry Spring; and rather 
unpleasant if too wet. I prefer the rich sandy soil. I have both 
on my settlement. Corn grows finely and for peas or any other 
vines it cannot be excelled on the globe and all kinds of vegi- 
tables. All kinds of fruits succeed admirably apples excepted; 
and they have been tried on a limited scale. I have conversed 
with old setters and they say that if the trunk of the apple tree 
is protected from summer heat there is no doubt about raising 
fine Apples. Peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, pears, and 
figs good enough and I here ask you to be certain to bring all 
kinds of seed and trees you possibly can they are scarce here 
this part of Texas particularly. 

There is a very deep interest springing up in regard to 
orchards and almost every farmer is trying to procure fruit 
trees. The grape grows here finely — some of the native grapes 
are very good. Musquettoes are confined to the swamps and we 
are very little anoyed with knats or insects — no more here than 
is common to the south. We have been exceedingly healthy 
here the present year. I look upon this County as being as 
healthy as any county in Texas off of the large streams. I had 
as soon risk my health here as any location in the southern 
country. I like this county from the fact that it will never be 
densely populated — we shall always have a good range for cat- 
tle and on the best navigable river in Texas ( nothing to boast of 
at that). We have fine timber; pine, oak, hickory, gum, walnut, 
some cedar, Elm, Magnolia - indeed any species required. If 
you prefer you can get you a settlement part wood and part 
prairie hammocks cane land, pine, oak and hickory on Trinity 
river or off. In regard to cholera & yelow fever it is entirely 

314 State Department of Archives and History 

confined to the seaport towns. There has been both in Houston 
City. Galveston is more exempt than Houston. A few years ago 
there were a few cases brought from Galveston up the Trinity 
river on steamboat. You need not be the least apprehensive 
in regard to epidemics in this region. It is generally understood 
the persons who come to 15 

Martha Person Mangum to Sally A. (Mangum) Leach 16 

Thursday Morning Oct. 4 th . "55 

My own dearest Sister. 

I write but a line to let you hear from us — as I am some- 
what unaccustomed to this sort of occupation — But I am most 
happy to be able to say what will gratify you so much — that all 
of the family is well — Father has had some cold from the sud- 
den changes of the weather but nothing serious — Mother is 
looking better and so is Sister Mary — Preston is very well. — & 
I feel quite well — only wanting strength. I have been riding 
out, and find it most benificial — and I am learning to walk — & 
perhaps will beat Miss Mary Alma. Bless the little creature — 
how much we do want to see her — But one thing we cannot 
conceive of — how she could become any fatter. Yesterday I was 
housekeeper — and I found the exercise of service. But it was 
from a very sad & to our minds, unfortunate occur ance — the 
death of Mrs. Wm. Bowling — Martha Jones — you remember — 
She had lately given birth to an infant — and the evening pre- 
vious to her death was sitting up, talking most cheerfully. About 
midnight — she awoke, on Monday night — & said to her hus- 
band that she felt like she was dying — and in ten minutes she 
was dead in his arms. — Mother and Sister Mary attended her 
burial yesterday. I do not know when I have heard one more 
regretted. We are hopeing for the time for wheat-sowing to 
speed on — So that we can see you — I trust that we may have 
pleasant weather, and you will not delay your coming. All 
unite with me in warmest love. Sure hope to hear from you 
frequently. We were much gratified at the reception of your 

^The resr of the letter is missing. 

^The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 315 

letter. I was so long getting up that we fou[nd] it too late to 

Yours with truest affection. 
M. P. Mangum 

P.S. You will kiss Miss Mary for Aunt Pat — and for the rest of 
her kin grand Ma — grand Pa — and Aunt Mary. — 

Yours most affectionately. 
M. P. Mangum 

J. W. Hicks 17 to Willie P. Mangum 

Rome Ga Oct 19- 55 
Hon Wiley P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

There are several gentlemen living in this city who were 
raised in N Carolina and who have looked to you the Hon Geo E 
Badger & Hon W m A Graham as the expounders of their Political 
faith and as they have seen nothing from [you] in reference to the 
principles of the American Party as adopted by them in their 
convention in Philadelphia last June 18 we would be glad that 
you would tell us whether you adopt those principles or not 

We will not trouble you to write a long letter but simply 
tell us whether you stand on that platform or not.- We do not 
desire to publish your letter if it is not your will for we pre- 
sume your time is so much occupied that you would hardly 
have to write one long enough to express your entire view of the 

By complying with the above request you will much oblige 

Your friend &c 
J. W. Hicks 
Address, J. W. Hicks M.D. 
Rome Ga 

17 Possibly James Wood Hicks, a native of Granville County, who, after graduation from the 
University of North Carolina, moved to Georgia and then to Florida. He was a surgeon in the 
Confederate army. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 279. 

18 In the National Convention of the American Party at Philadelphia, the Northern wing tried 
to put through anti-Nebraska resolutions; but the Souhern wing, aided by moderates from the 
North, succeeded in defeating the resolutions. Kenneth Rayner, of North Carolina, tried unsuc- 
cessfully to prevent a breach. When the majority report which opposed Congressional legislation on 
slavery in the territory was adopted, the delegation from twelve Northern states withdrew. There 
was general agreement on the rest of the program: exclusion from office of aliens; a 21 year term 
for naturalization; resistance to " 'aggressive policy and corrupting tendencies' of Catholicism." 
Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, II, 399-400. 

316 State Department of Archives and History 

Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Mary Sutherland Mangum 19 

At Home. 
Nov 14 th Wednesday. "55. 

My dearest Sister, 

. . . . 20 As for myself I am doing as well as I [c]ould wish 
and would be so contented if I could hear from those dear ones 
at home frequently. — When the Rail road is completed their will 
not be that difficulty of getting letters — when it is a clear day 
we can hear the Car whistle almost as distinct and clear as if 
it was in sight, it seems strange. — I cannot tell when we can 
be with you — as soon as we can but I fear it will be longer than 
I first thought — Col is now sewing his last field of wheat — but 
finds out when too late — that his wheat was injured and wont 
come up — he says he is pretty certain he will have to buy wheat 
and dew it all over again — he went out yesterday and bought 
wheat to sew this field — he says part has come near half — 
some a third — & 4 th — and some scarcely any — but if any more 
will come up this pretty spring weather will bring it — as we 
have had rain — I hope to be ab[torn] to write — next week — or 
perhaps next after when we will come, his wheat was put up 
damp and it heat — is the reason it will not come up, but I hope 
he will not have to sow it over, he has been so busy since we 
got home . . . . 21 Give my warmest love to My dearest Parents — 
and tell My dearest Mother [torn] kiss my own father for me. 
[torn] love to my dearest Sister to bor-[torn] to my dear little 

[yo]ur most sincerely affectionate Sister 

love to Miss Polly. 

19 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
^Fifteen lines explaining why she has not written and complaining that she had not heard 
from her family recently are omitted. 

^Thirteen lines praising her small daughter's activities are omitted 

The Mangum Papers 317 


William Preston Mangum to Willie P. Mangum 

Jan. 26th. '56 

My Dear Father, 

I intended to have written sooner but the mail was prevented 
from passing for several days by the deep snow. Regular duties 
have been almost entirely suspend during the bad weather. I 
am staying in the same room I had last session. It was prefarable 
to any I could get in college. I am boarding at Mrs. Thompsons. 
Board has every where been raised to $60. I suppose it will re- 
main stationary for sometime. After paying my society act. 
$14. which was necessary to be paid at the first of the session 
and some smaller bills, I did not have sufficient money had I 
paid my college expenses to pay half my board, as I could not 
pay both and Mrs. Thompson seemed to desire it I paid my 
board and had $8 left. I suppose it is not absolutely necessary 
to pay the college expenses at once. I have not obtained the 
service of Mr Leigh Couch as yet as the mornings are rather 
cold and as he is a man who was raised in the classic shades 
of the piney woods and versed in the arts of diplomacy I thought 
It was necessary to use formality and open negotiations by 
gradual advances. I have not found it very difficult though 
rather unpleasant to attend prayers these cold mornings. You 
shall have no reason to be displeased by my neglect of any col- 
lege duties if it is in my power to perform them. My love to 

Your affection son 
W. P. Mangum 

P.S. Please have my blanket sent to Hillsborough by the post 
and it can be sent to Chapel Hill by the stage. I have been in 
need of it. I suppose Uncle Anderson took it by mistake. I will 
try and improve my hand by the time I write again 


318 State Department of Archives and History 


Kenneth Rayner to Edward Crudup 1 

Near Winton - Hertford Co. No. Ca. 

Feby. 20 th — 1856— 

My Dear Doctor, 

I suppose it probable that you may now be on your way to 
Phila. - at all events this letter will be awaiting your return.— 
If you have gone to Phila. I want you as soon as you return to 
sit down and write me a detailed account of everything done 
there - of all the by-play, the undercurrents the plotting and 
counter-plotting. — 

Really, Crudup, I hardly know what to think in reference to 
our political future; and I find it difficult to feel philosophically, 
when I contemplate the movements at work, and the influences 
that are operating. You are one of the very few men that I have 
talked to freely, candidly, and confidentially, in regard to the 
connexion of my name with high places. You have known what 
my feelings were on the subject. You know I have not been en- 
gaged in any stratagems or intrigues to further any ambitious 
aspirations. Neither I, my friends, my enemies, nor the public, 
can ignore the fact that my name has been extensively connected 
with high position. 2 I have said to you and said to you truthful- 
ly, that my "head had not been turned" by all this - that I well 
knew the versatility of popular favor and applause, and that 
probably in a few months my name would no longer be heard 
of in such connexion. And I said further to you that admitting 
I had enough of political strength in the country, to authorize 
my friends entertaining hopes on my account, that the difficulty 
would be here in No. Ca. - that I doubted whether the movement 
would be cordially seconded here at home - and that this was 
necessary in order to my success. — I knew the difficulties I had 
to contend with here in No. Ca. In the first place I have many 
personal enemies in the ranks of my own party, who always 
"thrown cold water" on any movement in my favor. In the sec- 
ond place, I had given offence to the Ultraists on the subject of 

: The original is not available. Fortunately, Dr. Weeks has left a typed copy which he 
compared with the original which at the time was in the possession of Willie Mangum Person, 
of Louisburg, N. C. 

2 In the Philadelphia Convention of the American Party, February 22, 1856, Rayner received 
14 votes for President and 12 for Vice President. Fillmore and Andrew Jackson Donelson were 
selected. In June a rump of the North American Party nominated Rayner for Vice President. 
Pegg, "Whig Party in the South," 341; Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, II, 469. 

The Mangum Papers 319 

slavery, because I had labored so zealously at Phila. in June 
last to preserve the harmony and prevent the disruption of the 
American party. 

Well, I picked up the Raleigh Register that came last Fri- 
day - and then I saw that the District convention of the Amer- 
ican party in the 8th (Clingman's) District, held to appoint a 
Delegate to the Phila. nominating convention on the 22nd Feby. 
had nominated Fillmore for President, & the Hon. Geo. E. Bad- 
ger for Vice President, and had instructed their Delegate to 
vote accordingly. Now, Crudup, just look at this thing. The 
new - workers in that convention could not ignore the fact, that 
my name had been mentioned in connexion with both the Presi- 
dency and Vice-Presidency - and that Badger's has not been. 3 
They no doubt concluded that the most effectual way of giving 
the coup de grace to my prospects was to ignore me here at 
home. So that under the circumstances, the movement can be 
viewed in no other light, than a blow aimed at me. 

Now, Doctor, what inducement has any man to toil and la- 
bor for the public good, when his efforts are thus rewarded? You 
know something of my labor, my devotion, my sacrifices in the 
American cause. I have written for it, and spoken for it - I have 
spent my time and my money for it. — I have [been] more calum- 
miated and abused by our enemies, than any man in No. Ca. 
You know there is no man in the State who has performed more 
labor in organizing and sustaining the party than I have. What 
has Mr. Badger done? He is not a member of the order - he has 
neither spoken for it nor written for it. He has never publicly 
committed himself in favor of its principles. Last summer, 
when I was exposing myself under that hot weather, working 
like any dray-horse for the party, Mr. B. was sitting quietly at 
home enjoying himself at his ease. As to Mr. Fillmore's nomina- 
tion for the Presidency, by this 8th District convention it was 
all right enough. Mr. F's position, services, and character en- 
titled him to it, - but it is no presumption in me to say that as 
to Mr. Badger his claims on the American party can not be com- 
pared with mine. There are many men in the country to whom 
I am willing to defer, and under whose banner I am willing to 
fight, but Geo. E. Badger is not one of them. So far as I am con- 

3 In July, 1855, Badger was asked to address a Raleigh meeting of the American Party. 
Instead of delivering a speech he sent a letter. At this time he had not joined the party. The 
state party convention met in Greensboro April 10, 1856, but Badger did not attend and did not 
participate in the campaign thereafter. Lawrence London, The Public Career of George E. Badger, 

320 State Department of Archives and History 

cerned, I regret that any friend of mine ever spoke of my name 
in connexion with these high places. I have friends, many 
friends, all over the Union, who do entertain hopes of my pre- 
ferment; but I declare to you in all sincerity, I am utterly dis- 
gusted at the trickery, and meanness that are at work - and 
now I dont desire to have my name bandied about any longer, 
and I am not sure but I shall shortly come out in a publication, 
requesting my friends to no longer speak of my name in con- 
nexion with this subject. But for God's sake let me select candi- 
dates who have done something for the cause and who have 
publicly committed themselves in favor of our principles. I ful- 
ly expected to see that the Convention in the Raleigh district 
would follow suit - and I can't tell you how delighted I was, 
when looking at their proceedings, to see that you & Harrison 
had been selected as the Delegates. By the way was Miller 
present - and was there any effort made to select him? — I was 
in hopes Miller would have [been] chosen as Delegate at large 
by the last council but it was his own fault that he was not. 

My opinion is, that this nomination of Badger by the Moun- 
tain District convention is part of a concerted movement; and 
I think they will follow it up, by trying to get him nominated 
by the State Convention of the American Party, that meets at 
Greensboro in April. — I want you to be in that Convention. I 
did intend to have been there; but latterly I have felt disposed 
to keep away, let my enemies have it all their own way - and 
then perhaps they will be content. — 

Cant you run down here and see me some time this Spring? 
You can get out of the Boat at my landing - Vi mile from my 
house. Come. I want to see you, and have much talk with you.- 
Write me a few days beforehand, and let me know what day 
you will be here. — 

Write me as soon as you get home from Phila - and tell me 
"all about it." — Do you recollect you told me last Fall you 
would order for me one of those corn & cob crushers, manu- 
factured in Richmond I think. I have never heard from it. Did 
you write for it? 

Direct to Winton, Hertford Co. No. Ca. 

Yours Sincerely 
K. Rayner 

Dr. Ed. Crudup, 
Franklinton N. C. 

The Mangum Papers 321 


William Preston Mangum to Martha Person Mangum 

Feb. 23 rd . "56. 
My Dearest Sister. 

The mail has been more regular than usual. I received your 
letter of the 20th on yesterday. I was glad to hear that you 
had heard from me at last. I expected from your letters that 
my letter had gone either exactly in the opposite direction from 
home or must have been lost, and that you thought I had for- 
gotten home entirely and given up all idea of writing. There has 
been a great deal of sickness in College. Mr Hilliard a member 
of the senior class died on sunday night. He was taken very 
suddenly with a congestive chill, one side was entirely paralyzed 
and he was speechless for some time before his death. On mon- 
day a procession of the students attended the body a mile out 
of town where a short address was made by a member of his 
class,) and it was delivered to a committee to be conveyed 
home for burial. Yesterday a holiday or snap as it is usually 
termed was given. The students seemed to enjoy themselves 
greatly and not to be much affected by the late melancholy 
event. Though the Fresh, who seemed to enjoy themselves the 
most and to be the noisiest were excusable, as a large proportion 
of them were unacquainted with him and it was natural that 
they should not feel so much sorrow for his death or respect 
for his memory as friends and acquaintances. Recitation was 
appointed for yesterday morning before breakfast. Many of the 
students inspired with a mixture of patriotism and whiskey 
resolved not to attend and last night they created a great deal of 
disturbance. This morning Gov. Swain told them that "dis- 
turbance and rebellion against the College laws was extremely 
improper at such a period and they would not be considered 
regular students untill they made up the recitations they had 
missed that he understood the Fresh were the leaders and that 
even juniors and Sophs, had condescended to follow such lead- 
ers." So you see the Fresh are making themselves quite con- 
spicuous. You ask the objects of the club I have joined. It does 
not aspire to the investigation of philosophical or metaphysical 
subjects neither does it require that its members should be 
versed in the art of playing whist or drinking whiskey as is 
the case with some of the other clubs. But its objects are the 
promotion of knowledge and of social intercourse. Hence it re- 

322 State Department of Archives and History 

quires that every member shall take a fair stand in his class 
though I do not suppose this regulation will be very strictly 
enforced, After I had promised to join this club I was solicited 
by John Graham to join his club which is an older club but not 
superior I suppose to the one I belong to. I had not the slight- 
est idea at any time of joining the Phi. Society. If I had liked 
the members of the Phi. better (as I did not) yet still the fact of 
Fathers having been a member of the Dis would have deter- 
mined my choice. I have not joined the dis, yet but I expect to 
join in a week or so. I have been as usual quite well this ses- 
sion and have not had my patience tried by any more of Jobs 
afflictions. How is Mr Parrish getting on. I hope he has enjoyed 
himself sleigh-riding since I left home though I hope he has not 
run the risk of being slain in earnest by turning somersets in 
Mr Jones mill-race and in all the branches and mudholes about 
the crop roads. How is Miss Polly? is she yet over at her old 
place? Please write soon and let me know how Father and 
Mother are. I shall be anxious untill I hear from them. I hope 
Mother will not expose herself. Nearly all the cases of sickness 
this session have been from Pneumonia arising at first from 
slight colds. Mother has suffered so severely once from it that 
I hope she will not lay herself liable to an attack by the slight- 
est exposure. Please write soon and dont fear that I shall injure 
my eye sight in reading. If you write a dozen pages each time 
I am certain you will get tired of writing before I do of read- 
ing. Send my love to Sister and tell her I hope she will write 
to me when she can get time enough from admiring and at- 
tending to that little prodigy of hers. 

Your affectionate brother. 
W. P. Mangum 

P. S. Please send me Webers outlines of history If it is in 
the family library. I hardly suppose it is. I shall need $2 or 
$3 in the course of a week or two to buy wood candles I shall 
need nothing more till the end of the session as I do not want 
to stay to the ball and will not be expected to contribute more 
than $2 or $3. Those who stay contribute $8. A majority of the 
students will leave before commencement. I hope you and 
Sister Mary will not expose yourselves in this changeable 
weather, a severe cold would be doubly dangerous after having 
such severe attacks of the fever. I reckon you think I am turn- 

The Mangum Papers 323 

ing old woman by giving so much advice but I know you are al- 
ways thinking of every one else except yourself. 

Your affectionate brother 
W. P. Mangum. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

[Spring, 1856] 

My Dearest Sister 

I intended writing before but have had no opportunity. As 
it is near the middle of the session I suppose Father will re- 
ceive my report in a few days. It will not differ materially with 
regard to scholarship from my last sessions report I have not 
studied much this session, but I have been studying hard for 
the last week or so and intend to do so the remainder of the ses- 
sion. And will send home at the end as good a report as I am able. 
I have missed prayers only once this session, and that was the 
morning after the burning of the belfry. I understood that there 
would be none and consequently missed with many others but 
this will be struck from the roll at the end of the session as is 
always the case when there has been one absence only. I under- 
stood that Father was appointed one of the delegates to the 
whig convention. 4 I suppose he has no idea of going. Give my 
best love to Father mother and all and Please write soon. 

Your affectionate brother 
W. P. Mangum. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 5 

May 15 th "56 
My Dear Sister. 

I have not received a letter from home in three weeks. I 
have been to the office three times every day for the last week, 
but I have been disappointed so often that I have almost given 

4 Mangum campaigned for Fillmore in 1856 but he did not go out of the state. 
5 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

324 State Department of Archives and History 

up all hopes of hearing from Home. I suppose you could barely 
have received my last letter. Examination will commence week 
after next. It will end on friday except examination on Testa- 
ment which will be on monday. I should like to leave for home 
on Friday evening the 30 th or Saturday. As their will be no reg- 
ular duties after this and the few chapters of testament I can 
stand on next session. Nearly all who do not stay to Com- 
mencement will leave then. Several are going to Hillsborough 
on friday evening on their way home. I could either go by 
stage to Hillsborough on Friday and Uncle Anderson could 
come after me next day or you could send to C. Hill, which- 
ever would be most convenient. I am entirely out of money. 
The Club has been a good deal of expense to me this session as 
its first but will not be much hereafter. I shall have to pay one 
or 2 dollars to it before the end of the session. I lent 5 dollars 
the last money I had to a boy who rooms on the passage. . This 
with Club expenses has left me very free from that "necessary 
evil." Please write soon so as to let me know when you can send 
after me. excuse this very hasty note written with a very bad 

Your Affectionate brother 
W. P. Mangum 


Henry E. Colton 6 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Hillsborough Aug. 23. [1856] 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Sir: I have in course of preparation a History of Hills- 
borough during the revolutionary war; and thinking that I 
could get some valuable information I take the liberty of ad- 
dressing this note to you. If you attend upon Court next week 
it will be a convenient time for me to converse with you. Any 
documents you may have I would be glad for you to bring with 
you then and if loaned to me will be carefully preserved. If 
you do not come up will you please inform me when a visit to 
you would be acceptable. 

I am, Sir, respectfully yours 
Henry E. Colton. 

°In 1856 Henry E. Colton published "Towns of the Revolution — Hillsborough, N. C," 
Southern Literary Messanger, XXIII, No. 3 (Sept. 1856), 161-176. In the same year he 
began the Edenton American Banner. Later he wrote Mountain Scenery. He was clerk of the 
N. C. House in 1862-1863. Johnson, Ante-Bellum N. C, 823; N. C. Manual, 474. 

The Mangum Papers 325 

James C. Jones 7 to Willie P. Mangum. 

August 3d 1856 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

You will pardon me for seeking a piece of information 
at your hands. I understand that W. B. Louis 8 of Tennesee - 
whom you will remember as a citizen of Washington for many 
years - in a letter written to Genl Jackson in 1844 or 5 says 
that at Mr Paget he heard Mr. Buchanan tell Mr. Mangum that 
he never had any belief in the bargain and intrigue attributed 
to them. Do you remember or did any such conversation occur 
I would not ask you to state anything occurring at a dinner 
table - if such a conversation as is alledged to have occurred 
had not been already used. 

I shall be pleased to hear from you at your earliest conven- 
ience — 

Respectfully your 

friend & Servant 
James C Jones 

Willie P. Mangum Jr. to Willie P. Mangum 

Raleigh, Aug. 20th 1856 
My Dear Uncle, 

I am at last about to fulfill my promise of visiting you this 
summer, but after a longer delay however than I expected when 
last with you. 

Fannie and myself left Washington about three weeks ago, 
and have been spending our time with Priestley until within 
the last four days, which have been spent here with Sister 
Mary. We return to the "old place" tomorrow and next Tues- 
day morning will set out for your house and hope to find you 
all very well when we get there. 

7 James C. Jones was Senator from Tennessee from 1851 to 1857. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 1162. 
8 He refers to Major William B. Lewis, Jackson's close friend and member of Jackson's 
Kitchen Cabinet." 

326 State Department of Archives and History 

It affords me much pleasure to think I shall soon be with 
you again, and particularly as I am to shew for the first time 
my wife to my Aunt and Cousins. 

The democrats are in high feather here today, and are hold- 
ing a large meeting where I am told a good many of their or- 
ators are assembled and I suppose they will have a general 

Sister Mary and Fannie join me in love to yourself Aunt 
Charity and all the family. 

Ever Yr. affectionate nephew 
W. P. Mangum, Jr. 

Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Martha Person Mangum 9 

At Home - Saturday - Sept '20 th . "56 
My Own dearest Sister, 


• • • • 

Col went over to Mr Ria Dorsetts yesterday to see an Am- 
brotypest — (They are superior to the Deariotype — to see how 
he would like them and to have all of ours taken — he said the 
light was bad & he did not think he was a good artist — I have 
been persuading him to put it off & not have them taken — as 
little daughter has an ugly scar on her face — she fell upon a 
brick & cut it a few days ago — it is not a bad hurt but looks 
ugly — I do not know whether we will go or not — but I had 
rather not have them taken under unfavourable circumstance — 
'so much for the vanity of woman. . . . 11 It gives me so much 
real heart-felt pleasure to think on our dearest Mother's lovely 
character — She has combined every quality that is noble in 
woman — and that to us is far above all price, for let her daugh- 
ters be far away from her there is nothing so dear to them and 
so salutary to contemplate. The Children of such Parents may 
go far as-tray — but surely they must be gathered in time into 
the same fold. They cannot forget the example that has been 

9 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

10 The first paragraph is omitted. In this paragraph the writer expresses concern over the 
lack of news about her family's health. 

Many letters included in this publication deal almost entirely with family and personal 
matters. Whenever such a letter is in private hands and, therefore, is not readily accessible to 
scholars, I have included a part or all of the letter provided it was written before Mangum's 
death. But I have omitted some letters of this type which are readily available in public de- 

u Ten lines praising the activities of her small daughter are omitted. 

The Mangum Papers 327 

daily set before us. And our own dearest Father' how justly 
thankful and proud do we feel of him. What an inestimable 
blessing they are to us — Oh how my heart throbs at the thought 
of seeing these dear ones soon — it cannot be very long first — I 
have been so busy of late & have not writen to dear Preston — 
give him my love & tell him his procrastinating Sister will soon. 
Will you please write to me Uncle Walter's Post-Office. I will 
write to him soon — it is strange I have not writen when my 
uncle is lovelingly associated with all my tenderest and earliest 
recollections — and has ever been dear to my heart. Give my love 
to my dear Father — to my own Mother — dear Sister Mary — and 
may heaven bless you my dearest Sister. Your most devoted and 
affectionate Sister, 


William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

[Autumn, 1856] 
My Dearest Sister 

You cant conceive how delighted I was to receive your last 
letter, and to hear that Father was so much better. The day 
before Tom. Johnson told me that his mother was down at Mr 
Jones and heard that Father was very unwell. You may imagine 
how uneasy I was, until I heard from home. I received my re- 
port. It was as I expected. Tell Father I hope at least to be 
found somewhere at the end of this session. Though the report 
is rarely changed after the middle of the session even in case 
of a decisive change, yet I can only do my best. The part re- 
garding expenditure was I suppose an appendage to that of the 
reports. I havent seen any other as none of the students have 
received theirs but there was no possible reason for its special 
application to me. 

I suppose you have hear that prof. Hedrick 12 declared him- 
self for Fremont as it is so important an event in the political 

^Benjamin Sherwood Hedrick, a young chemistry professor, was from the small farmer class 
of German ancestry. He made a brilliant record at the University before he was stationed near 
Harvard as a clerk in the National Almanac. There he studied under Horsford, Peirce, and 
Agassiz. Reared among people who disliked slavery, he frankly admitted that he would like to 
vote for John C. Fremont for President in 1856. This admission caused the newspapers to 
demand his dismissal from the faculty. After much hedging, the trustees finally dismissed him. 
Shortly thereafter, while attending a teachers' meeting at Salisbury, he was driven by the populace 
from the state. He moved to New York City and later worked in the patent office. J. G. deR. 
Hamilton, "Benjamin Sherwood Hedrick," The lames Sprunt Historical Publications, X, No. 1 
(1910), 42 pp. 

328 State Department of Archives and History 

world. He was burnt in effigy by the students and his course 
disapproved of by the Faculty. I suppose he will leave at the 
close of the session. It is another evidence of the onesided 
views and idea of self-importance which characterize men 
learned only in books. Please excuse this hasty note, written 
with a very bad pen, and write soon and let me hear from fa- 
ther. Give my love to all. 

Your affectionate brother 
W. P. Mangum. 

P S. Please send up as soon as possible the pants that Mr 
Smith took my measure for before I left home. I need them at 
present as I have no warm pants and can get none at Thomp- 
sons. If you could contrive to send them to Hillsborough they 
could be sent by the stage. Please write soon 

W P M 

William P. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

[Autumn, 1856] 
My Dearest Sister 

I have not heard from home in nearly two weeks. It is not 
so very long a time but it seems so to me who am so anxious to 
hear from Father and all. I expected to get a letter yesterday, 
but was disappointed. I hope you will write soon and let me 
hear from all. There is little of interest going on here. Mr. Hed- 
rick has been dismissed I understand and I think very proper- 
ly. I wrote to you a few days ago but the mails are so uncer- 
tain that it is very probable you have not received it. Please 
send my pants as soon as convenient I am in need of them at 
present. I am also in need of $3 or 4 dollars to buy wood. Father 
sent me $5 or $6 more than I wanted before but it is very diffi- 
cult here to keep money for any length of time as it is every 
where else. It would be better therefore to send no more than I 
write for. It would be safer to send my pants by uncle Ander- 
son. I dont suppose one days work at this season would be a 
very great loss. He could come to Aunt Marys 13 one evening and 
come here and return the next day. I should not like to take 

"Probably Mary Cain, sister of Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin. 

The Mangum Papers 329 

him from his work if it would be inconvenient but I should like 
so much to see some one from home. Please write soon. 

Your affectionate Brother 

W. P Mangum. 


Sally A. (Mangum) Leach to Martha Person Mangum 1 

At Home, Jan 31. "57. 
My own dearest Sister, 

It is two weeks to day since I have writen home — last week 
we had no mail and my letter remained at the Office, so I 
thought it would be useless to write — We have all been well dur- 
ing the past bad weather — to-night two weeks since we have had 
the deepest snow, & the Coldest weather that I have ever seen. 
The snow was drifted so that no one could ride along the road 
but had to lay down fences & go through fields. I have been 
very uneasy about my dearest Father, so much has it prayed 
upon my mind that every night since the snow I have had un- 
pleasant dreams — I know you will think I am becoming a 
supersticious "old woman." but really a letter from my home 
would be a great relief — saying that all were ordinarily well. 
The snow will prevent my father from his accustomed exer- 
cise. — and I very much fear will make him worse. I know 
that all the care will be taken of our dearest Father — for he is 
surrounded by loving hearts — and all we can do is to put our 
trust in a kind Providence — I feel it more & more daily — We 
have had three instances of it in our family — in the past three 
years— first dear Mary — then yourself and now our dear Prec- 
ious Father. I pray that such affliction may not pass unheeded — 
it is done for our benefit — and surely we will not let it pass 
without reaping good from it — We have received many — many 
blessings — that I fear we are not thankful enough for — I know 
we are not. While life is given to us — there is nothing we aught 
to complain of. I shall be so rejoyced to get a letter from you — 
last Sunday sandford braught me a Paper — the first of Jan- 

x The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

330 State Department of Archives and History 

uary — directed by dearest Father — I was delighted: I turned it 
upside down — around and in every direction to see something 
writen on it — and could not help from being disappointed in see- 
ing nothing — there was a place at top where some one had 
writen — (it looked like your hand) — but had been cut out — 
then I supposed you had writen how all were and cut it out — 
supposing it was against the law. but really I was so very glad 
to get it — not withstanding my complaints. Col has stopped the 
Register — intending to take The National Inteligencer — as we 
take one paper from Raleigh, and I prefered that — being stop- 
ped to the Hillsboro Recorder — that paper being to-me next to 
a letter from my dearest home, and how does our dearest Mother 
come on this Weather — I fear badly — for it is so hard to keep 
her in the house — how I wish you had a Stove like I have. You 
must try and keep my Mother in the house and not let her 
expose herself — for she is as delicate as a green-house plant — 
and how doubly dear to us — I know that you and Sister Mary 
will take all the care you can of our dearest Parents — I am so 
eagerly looking for the Sun to take the snow away — last night 
& this morning it was sleeting but since ten it is much milder 
& it is falling off — Mary has been out in Piazza a dancing and 
jumping highly delighted at it — Lucy is waiting to take this to 
office — dear little daughter is the life and joy of the house this 
weather indeed all the time — I hear Col dancing with her — & 
her merry laughs — She has enjoyed perfect health — (Col's leg 
is well ) give my warmest love to my dearest Father and My own 
Mother and a hundred kisses to each for me — daughter is con- 
stantly talking about Grand Pa Grand Ma Aunt Pattie aunt Mary 
— she shows me Grand Pas' name in the book and then mine — 
Col tells her often about so she may not forget — It is kind in 
him. love to all. Your devoted and affectionate Sister. 


All my love to My own dearest Sisters. Tell dearest Mary I will 
write to her. 


Love to Miss Polly. 2 

2 Miss Polly was a white woman who lived with the Mangum family from the boyhood of 
Willie P. Mangum until after his death. She helped care for the children and rendered other 
household services for many years. Although not a member of the family, she was affectionately 
referred to in numerous family letters. 

The Mangum Papers 331 

David L. Swain 3 

Chapel Hill, ) 

Feb [10,] 1857.) 

Dear Sir: 

The General Assembly have resolved that the agent ap- 
pointed to procure documentary evidence in relation to the 
history of North Carolina, may, in case he shall deem it neces- 
sary to do so, examine the public archives and other sources of 
information of our sister States, as well as the mother country, 
in the accomplishment of the object designed in the creation of 
a Historical Agency. 4 

There is, no doubt, much interesting material for the con- 
struction of our history, in the public and private depositories 
of records in England, which cannot be obtained in this country; 
many interesting papers in the archives of our sister States, not 
to be found elsewhere, and perhaps not less important informa- 
tion, if it can be gleaned, collected and arranged, within our 
own borders. 

It is my purpose to secure the possession, as nearly as may 
be practicable, of every species of documentary evidence es- 
sential to the true and full development of our history, which 
has been preserved in our sister States, and in the mother 

To the accomplishment of this design, so far as relates to 
the necessary researches in North-Carolina, the earnest co-op- 
eration of one or more enlightened and patriotic citizens in 
every county is, indispensable. May I not invoke your aid, 
with the assurance that it will be promptly and zealously rend- 

I desire to obtain all the information within your reach 
which may serve to illustrate the history of the State, or your 
county, viz: — Accounts of the various Indian tribes, which have, 

^This is a printed circular. 

4 In 1833 the legislature incorporated the North Carolina Historical Society but little was 
done to carry out the purpose of the charter. In January, 1844, D. L. Swain and several 
Professors at the state university published some facts on the history of the state and formed a 
historical society. The purpose of this society was to collect books, pamphlets, newspapers, and 
documents. In 1856 the legislature passed a resolution appointing an agent to procure historical 
documents. On January 8, 1857, this resolution was amended to give the agent the authority 
to examine the documents of neighboring states and Great Britain and to report the results of 
its findings to the legislature. Battle, History of U. N. C, I, 485-486; Raleigh Register, January 26, 
1844; First Report of the Historical Society of the University of North Carolina, June 4, 1845, 
Hillsborough, 1845. 8 pp.; N. C. laws, 1856-1857, 72. 

332 State Department of Archives and History 

at any time, inhabited our territory, their wars among them- 
selves, and their contests with the white people; - records of 
associations and accounts of other proceedings to resist the 
execution of the Stamp Act;- records of town, county and district 
associations organized under the Articles of American Associa- 
tion, adopted in 1744;- of revolutionary Committees of Safety ;- 
Journals of Provincial and Revolutionary Conventions, Con- 
gresses and Assemblies, either printed or in manuscript;- Court 
records, especially of trials for treason;- Parish and Church 
Registers;- Records of births, deaths and marriages;- files and 
single numbers^ of ancient newspapers, pamphlets, books;- ac- 
counts of early settlements, discoveries and inventions;- ac- 
counts of battles, descriptions of battle-fields and fortifications ;- 
epistolary correspondence, and in fine, everything which, in 
your estimation, may possess historical value. 

Let me entreat you, moreover, in addition to the early col- 
lections indicated in the foregoing paragraph, to prepare, or 
secure the services of a competent person, to prepare a sketch 
of the history of your county. 

To attain uniformity in the series of county histories which 
I hope to obtain through the intervention of my friends 
throughout the State, perhaps a better plan cannot be sug- 
gested, than to make Wheeler's Sketches of North-Carolina 
available to the purpose. Take his account of your county, and 
re-write it, correcting errors, supplying omissions, and enlarg- 
ing or retrenching as you may deem best calculated to present 
your views of the past and the present, fully and fairly, to the 
consideration of the historian. 

I venture the hope that I shall receive such assistance from 
personal friends, and patriotic and intelligent gentlemen, with 
whom I have not the advantage of personal acquaintance, as 
will enable me to place in the possession of the historian mate- 
rials not less extensive and authentic than those at the com- 
mand of any of our sister States 

Do me the favor to reply to this communication with as little 
delay as practicable, 

And believe me, very sincerely and truly, 

Your friend and servant, 
D. L. Swain. 

The Mangum Papers 333 

Edward Davis 5 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Oakland Alimia [Alameda] Cty Cal 

Feb. 15th 1857 
Mr. Mangum 

Dr. Sir. 

For the first time since my arrival in this country I sit 
down to give you a Short Epistle in relation to my health, situ- 
ation, &c. &c believeing it will afford you some pleasure to hear 
from us I landed in Sanfrancisco on the 13th of August 1850 
with four young men and a Servant on a two years contract 
hoping in that time to make enough to do me the balance of 
my days but like many others were disappointed I remained 
here three years and wrote for my Family they all landed here 
(with the excepsion of my daughter Susan who married Mr 
Armstrong) on the 20th March /53 I had abandoned the mines 
and purchased me a fine Ranche upon the coast at $12 per 
acre and had made preparasion for the recepsion of my Family 
after they all landed here the most of them became dysatisfied 
and I sold my Ranche for $30 pr acre to return back to Miss or 
Texas but we reconsidered the matter and concluded to try it 
a little longer. I then came down to Oakland a most beautiful 
Town across the Bay from Sanfrancisco about 7 miles and 
there we all located again and all have remained there ever 
since pretty well satisfied I have made a partial settlement out 
back in the Mountains where I have settled a stock Ranche and 
stay most of my time my youngest son Edward is with me I 
should have brought my old Lady out but owing to the death 
of my Daughter Martha who married Mr. McKee who died 
November 26th 1855 who requested her mother to stay and take 
care of her 3 children 2 Boys and one Daughter two of them 
going to School we had great affliction in our family about that 
time James lost his oldest Daughter and Mr. McKee a little Boy 
a few weeks before the death of his Mother Martha died with 
something like consumption. James's Daughter with Scarlet 
Fever or Putrid Sore throat Since that time we have all been 
pretty well, my wife's health is much better than when in 
Miss but it seems that in our old age we are visited with 

6 See above, J. P. Davis to W. P. Mangum, June 26, 1855. 

334 State Department of Archives and History 

sore afflictions. On the 20th of November last my son Wil- 
liam started for the Atlantic States and we sent our youngest 
child Sarah Ann with him to visit her Sister Susan in Miss and 
then William and her intended visiting N C to see all their 
relations but in the midst of all their contemplated pleasure 
in the enjoyment of the Society of their dear relations it was 
all cut short by the unexpected death of poor William, who 
died on the voyage home on the 9th of December (One day 
out from N. Orleans with Cholera poor Sarah must have had 
a hard time left on the ship with strangers but she made out 
to reach Susan safe and in good health Poor Will he had worked 
hard and underwent many hardships since 1849 made some 
money and concluded to return and enjoy it for a time and 
then return to Cal but poor fellow he is gone, it seems my 
Children are leaving me only four left god only knows which 
will be the next. Dear Willie we are getting old we will go 
hence soon from a course of nature I am upwards of 60 my 
Head almost as white as wool but thank God I am in fine health 
have not been sick one day since I landed in Cal I feel about as 
well and as stout as I did when 40 I have lost my corporanace 
but feel better my Habits is very different to what they were in 
NCI have to work in this Fine soil. I cant Say I like it but it is 
the finest Country and climate in the world if we only had 
slaves here and not so many yankees the country is flooded with 
men & women from every nation the most Heterogeneous popu- 
lation on earth we have more corruption here among our po- 
litical men than I thought possible Our Legislature are made 
up of the most corrupt men in our state more bribery and cor- 
ruption than they will ever be able to repent for Some of your 
old acquaintances are here seeking office Foote 6 & Guinn and 
Stanly &c poor Foote he told me he came here to better his 
condition and intended to let Politics alone but he could not 
live in any other but a political atmosphere he was defeated for 
the Senate and an Irish Shoulder Striker Elected (Broderick). 7 
We have great times here with the vigilance committee and 
vilians hang them up on all occasions upon the whole this is a 
great country and a fast country I could write you much about 
the country but conclude you are well posted up as our State 

6 In 1853 Edward Stanly, in 1854 Henry S. Foote, and in 1849 William M. Gwin moved to 
California. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 977. 1042. 1560. 

7 Son of a New York Irish immigrant, David C. Broderick, 1820-1859. moved to California 
in 1849 and was president of the California senate in 1850 and 1851. He represented California 
in the United States Senate in 1857-1859. Biog. Dir. of Cong., 739- 

The Mangum Papers 335 

papers are sent to the States. Mr. McKee & James are doing 
well Edward is with me and doing very well we have some 
good stock which is the best business in this country Farming 
very uncertain prices fluctuating We raise much Barley Oats & 
Wheat, Irish Potatoes Beans &c all of which has to be consumed 
here no where to export it to labour is too high for us to con- 
tend with other counting hands from $25 to 60 per month Stock 
keeps up good Cows from $80 to 125 American Horses from 
$150 to 800 if I had a few such as I once had they would be a 
fortune to me but let my hardships be what they may I have 
seen some good times in gone by days and experience has taught 
me that it matters not what situation in life we are in if we will 
only sum up the proper philosophy to stand it I have seen some 
pretty hard times in Cal but I hope I shall be able to spend my 
last days pretty comfortable and old saying that it is hard to 
learn old Dogs new tricks but I have learned to do things that 
you would be amused to see me Say to Sister Charity that I am 
a pretty good cook and can milk my Cows and have done some 
little at the wash Tub Such things would not look well in the 
States when We had servants but in this Country labour is dig- 
nified any body works Judges Lawyers Doctors and allmost eny 
body works My wife is well pleased with this country if she 
only had Susan here she would have no disposition to return 
Say to her Sister Charity and your daughter that they must 
write to her it would afford her great pleasure and I wish you 
to write me on the reception of this all about your Famly and 
about the old country who of my old acquaintances are dead 
what has become of John Ray and Fielding Leathers if alive 
remember me to them I should like very much to visit that 
country once before I die and review the paths of my Boyhood 
but I never expect to do so I should like to see you and your 
dear famly once more when I go over to Sanfrancisco I general- 
ly call to see your Deguaratipe which hangs up with Mr. 
Philmores Cabinet You look much broken more than I expected 
and I must bring my letter to a close for fear I shall weary 
your patience and say to you in conclusion that I am firmly 
fixed in my resolve to keep my eye upon Christ as I Polar Star 
knowing that he will direct me safe to that place of rest where 
I shall cease from all my troubles and meet with many of my 
dear friends my mother my children &c and let me say to you 
dear Willie think about death and Judgment and if I never see 

336 State Department of Archives and History 

you again may we meet in Heaven with our dear families with- 
out the loss of one, remember me with my dear wife affection- 
ately to your wife and children my son Edward desires to be 
remembered to you and all your famly and says he will visit 
you if he lives a few years remember me to Letty if she is a 
live you must not fail to write me direct your letter to Oakland 
Alemeda County Cal 

Yours affectionately 
Ed. Davis. 

P.S. My wife request me to say to your Daughter Martha that 
her letter came safe to hand and she would have answered it 
but poor William promised he would say to her that she would 
answer it soon and requests me to say she will write soon 


Martha Person Mangum to Sally A. (Mangum) Leach 8 

Sunday Morning. March 1 st . 1857 

My dearest Sister, 

It is almost useless for me to write when Miss Polly has 
seen us, and can tell you everything — yet, there is something 
wanting — after the first meeting and inquiries are over — That 
bit of paper, with a word writ on it — . I may be somewhat vain 
in supposing that any thing from me can fill your measure of 
satisfaction — but 'tis not that — but judging from myself — -for 
I always feel — well now for the note — but if I keep on at this 
rate, it will do you little good when you get it. — Mother sends 
you some beet seed and Carrots — I send some Egg Plant and 
some very fine tomato seed, that Sister Mary had saved from 
some very large tomatos that Clarke gave her for the purpose — 
Mother sends some melon seed. And we a few Dahlia roots — 
two of them have buds — one a Crimson and the other a scarlet; 
those that we took up are nearly all decayed. — taken up too 
late — and not sufficiently covered. One hill of those covered in 
the garden, kept admirably — the Crimson — other intirely de- 
cayed-and other so much so, that I think it very doubtful about 
them coming up. — We must be more careful in future — else we 

8 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 337 

shall loose all. — and with care they can be saved with perfect 
certainty. — Let Miss Polly see yours planted at once — and by 
them you can begin to get in the stock. I think of sending on 
for some flower seed — and if I get any of value — shall send you 
some. I learn to make good beets — when you transplant them 
the long root should be pinched off — I write it in this out of 
the way place — As I may forget it — and it has just been called 
to my attention. Mother sends you a nice baked Turkey. — She 
has had her heart on having Sallie to eat one of her Turkeys, 
and has been saying ever since the thought of sending Miss 
Polly, that you should have one. — Well last night Sister Mary 
Myself and Miss Polly were sitting in the parlour putting the 
finishing touches to her wardrobe — ie: finishing her apron and 
handkerchief — and were talking about you — what we had to 
send for you &.c. and let me take this long parenthesis — to say, 
that when Miss Polly's going was spoken of I — and Sister Mary 
too — formed plans to do much nice little work for you, in cap 
making working drawers for little Mary &.c. But I have lost 
so much sleep this winter, that I have done what the necessities 
of the hour compelled only — well — the Turkey — it was men- 
tioned — and we said Mother must have forgotten it — I soon 
went to her room — and asked her — Why yes, why how could 
she have forgotten it — & we concluded to send for Aunt Duddy 
explained to her — told her what to do. — And I think she has 
done it very nicely — I thought, send it raw. — but Mother was 
heart on having it ready for her little daughter to eat. She sends 
a ruske for Miss Mary Alma — Aunt Mary sends her some Pea 
Nuts — and Aunt Pat a book. — 
And now May God bless you all. 

We send some dewberried & strawberried. — All unite with 
me in warmest love to you — Many kisses for dear little Mary. 

Your devoted Sister. 
M. P. Mangum 

338 State Department of Archives and History 

John D. Hyman 9 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Asheville, N. C. 

April 29th, 1857. 

Hon. W. P. Mangum, 

Dear Sir: 

Pardon me for the intrusion, for I am sure you will ap- 
prove the motive that actuates me to write you, as it were, in 
familiar style, stranger as I am to you personally. I desire very 
much to know your views and opinions, sustained by argument, 
upon the question of the disposition of the Public Domain; 10 
not that I may use your name in this behalf, but in order that 
our friends may avail themselves of your arguments in the en- 
suing Congressional Canvass. 

Mr. Clingman is a candidate for reelection and no doubt will 
throw himself in opposition to Distribution in the contest. If so, 
our friends have strong hopes of being able to circumvent his 
defeat. It is for this reason, superadded to that I have already 
stated, that I write you - that we may bring into the contest 
all the strong points that can be eliminated from Mr. C's career 
as a politician and public man. I would be under many obliga- 
tions, threrefore, as would your Whig and American friends in 
this section of the State, if you susperadd to your views and 
argument upon the Land question any suggestions calculated, 
in your opinion, to be of advantage to us in the ensuing can- 
vass. — 

The Americans & Whigs hold a convention in Morganton on 
the 9th prox. for the purpose of bringing out a candidate. We 
wish to be prepared by that time to commence a vigorous can- 

I would not intrude this upon you in your retiracy, if I did 
not feel assured, upon consultation with some of your friends, 
that you feel a lively interest in our cause in this region, and 
will do all you can to aid us in achieving a triumph over our 
wily enemy. — 

9 A student at the University in 1848-1849, he became a trustee from 1874 to 1877, a 
lawyer, and member of the legislature. Grant, Alumni Hist, of U. N. C, 312. 

10 The North Carolina Whigs continued to advocate distribution and to oppose the homestead 
act even after they joined the American Party. In 1858 many Whigs favored the Democratic 
candidate for governor, because he favored distribution. Pegg, "Whig Party in N. C," 304-306. 

The Mangum Papers 339 

As I am not personally acquainted with you, I refer you to 
Judge Nash, Henry K. Nash, and Gov. Graham. — 

I have the honor to be, 
Vy. Respectfully, Your Obdt Servt 
Jno. D. Hyman 

Printed Circular Letter of David L. Swain to Willie P. Mangum 


University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, June 12, 1857. 
Dear Sir: 

Permit me to request your immediate and earnest atten- 
tion to the provisions of the Revised Statute in relation to the 


Chapter 113. 

1. Any license, granted to retail spirituous liquor, wine or 
cordials at Chapel Hill, or within two miles thereof, shall be 

2. No person shall erect, keep, maintain or have at Chapel 
Hill, or within two miles thereof, any tippling house, establish- 
ment or place, for the sale of wine, cordials, spirituous or malt 

3. No person in the State, without permission in writing from 
the President of the University, or some member of the Faculty, 
shall sell, or offer to sell or deliver, to any student of the Uni- 
versity, or to any other person, any cordial, wine, spirituous or 
malt liquor for the purpose of being used, or with knowledge 
that the same will be used, at Chapel Hill, or within two miles 
thereof by any such Student. 

4. No person, at or within two miles of Chapel Hill, shall 
give or furnish any electioneering treat or entertainment. 

5. No person shall set up, keep or maintain at Chapel Hill, 
or within five miles thereof, any public billiard table, or other 
public table of any kind, at which games of chance or skill, by 
whatever name called may be played. 

340 State Department of Archives and History 

6. No person, without permission in writing obtained there- 
for, from the President of the University, or some member of 
the Faculty, seven days beforehand, shall exhibit at Chapel 
Hill, or within five miles thereof, any theatricals, sleight of 
hand or equestrian performances, or any dramatic recitations 
or representations, or any rope or wire dancing, natural or arti- 
ficial curiosities, or any concert, serenade or performance in 
music, singing or dancing. 

7. Any person who shall offend against any of the provisions 
of this chapter, hereinbefore recited, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

8. Any contract or agreement by any Student of the Uni- 
versity, being then a minor, with any shopkeeper, merchant, 
trader or other person, upon the sale of any wine, cordial, 
spirituous or malt liquor, or of any goods, wares or merchandize, 
or any article of trade, or with the keeper of any livery stable, 
shall be void, unless the same, if made at or within two miles 
of Chapel Hill, be made under the written permission of the 
President of the University, or some member of its Faculty; or 
if made at a greater distance from Chapel Hill, under the written 
consent of the person who may have the control and authority 
over such Student. 

9. Every contract made with a Student of the University, 
contrary to the provisions of the preceding section, shall be 
void, and may be avoided on account of any of the matters here- 
in contained, on the plea of the general issue; on the trial where- 
of, if it appear that the defendant was, at the time of the alleged 
contract, a Student of the University, it shall be presumed that 
he was, at the making thereof, a minor. 

10. Every such contract shall be incapable of being confirmed, 
and any promise or obligation given by such Student, after his 
arrival at full age shall be void. 

To give full sanction and efficacy to the provisions of the 
criminal law, the Trustees have ordained, that any Student who 
may be seen publicly intoxicated, or in whose room ardent 
spirits may be found, shall be forthwith suspended or dismissed, 
as the circumstances of the case may seem to require. This or- 
dinance has been and will be faithfully carried into execution 
in every instance of ascertained violation. 

The merchants of Chapel Hill, with a unanimity highly 
creditable to them, have announced their determination to 

The Mangum Papers 341 

abandon the credit system heretofore pursued, and to sell goods 
to Students for cash paid upon the delivery of the articles or on 
an order from the parent or guardian. The Faculty have con- 
fidence, that this pledge will be faithfully redeemed, and that 
there is no danger that reckless expenditures will be encouraged 
by them. With respect to shopkeepers, confectioners and itiner- 
ant dealers, they are not authorized to give any assurances, and 
parents and guardians must adopt such precautionary measures 
as they may deem proper. 

If you wish therefore that no contracts shall be entered in- 
to, here, in your name or on your account, please say so in a 
written communication to the Bursar, and make such remit- 
tances, to him from time to time, as may be indispensable, to 
meet necessary expenditures. Your silence upon the subject 
will be regarded as an intimation that no particular supervision 
upon his part is expected or desired. 

The Rev. Elisha Mitchell, D.D., is the Bursar of the Institu- 
tion. He will receive any sum of money that you may remit 
to him for the purpose, pay the tuition, board, and other neces- 
sary expenses, without any charge to you, for commissions, and 
transmit an account of expenditures at the close of each session. 

Every student is required to attend Prayers thirteen times 
a week, and Divine Worship in the College Chapel, on the fore- 
noon of every Sabbath. The Freshmen and Sophomores have 
fifteen, the Juniors seventeen, and the Seniors fourteen Recita- 
tions a week. All absences, whether unavoidable or not, are 
recorded and a very simple computation, will show the propor- 
tion of duties performed or omitted. 

During the half session, which closed on Friday evening last, 
( a period of ten weeks, ) Mr. W. P. Mangum 11 has been absent 
from Prayer 34 times, from Recitations 26 times, and from at- 
tendance on Divine Worship 5 times - of these absences, 7 from 
Prayers, 8 from Recitations, and 1 from Divine Worship, were 
unavoidable on account of sickness. 

His relative grade of scholarship in his class is very respect- 
able in French; tolerable in Greek and Mathematics, and re- 
spectable in the Bible, and Latin, and Composition. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Mangum will not pay a closer 
attention to his text books. It would reward him well for he 
has parts capable of receiving such a reward. 

"The blanks of this printed letter are filled in with pen. They are indicated by italics. 

342 State Department of Archives and History 

With respect to the necessary expenses of a Student, the 
Faculty entertain the opinion, that exclusive of the supplies of 
clothing ordinarily obtained from home, more than three hun- 
dred dollars a year is not necessary either to the comfort or 
reputation of any one. 

Yours, very respectfully, 
David L. Swain, President. 

Credit by Amount deposited by Mr. Will. P. Mangum March 

2d 1857, Thirty five 50/100 dollars $35.50 

Transferred to credit of Trustees for tuition Etc. 

E. Mitchell Bursar 

John B. Fry to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York, 9th October, 1857. 
My Dear Judge: — 

I have embraced several occasions to write you, since I last 
had the pleasure of seeing you in Washington- now seven years 

Could you be convinced of the respect and admiration which 
I cherish for your name and character, and of the warmth of 
my attachment for you, I am sure you would honor me with 
an occasional letter (if for nothing more) to advise me of your 
welfare. Do, my dear old friend, let me hear from you! I should 
warmly appreciate such a remembrancer. 

Our old friend Truman Smith, whose residence is in Stam- 
ford, Connecticut, is practising law in this City, and frequently 
speaks of you in terms of kindness and respect. He often re- 
marks, that "Willie P. Mangum is almost the only statesman we 
have remaining of the old school- a man of eminent abilities, 
spotless integrity, and of partiotism that embraces every national 

I am in the office of our old friend Fredk. A. Tallmadge, who 
is the General Superintendent of the Metropolitan Police. He 
also speaks of you very often, and would be glad to know (to 
employ his own expression) "that my old friend Mangum is 
comfortable & happy." 

The Mangum Papers 343 

With ardent wishes for your health & happiness, and the 
earnest hope that you will be pleased to write, I am as ever, 

Faithfully your friend 

John B. Fry 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 


Leonard H. Mangum 1 to Martha P. Mangum. 

Old Town, Arkansas, 
Jan. 15th. 1858. 

My Dear Cousin Pattie, 

As I have promised so often to write to you, and never ful- 
filled it, I expect you have concluded long before this that you 
would never get a letter from me; if you have, for I willingly 
grant that you have had sufficient reason to come to such a 
conclusion, you will be disappointed; for I have at last deter- 
mined to write to you, with the hope that you will be able to 
decipher my letter. I have been in Ark. nearly two months, and 
I have been nearer out of the world during that time, than I 
ever was before. I hear and see but little of the world here, you 
have no idea what a treat it is for me to get a newspaper. I 
generally go to Old Town Landing, on the Mississippi River, 
once or twice a week, which is four miles from Mr. Williams'es. 2 
Old Town is considered quite a place about here, but I think 
it is one of the most miserable looking places, I ever laid my 
eyes on, it consists of three shanties, not to be compared to a 
good N. C. nigro cabin, this time of the year when the River is 
high, it is entirely surrounded by water, and we have to paddle 
to it about two or three hundred yards, in, what they term in 
Ark. a "dug-out," which is any thing but pleasant riding. I 
nevertheless find it quite pleasant to go there, and have a "chat" 
with the Planters, in the neighborhood, (who make it a place 
of general rendezvous) about the transactions in Congress, 

^on of Priestley H. Mangum. After graduating from Princeton University, he moved to Ark- 
ansas, served in the Confederate army on General Cleburne's staff, and became a state judge. 
Weeks, "Willie P. Mangum, Jr." Biog. Hist, of N. C, V, 258. 

2 The brother-in-law of Leonard H. Mangum. 

344 State Department of Archives and History 

Kansas affairs, Mormons in Utah, &c; always preferring to talk 
about those things they know least about- all professing to be 
Democrats, but still agreeing upon nothing, unless it be in 
cursing and abusing Douglass about his position respecting 
Kansas; which is a very sore thing to the Southern Democracy, 
you cant get a Democrat about here to talk of their national 
nothern men : they seem to have but little faith in their nothern 
brethern, since the Darling Democrat of their souls have de- 
serted them. There is much sympathy for Gen. Walker, 3 and 
great indignation against Com. Paulding in all this Country. I 
have about as much sympathy tor Walker as I have for the 
mildest and most savage Commanche Indian. I have been hunt- 
ing frequently, and generally very successful; I have killed 
several deer, wild turkeys &c: but I havent yet killed a bear, 
there are a great many about eight miles from here; but it is 
very laborious and dangerous to hunt them. I was about as 
proud a boy as ever you saw when I killed my first deer. I re- 
gretted very much that I was not able to visit Orange again be- 
fore I left N. C; I intended to have visited you all toward the 
last of my stay in the State, but I was prevented from doing 
so by some business difficulties, which I had not foreseen; so I 
hope you all will not think unkindly of me for not going to 
see you, as I was very anxious to do so. I see from the last ac- 
counts that the Winter in the East, so far, has been very moder- 
ate, which I hope is favorable to my dear Uncle's health. I sin- 
cerely wish and trust that he may be restored again, and be 
spared to us many years yet. 

Tell Uncle I have not yet commenced the course of reading 
he marked out for me, but I will pursue it as soon as I become 
settled. I sometimes become almost disheartened when I think 
of the labor I have before me. A great delineator of the human 
heart, represents, a shrewd and crafty Cardinal of France as say- 
ing that "there is no such word as fail in the bright Lexicon, of 
youth": so we ought never to despair, when by perseverance 
and hard labor, we will be able to surmount all difficulties. You 
ought to see Miss Lizzie Williams, she is a great baby; like no 
one I have ever seen, except Aunt Mary White, she is some- 
times ver much like her. Sister Beck h'as fallen out with the 
B. Church, and will join the Episcopal the first opportunity. 
Brother Willie is here now, and will remain some time. All 

3 He refers to Robert J. Walker as governor of the Kansas territory. 

The Mangum Papers 345 

unite with me in much love to you and all your family. I hope 
to hear from you soon. 

Your affectionate cousin, 
L. H. Mangum. 

Miss M. P. Mangum. N. C. 
Direct to Helena, Ark. 

Martha P. Mangum to Fannie Vaulx (Ladd) Mangum* 

Walnut Hall, N. C. Feb. 22nd '58. 
My dear Cousin Fannie: 


In the spring my Father's health was so variable, that my 
anxiety for him prevented my leaving his room, except when 
unavoidable duties compeled my absence in the summer twas 
little better, and 7 was very feeble. Then in the Autumn he was 
very ill for some weeks, but regained his usual degree of health 
early in the winter. . . . 6 

All well except Father - who with my brother is in Hillsboro' 

Affectionately yours, 
M. P. Mangum. 

Martha P. Mangum to Fannie Vaulx (Ladd) Mangum 

Walnut Hall, N. C. May 21st '58. 

My dear Cousin* Fannie :- 

I received yours of the 23 rd inst last evening, and hasten 
to relieve your anxiety in regard to Father's health to the de- 
gree that I may be able to do. We do not see The "States" and 
therefore do not know the extent of its statement — 

4 The wife of Willie P. Mangum, Jr. 

6 A page in which the author explains her failure to write is omitted. 

6 Mangum had a stroke in 1856 and was partially paralyzed for the rest of his life. See 
the next letter. A paragraph on the author's health and domestic incidents is omitted. 

346 State Department of Archives and History 

The article to which you allude may be the one which has 
been going the rounds of the press of late, with which is con- 
nected what purports to be an incident of Father's early life - 
which incident by the way, is apochraphal. That spoke of him 
having Paralysis, whereas, he is suffering with disease of the 
spinal column. He walkes with great difficulty and rarely with- 
out assistance, indeed it is dangerous to do so - as he is liable 
to fall at any moment - And only about the house and grounds. 
His articulation is much affected, often rendering him difficult 
to be understood by those unaccustomed to him. He has been 
in this condition since the very sudden and severe attack soon 
after your visit to us - often varying from slight causes; - 
Sometimes better-then again not so well. He has been under 
the treatment of our best phisicians; and last summer started 
north in search of medical advice, but was turned back by a 
phisician of eminence in Virginia, who thought by pursuing a 
certain course, that Father's health would improve and that 
we might hope that he would spend a very comfortable and 
happy old age. This was more than we had dared hope for a 
long time - and was most consoling to us. His phisicians think 
that it originated from a fall he had in Washington some years 
since. 7 He is rather better off now, than at this time last year; 
but on the whole I cannot see that there is any very decided 
change. You seem not to have been aware of his real condi- 
tion. Cousin Priestley and Lennard had seen him and I sup- 
posed you had heard through them or I should have written to 
you earlier and more immediately about it. . . . 8 
Clack Cain is soon to be married to a Mr. Ruffin - her cousin, a 
young man of much promise. . . . 9 

Your affectionate Cousin 
M. P. Mangum. 

7 In 1851 Mangum had a fall from which he never completely recovered 

8 A page about domestic trivialities is omitted. 

9 Another page about domestic trivialities is omitted. Mary Clack Cain, 1827-1908, referred 
to in this sentence, married Thomas Ruffin, Jr., the son of the state chief justice. Groves. Alstons 
and Alls tons, 424. 

The Mangum Papers 347 

William C. Preston to Willie P. Mangum. 

Charlottesville Va. 
13th June 1858 
My dear Sir 

My eye accidentally falling on an old paper this morning, 
I saw the enclosed notice. 10 What a crowd of emotions rushed 
thro my heart how many old and tender memories thronged 
my mind and especially on this fifth anniversary of the great- 
est calamity of my life, a calamity which threw a cold and 
dark eclipse upon the vision of my life. 11 For some years I have 
but groped along in a state not exactly life this existence and 
have rarely heard from you except occasionally and accidental- 
ly as a short time since passing thru Raleigh I met with Mr. 
Rayner, who told me you were well and in the habit of visiting 
the Courts. I always enquire concerning you with interest for 
of those friendships which I formed in middle life that for you 
was the strongest. When I met you first you were my beau- 
ideal of a man and my admiration grew into love. What scenes 
we witnessed together and what modes of being we have passed 
thru since. For my own part I preceded you in a paralysis. It 
is more than six years since I was stricken with henry plagia 
[hemiplegia] — since when having very imperfect use of my left 
side my locomotive power has been of the smallest, with the 
assistance of a crutch and a servant, I can walk an hundred 
yards on smoothe ground. 

I am for the summer with my Sister Mrs. Carrington here 
in Charlottesville desiring to go back to Columbia only that I 
may die and be buried there by her side who was my light in 
life and without whom it has been dark, dark inexorable dark. 
I should be mighty glad to have a word from you admitting that 
you in some degree reciprocate the affection with which I am 
my dear old friend 

Wm C Preston 

Honble Willie P Mangum, 

My utterance too has been all the time affected, but not so as 

to impede very greatly conversation. I did not read the notice 

10 The notice was not found. 

u Preston was practically blind in this period of his life. His memory was also bad. 

348 State Department of Archives and History 

but with tears. God help us. We have had our day, let us be 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Aberdeen, Arks. 
Aug. 9th 1858. 

My Dear Cousin, 

I will try, this morning, to answer your affectionate and 
truly welcome letter of the 20th of June, though I scarcely 
feel able to set up, yet I must endeavor to write, for I expect 
you begin to think strange of my long silence, which has been 
caused solely by sickness, but for that, I would have answered 
it, immediately on its reception. I never received a letter more 
gladly than I did yours; I had been suffering, all day, with a 
burning fever (having a severe attack of the Billious Fever) 
my fever was just subsiding as the afternoon drew to a close: 
I felt gloomy and melancholy, as a person is apt to feel, when 
in my situation; as my thoughts wandered back to my old 
home, and thought of the many dear and loved ones there, 
and of the varied scenes of my life: I felt almost like despond- 
ing; and the questions came to my mind. What does a man live 
for? What pleasure is this life? for when we are spending our 
happiest days, we think them to be the most miserable, until 
they are passed, and then like a departed friend, we can fully 
appreciate them, when too late. My mind was in such a situ- 
ation, caused from fever, when your letter and one from my 
dear Sister Mary James, was handed to me. I read them both 
with delight, the genuine affection contained in both, calmed 
my agitated mind, my feelings changed, the thought came 
back, What is there to live for? There are many things, but the 
chief desire of my life, is to live so as to be worthy of my rel- 
atives, in every respect. I am a little vain of my kindred, and 
who would not be? I have travel a good deal, and consequently 
seen a good many persons of every grade; but I can say with 
truth and without vanity, that I have never yet met with any 
equal to the Mangums. I presume, dear Beck, is in North Caro- 
lina by this time I received a letter from her in Memphis, she 
was then on her way to Carolina. Bother Willie will be in Caro- 

The Mangum Papers 349 

lina, I expect, this Summer: I would like very much to be 
there, that we all might once more meet together: I have no 
idea when I will return to North Carolina. I am leading a life 
that does not suit me. I must, and I will change it, and that 
soon. I will remain here until next year. I will then go farther 
west. This is a sickly country, the majority of the inhabitants, 
if you will excuse an Arkansas' expression, look as if they had 
about as much business out of the ground as a mole. I have 
had an attack of the Billious Fever and a severe attack of 
Chills an Fever, the latter I am just recovering from. I will not 
be likely to have any more sickness this Summer, so says my 
Doctor. I would like this country if it was not so sickly, but I 
can not stand that, and it would be extreme folly for me, to 
remain here; for there are certainly better potions of the world, 
and many that surpass this in health, society, and wealth. I 
expect to go to California next February, I have made some 
arrangements to that effect; from all the accounts that I have 
received lately, I think I would like that Country. You asked 
me in your letter, how far I was from Sister Beck? by land it is 
sixty miles but the way, I have to go, by water, it is two hun- 
dred miles. Aberdeen is quite a new place, situated ten miles 
below Clarendon, on the West bank of White River, I expect it 
is put on your map Rock Roe. 

Political excitement, this summer, semed to have been quite 
high in North Carolina. I would judge so from the Standard. We 
have no political excitement here whatever. I cast my first 
vote for Albert Rust for Congress, the Gentleman, who cained 
Horace Greely. As Henry W. Miller has got on the strong side 
at last, he may now justly look forward to political promotion 
for he has sacrificed his passed life at the alter of the Democratic 
Party, by acknowledgeing the errors of his former life, which 
if I look at it in the righ[t] light is a very great sacrifice. But I 
am afraid, that Mr. Miller will yet find that his change was 
caused, by that "Vaulting ambition which overleaps itself, and 
falls on the other side." When you see Aunt Mary White, give 
her much love for me, and tell her that I will write to her soon. 
I must now close, for I have made three attempts to finish this 
letter. I am to weak to set up long at the time. Give much 

350 State Department of Archives and History 

love to all, and accept a great deal for yourself. Write soon 
and let me know how you all are. 

Believe me as ever, most truly and sincerely, 

Your affectionate Cousin, 
L. H. Mangum. 


Josidh Turner, Jr., 12 to Willie P. Mangum 

[August, 1858] 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

Dear Sir: 

I heard from you at the ballot box yours made my majority 

My election astonished my friends and dumfounded my 
enemies. I fought them as you said I should have done two 
years ago - so acting upon your suggestion I have made them 
bite the dust once more. The only regret I have is that Mack 
did not overtake the other renegade. I want to reward the firm 
and true Whigs and as Miss Pattie was the truest and firmest 
Whig I met - if she will she can have either of my boys. Mrs. 
Turner adds she must make up her mind to take a ship carpen- 
ter or blacksmith as her boys are not to be polititions. 

I find myself making a long letter when I only intended a 
short note of thanks for your turn out, on the day of election 
regardless of your comfort and weak state of health 

If you will mention me kindly to Mrs. Mangum Miss Pattie 
Miss Mary and the new voter William 13 I will subscribe my- 
self as you know I am - truly and sincerely yours 

J. Turner Jr. 

"Josiah Turner, Jr.. was elected to the state senate in August, 1858. N. C. Manual, 742. 
13 William Preston Mangum was twenty-one in July, 1858. 

The Mangum Papers 351 

A. W. Mangum H to Martha P. Mangum 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Sept. 15th 1858. 

Dear Cousin Pattie, 

I am sure you are all pleased to hear of the fine revival meet- 
ing which we have enjoyed here. It is, I think, the best meeting 
the village has ever known in its history. The entire number 
of converts was about 115. — There were over 60 of the students 
in the University who professed conversion. These embraced 
several from the best and most distinguished families in the 
state — and many fine young men from other Southern States. 
If only half the number remain faithful & true what a saving 
and ennobling influence they will exert! Only think of thirty 
young men with warm pious hearts and cultivated intellects 
going forth from the bosom of our University with "usefulness 
and duty" for their motto. Their achievements for good will 
be incalculable- inestimable. Such thoughts do indeed cheer my 
heart. One remarkable feature of our services was that not- 
withstanding so many of different ages were making profes- 
sions & so many all the while at the Altar- there was a deep 
reliable christian feeling and comparatively very little excite- 
ment. There was less excitement, I think, than in any meeting 
of half the extent- I have ever seen. This rendered it the more 
satisfactory to all concerened. 

I commenced yesterday to read a new book styled "The- 
ophilus Walton." I am very much pleased with it, and hope 
to be able to bring it down to you when I come. It is a relig- 
ious work written on the plan of a novel. The main subject is 
"Baptism." On that it is a most powerful refutation of the 
Baptist arguments against our Churches. It is an entertaining 
volume truly. — It is a reply to a similar work by a Baptist- 
called " Theodosia Ernest." 

But I am afraid you will begin to think me (as old Prof. 
Duncan used to describe me when I would be making apolo- 

14 Adolphus W. Mangum, 1854-1890, was the son of Ellison G. Mangum. A graduate of 
Randolph Macon College, he became a minister of the Methodist Church in Chapel Hill in 
1858-1859. After holding several pastorates in North Carolina, he served as Chaplain during the 
Civil War. Upon the reopening of the University after the War, he became Professor of Mental 
and Moral Philosophy. He wrote several books of a religious nature. Josephus Daniels, 
"Adolphus Williamson Mangum, A Memorial Address delivered in the Chapel of the University 
. . . Sunday, May 31st, 1891," North Carolina University Magazine, New Ser. X, no. 1 
(1891). PP. 1-22. 

352 State Department of Archives and History 

gies and promises) "a promising boy." I did not send the Piano 
Tuner because I have not seen him since I wrote you about him 
& don't know what has become of him. The 2nd volume of Na- 
poleon in Exile is here & I intend bringing that to you. The 
1st vol. is at home- & I think I requested Mother to hand it to 
you. Tell Cousin Mary I wish her to read these books too- & 
that I only urge on you first- because you have ever been so 
kind in favors of correspondence, &C- 

I am very anxious to hear from Cousin Willie. Hope he is 
much better than when I was last to see him. I saw that rich 
widower again the other day but I have no idea of allowing 
such as he to have my Cousin. Please write me, Cousin P.- 
Give my best love to all. 

Very truly 

A. W. Mangum 

M. H. Pinnix and others to Willie P. Mangum 

Chapel Hill N. C. 

Sept 20th /58 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 


Being directed by the unanimous vote of the Dialectic 
Society we the undersigned committee appointed by that body 
respectfully request that you yield your consent in granting 
said society the privilege of having your portrait taken. 15 This 
request is made not that we believe it will add anything [to] 
your already highly established reputation, but that it will re- 
flect great honor to our society - The society of which you are 
a member to have its Hall adorned with the portrait of such 
an illustrious personage. 

16 Garl Browne painted a portrait which is still in the Dialectic Society Hall, Chapel Hill, 
N. C. See Mangum's reply November 24. 1858. This portrait is reproduced as the frontispiece 
of this volume. 

The Mangum Papers 353 

Allow us to add our individual solicitations to that of the 
society that you grant the above request. 

We are with sentiments 
of Respectful Regard 
Your Obdt. Servants 
M. H. Pinnix ) 

) Com. 
Jos. L. Granbery ) 
Jas L. Gaines ) 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Aberdeen, Arkansas. 
Oct. 2nd. 1858. 

My Dear Cousin; 

As I have been very irregular in letter writing for the last 
four months, caused principally by sickness, I hope that I will 
be able to be more punctual hereafter. I was truly delighted, 
this morning, at the reception of your most welcome letter of 
the 16th. ult. and more especially as it brought the good tidings 
"all well at home." 

I was very sorry to hear that brother Willie had been so 
sick, but he ought to be thankful that he got off with only one 
attack, after remaining in the Miss, bottom so late. 

I have had two or three very severe billious attacks since 
I wrote to you- but I am now, enjoying very good health, with 
the exception of an attack of chills about every two or three 
weeks. I had a very severe chill two weeks ago, which was 
brought on by my own imprudence by going bear-hunting, be- 
fore I was fully able to stand the fatigue consequent on such a 
hunt. Nothing is more exciteing to me than a bear chase and 
fight, the fight is attended with some danger, which has the 
tendency to make it the more exciteing- and owing to the 
great excitement of the hunt, a person has but little idea the 
immence labor, that he is undergoing at the time. 

I will give you an account of the hunt I have just alluded 
to, that you may form some idea of an Arkansas White River 
Bear-hunt. We hunt with cur-dogs altogether, instead of hounds, 

354 State Department of Archives and History 

they are much swifter, and consequently will bring the bear to 
bay sooner, and they fight better. We hunt on foot, the cane 
being to thick to ride- Every man equips himself, generally, 
with a gun and a large hunting knife. I went with four others, 
on my first bear hunt, we were out but a short time, before 
our dogs were under full cry, they ran some four miles before 
they brought the bear to bay- before we could reach the bear, 
we were compelled to crawl on our hands and knees some two 
miles, through one of the thickest cane breaks I ever saw — when 
we reached him .... [sic] he had killed three of our dogs, and 
was very much infuriated- just as we came upon the bear, 
he happened to be in an open place, so we all took a fire at 
him, which only seemed to infuriate him the more- he ran di- 
rectly for us, it would have been quite laughable to have seen 
some of us trying to get away, we tryed to run, but the cane 
was to thick, and we just fell and crawled over each other- 
scared nearly to death, each man thinking the bear had hold 
on him- we all acted the coward except an old hunter, named 
Richardson, who stood his ground, and just as the bear was 
about to spring on him, the dogs caught the bear behind, and 
as he turned to fight them, Richardson sprang on him and 
stabed him to the heart with his bowie knife, which was a very 
bold and daring act, such a fete an old bear hunter delights to 
to perform. After I reached home, to pay for my day's pleas- 
ure, I had a most glorious chill and fever that night. The old 
adage is "every sweet has its bitter," but I hope every bear 
hunt will not have its chill, for I expect to enjoy many more 
this fall. 

I sometimes think that I will return to North Carolina: I 
dislike very much to give up the old State forever as my home. 
I dont, believe a person ever can have that love for any spot, 
that he has for the place of his nativity. I would not practice 
law in this State / the standard of law is very low indeed, and 
the profession is very much degraded. I was truly glad to 
hear that Uncle's health was no worse, I would suppose, that it 
was better than it was last fall, as he is able to go to Hills- 
borough. Tell Preston that he must write to me, it would afford 
me a great deal of pleasure to receive a letter from him. Let 
me hear from you soon, my dear cousin, for it affords me very 

The Mangum Papers 355 

great pleasure to receive a letter from you. Give my warmest 
love to all, and accept a great deal for yourself. 

Most truly and sincerely — 
Your affectionate cousin, 
L. H. Mangum 

Alfred Norman to Willie P. Mangum. 

Wentworth N C. Oct 7th 1858 
Dear Sir. 

After my compliments think me not an intruder when I ask 
you whether you in any of your administrations as Judge in any 
Court ever ruled out the evidence of any Universilists as not 
being valid owing to his being a Universilist in faith. Rumor 
says you have. If not send me your opinion wheth[er] it ought 
or not. I am with respect Sir yor obedient servant. 

Alfred Norman 

To Hon. Wiley P. Mangum Judge 

P.S. Answer me if you please on the receipt of this 
Direct to Wentworth N C 


Willie P. Mangum to M. H. Pinnix and Others 16 

Orange Co. N. C. Nov. 24th 1858. 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 20th of 
September last, and feel obliged to invoke your indulgent con- 
sideration of my apology, for the long deferred reply to your 

In the month of August I had a severe and apparently almost, 
a fatal attack which left me for a length of time, utterly prostrate 

16 See above, M. H. Pinnix and others to W. P. Mangum, September 20, 1858. This copy of 
the letter is in Martha P. Mangum's handwriting. 

356 State Department of Archives and History 

in strength and spirits, so that at the period of receiving your 
note I was scarcely able to turn my attention to any thing, even 
now, I am compelled to use an amanuensis. 

I feel deeply touched by the mark of consideration so kindly 
extended to me by the Society which I dearly loved in my youth, 
and with which many of my most happy and agreeable remin- 
iscences are most interestingly entwined. 

It would [be] quite impossible to decline so signal an honor, 
and the only reluctance I feel is that it may seem almost ridicu- 
lous to attempt to perpetuate the memory of so perfect a ruin as 
more than two years of prostrating illhealth has left me. I have 
hope however, that winter and spring may restore some portion 
of my usual health, and enable me to sit for my portrait, when I 
shall promptly comply with your request, or in default of that, 
I have in my house a portrait, said to be a good likeness, and by 
an artist of high reputation which should be at your service, at 
any time suiting your convenience, to take the copy. 

I must beg of the committee to present to the Society the 
deep sense I entertain of their kind remembrances of one so 
completely retired, and so much out of the eye of the world 
as I am. 

With my profound acknowledgements of this mark of respect 
on the part of the Society, and my thanks for the courteous 
manner in which you have communicated it, I have the honor 
to be very truly and affectionately 

Your & their obt. Servt. 
Willie P. Mangum. 
To Messrs 

M. H. Pinnix ) 

Jos. L. Granbery ) Committee. 

J as. L. Gains ) 

Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 17 

Randolph, Dec 26. "58 
My dearest Mother, 

I have received one letter from home since my return and 
the Frankfort paper. I was glad to hear that all was well. — for 

17 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 357 

their is nothing more pleasing to us than to know that those we 
love are well. — for that is all to us when we are so far seperated 
from each other, last evening I was very much surprised at 
seeing the "Baltimore Sun" I had not thought of such a thing — . 
We have all been well — Children are looking very well — we 
came over to Mrs Leach's yesterday morning. — left Miss Polly 
well and at home to take care of it until our return, had a wed- 
ding at our house Christmas Eve — . Miss Amy & Mr. Ben Leach, 
Tell Caroline Amy was married in the sack she sent her. Yester- 
day was the prettyest Christmass we have had for years. To-day 
it looks like snowing. Dr Alford is sent on the Orange District 
this year — one of his appointments is Bethell. — if any of our 
family should see him I should be so glad if you would return 
the kindness he has always shown to me. Sister Alford's health 
is very bad. her little baby is near three weeks old — her cough 
has returned it may be from fresh cold — she looks very badly. 
We went over to see her yesterday evening, its been three 
Months since her confinement to her bed. Sister Leggy's sone is 
better & I espect has gone to South Carolina. We have all been 
very busy sewing. — I have done a good-deal of it. Miss Polly is 
so good and kind, do take care of her things. We have not had 
any cold weather yet but a good-deal of rain — our spring has 
been pretty cider ever since our return — . We send to the 
meadowe for water to wash with alto-gether — Has wishes the 
old meadow spring had not been found out — but I am very glad 
to see pretty clear water — when our spring is so red. . . , 18 

Your devoted daugh 

Take care of yourself my dearest Mother do not expose your- 
self in bad weather for the sake of my dearest Father and your 
Children. — May God bless my dearest Mother. Take care of 
your self. 

^Eleven lines describing the activities of her small children are omitted. The Dr. Alford 
referred to in this letter married Sallie's sister-in-law. He was a Methodist minister. 

358 State Department of Archives and History 


L. H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Phillips Co., Ark. 

Jan. 23rd. /59. 

My Dear Cousin, 

I have been with John and Dear Beck, since the 29th of 
December, I was not able to leve by Christmas, which I was 
very anxious to do. I spent the first three days of Christmas, on 
a Miss. Steam Boat — we had quite a merry crowd on board, 
and enjoyed ourselves very much in "the mazes of the dance," 
with many beautiful Ladies, "And all went merry as a marriage 
bell." . . .i 

I have concluded to settle in Helena, and study Law there 
under Judge Hanley, who is one of the first Lawyers in the State. 
I have abandoned the idea of ever returning to North Carolina 
to live. As I have determined to practice in this State, it will be 
much better for me to persue my studies here — Judge Hanley 
has a very large Law Library, which I have full access to, and 
I have every facility for prosicuting my studies. Helena is one 
of the most important towns in the State, situated in a very 
healthy community, with pleasant and inteligent society, it will 
be especial-ly pleasant to me, being so near Dear Beck. Going 
to Memphis a few weeks ago, I met with Mr Paul Cameron, 
which was quite unexpected, thought very pleasant, for it is 
always pleasant to me to meet a Carolinian. We are now having 
some very cold weather, the thermometer this morning was ten 
degrees above zero, which is very cold indeed for this part of 
Ark. . . ? 

Most truly your affectionate cousin, 
L. H. Mangum. 

X A page explaining his delay in writing and the condition of his health is omitted. 
2 A portion of the letter about the news of his family is omitted. 

The Mangum Papers 359 

M. W. Leach to Charity A. Mangum 3 

At Home — Sunday evening 
Feb. 27—1859. 
Mrs. Cha. A. Mangum 

Dear Madam, 

It has become my pleasant duty to inform you that we 
have a darling infant Son born last Wednesday night half past 
10' O'clock He is a noble looking boy — strong & healthy to all 
appearance Mrs Lambette (The Midwife) said he was over aver- 
age size & a fine looking boy Sallie instructs me to say that she 
never has been so well before after having any of her children 
and the sweet little Boy has been very well — I think the fact of 
having a boy child makes her, & some of the rest, exult so much 
that she scarcely can think of any thing but her little boy — All 
the genders are used in speaking of him by his Ma. & Pa. & 
Serv'ts — Sometimes he — Mostly she & occasionally it. Seldom 
if ever was the advent of a son more heartily welcomed & thank- 
fully reed than ours — not even Napoleon III' son. 

Our sweet daughters both awoke about 1 O'clock that night 
and Aunt Polly brought them out showed them their brother, 
They were greatly amazed — after Mrs. Lambette gave him back 
to his Mother they began to show regard for him — 4 days has in- 
creased their love for him so much that little Sallie missed him 
from his Mother & cried the nurse had him — His popularity is 
very great — bounded by the extreme limits of his acquaintances 

Sallie did not want me to write for a few days to see how she 
& the blessed little boy got along — 

Sallie has been very uneasy about your health & her Fathers 
The last letter she got told of the attack of both you & the Judge 
We have been sending to office past week but no letter as yet 

Aunt Polly says tell you all that she is well & wants to see 
you all and that her blessed little Sallie sleeps with her — she 
loves her so much — Mary says tell her Aunt Mary to come up 
here and see her little brother — and go with her to Gamenation. 
I hope the Judge's health may inprove — I would be very glad 
if you & him could come up and see us next summer — I think a 

H'he original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. The son 
referred to in rhis letter was born February 23, 1859, and died in October 1862. The daughter, 
"little Sallie," who later married Dr. Stephen B. Weeks was born March 7. 1857, and died 
March 21. 1934. The "Mr. Robbins," referred to was probably Colonel Leach's brother-in-law. 

360 State Department of Archives and History 

trip up here & drink some of this Umoharrie Waters would help 
both of you, do come if you can 

Mary came home from your house complaining because Aunt 
Mary would not come home with her — 

I must close — Mr Robbins has come over to see Young Mr 

Sallie send her love to all 
My respects to all 
M W. Leach 

Edward Davis to Charity A. Mangum 

Oakland Alimeda Cty Cal 

Feb. 1859 
Dear Sister 

You no doubt will be somewhat surprised at the reception of 
this letter after so long silence it seemed that the time we have 
been seperated from you & the great distance we are from each 
other have made us entirely unmindful of each other, but be 
assured that we very often speak of you and think that we are 
all remiss in not corresponding as it would at all times afford 
us great pleasure to hear from you as in all probability we shall 
never see each other a gain on this Earth but hope we will all 
meet in the spirit land where we shall part no more forever and 
there meet with our dear kindred relations that has gone before 
us were I to give you a full account of our travels and ups & 
downs we have undergone since we saw you last would consume 
too much time and weary your patience to read it therefore I 
will only give you a brief account of our health situation &c we 
have had many trials and difficulties since you last saw us we 
have lost all our children but four James Susan Edward and 
Sarah Ann dear Martha who married Mr. McKee came to this 
country in March 1853 with my family and was doing well but 
died Novr. 26th 1855 with Something like consumption, lost 
an infant just before she died left three children. Robt. Edwd and 
Annie all fine promising children my wife took charge of them. 
James is living in Oakland doing very well has four children 
lost his oldest daughter about the time poor Martha died. I 

The Mangum Papers 361 

suppose you have heard of the death of poor William who died 
on his way to the States on the 9th of December 56 at sea of 
cholera and was buried at sea Sarah was with him on her way 
to see Susan in Miss She had a severe trial to see him buried at 
sea. Sarah got safe to Susan and remained with her until last 
summer She is with us Edward is living at A. Ranche about 
Eight miles from us raising stock and speaks of visiting his Sister 
in Miss and his relations in N C This summer or Fawl it would 
afford me great pleasure to once more see old N C See my old 
friends and review the paths of my Boyhood but I am getting 
too old for such a trip and therefore must content myself and 
stay at home with my good wife and try and let my last days be 
my best days and prepare for that world that I soon must enter 
I am getting old my head is as white as wool but I have fine 
health I am now in my 63rd year My dear wife has generally 
pretty good health much better than she had in Miss She lives 
a holy life ready at any to depart when called for she reed a 
letter from your Daughter Martha and says Martha must excuse 
her for not writing but says she will write before long we saw 
the death of your Brother in the paper I wrote a long letter to 
Mr. Mangum since I came to Oakland and reed no answer I 
concluded he did not get it. I would be much gratified at receiv- 
ing a letter from him giving me all the news of the old neigh- 
bourhood who is dead &c &c tell him to write to me and I will 
answer it I intend for the future to write to some of your family 
whether you write me or not. 

I often immagine I see see [sic] Sister Polly going about 
the house with a handkerchief tied on her head and her shoes 
slip shod looking after the dimes and studying what to do with 
her property; She cant carry it with her no doubt many changes 
in that country since I left it the old men have passed away 
and a new generation grown up this is a delightful country 
the finest climate in the world the best fruit the largest 
Strawberries I ever saw if I were to tell you the sise of some 
I have seen you would almost doubt my verasity when I first 
got here I did not like free soil and thought I could not do 
without Negroes but I have become accustomed to waiting on 
myself and now I like the country it is different to a Slave 
State here labour is dignified everybody works, Judges Law- 
yers Doctors and all Sorts work it, said old Dogs cant learn 

362 State Department of Archives and History 

new tricks but I learned Many. I am good cook have done a 
little at the wash Tub work my Garden &c you no doubt 
would laugh to see me with my sleeves rolled up making up 
Biscuit I can make them and then eat them been in Cal 9 
years and have not taken a pill never sick excep colds in Miss 
we lived on Calomel and quinine. So if we have made nothing 
else by coming to Cal we have fine health, if you cant write 
yourself to me make Preston or Martha answer this give me 
all the news of the family hea[l]ths &c. My wife desires to 
be affectionately remembered to you and Brother Willie and 
all the children Sarah sends her love to you and her cousins 
Remember me to your dear children and Mr. Mangum and 
say to him to be on the look out he must leave before long and 
try and be ready. I want to meet him in Heaven with you 
and all his charge is the sincere wish your 

Ed: Davis 

P.S. If Aunt Letty is alive remember me to her. 

Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum* 

At Home. Aprl 2. "59. 
My dearest Mother, 


• • • • 

Col keep racing with the rain in planting his crop the 
rain comes & stops him repeatedly he has planted some corn, 
we have just planted peas & onions. — a week ago I had a few 
peas, our neighbours are all up long ago. Col has been trying 
to get a rockaway but has not as yet succeeded. Aunt Polly 
says tell you she is well except a cold & Sallie is the sweetest 
little creature in the world — that Sallie calls her Aunt Partie. 
Sallie sleeps with Aunt Pollie, its been raining steadily all 
day, every thing looks very beautiful & green. That was 
dreadful to Mr Key's 6 friends that was shot in W-City — ask 

4 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

Seventeen lines about her baby boy and the health of the other children are omitted. 

e Daniel E. Sickles, congressman from New York, in 1859 killed Philip Barton Key, son of 
Francis Scott Key. Key was accused of trifling with Sickles' wife. Edwin M. Stanton defended 
Sickles in the trial following Key's death. Sickles was acquitted. Margaret Leech, Reveille tn 
Washington, 1860-1865, New York, 1941, p. 35. 

The Mangum Papers 363 

Father is he related to Frank Key. — Father gave us an intro- 
duction to a Mr. Fey in Bal. we have not had little Baby out 
of our room yet. we think the world of him. I am going to 
raise him for an Episcopal Preacher. I do so much hope he 
will be smart like my dear Father. Col says his mouth and 
chin is like Fathers, — I never could trace likeness in an infant, 
it would be all that my heart could wish for him to be just like 
my dearest Father in mind and person, but I am doubtful 
whether any one [torn] can be made good. I fear for my Child- 
ren. I hope by the next time I write that all will be well, the 
children are only sick enough to be fretful — are better, we 
thought we would have to give Mary Calomel but I opposed 
so strong — Col tryed rhewbarb. Iron rust, & Rhew juice in 
morning & her tongue is much better, you must let me hear 
from my dearest Father often, I will beg Col to let me come & 
bring my boy to see him, I asked Col & he said he was afraid 
of sickness in warm weather, but baby is crying & I must 
close, all my love to my dearest Father, do take all the care 
of him you can. love to all at Home. May kind Heaven bless 
you my Mother. Your affectionate daughter. 


Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Helena, Ark. 
May 20th. /59. 
My Dear Cousin; 

I am weary of Studying, and as it is too early to retire, I will 
answer your most welcome letter before I go to bed. 

I was truly delighted to hear of the gradual improvement of 
Uncle Willie's health; and I know it must be a very great 
pleasure and relief to you all. 

I have been settled in Helena nearly a month, I am very 
much pleased with my new home — Helena is prettily situated in 
a valley surrounded by Hills. A beautiful picture is presented 
to the eye from the hills, the valley below dotted with houses, — 
and a view extending up and down the Mississippi for eight or 
ten miles. I have formed a very strong attachment for living 

364 State Department of Archives and History 

on the Miss. River, it seems as if I would not be satisfied any- 
where else, and why it is, I can not say — but it has a peculiar 
charme about it for me — it cant be on account of the beauty of 
its natural scenery — for I have seen many rivers far more beau- 
tiful: but there must be something in its name "The Father of 
Waters," and in its vast power, that causes so strong an attach- 
ment. But while speaking of the Miss River, I will endeavor to 
give you a faint description of the most sublime and awful scene 
I ever beheld- Some two weeks ago, while writing a letter to 
Mrs. Price, about eleven o'clock at night, I happened to look 
towards the River (which is in full view from my window) and 
beheld the magnificent Steam boat St. Nicholas in full blaze 
drifting-down about the middle of the River. She was indeed a 
floating palace of fire. The boat blew up about ten miles above 
this place, caught, soon afterwards, a fire, & burnt to the waters 
edge, and sunk fifteen miles below this place. I most sincerely 
hope and trust that it will never be my misfortune to witness 
such another sight — There was a great many persons and live 
stock on board, some sixty persons were lost. The account, I 
received from a gentleman, who was near when the misfortune 
occurred, was horrible. The neighing of the horses, the lowing 
of cattle and the dying shrieks and groans of the poore drowning 
and burning creatures would have moved a heart of Stone — 
No assistence could be given them, and the darke waves closed 
over them forever. One poor man was taken off of the reck as 
it passed this place, he was badly burnt, lived but a few hours, 
and died cursing — what an awful end? Gen. Pillow lost a son, 
Gideon J. Pilliow Jr., who was a young man of promise and a 
graduate of Chapel Hill, N. C. — his bodie has never been 

I heard from John to day, they were all well, I will go down 
after Court to see them, which comes off next week. Bishop 
Otey has not visited Helena since I have been here; I will take 
great pleasure in giving you an account of him when I see him. 

I hope you will let me hear from you soon. Give my warmest 
love to all, and accept a great deal for yourself — 

Your affectionate cousin 
To/ L. H. Mangum 

Miss M. P. Mangum. ) 

N. C. ) 

The Mangum Papers 365 

Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 7 

Randolph, Augst - 14- "59. 

My own dearest Mother, 

I can scarcely realize that I am so soon to see My dearest 
good Father and my own dearest Mother: Oh how it makes my 
heart rejoice to think of so soon seeing my dearest Parents 
again. Oh it is like a happy - happy dream. The 1st day of 
September send up to Hillsboro for us. Thursday - two weeks — . 
The first day of September — Col says he wants me to go & come 
back before time to cut tobacco. My Annual Visit Home is the 
one bright spot in my life. — There is nothing on Earth that 
makes me feel so happy as the prospect of being with my dearest 
Father- and Mother — it seems to make me feel a new life with- 
in me. I have been so troubeled since I saw you about my 
Father's health that to be with my Father again is all I can 
wish in the way of happiness — Have Anderson at Hillsboro the 
First day of September at 12 O clock — at — dinner time — twelve 
o clock I - the three children and Miss Polly will be at Hills- 
boro at twelve O clock - time enough to get home to see my 
dearest Father — what a joyful day it will be to me. They all 
have quit writing to me from home. I have not heard in 4 or 5 
weeks, but I will soon see all — and tell Sister Martha and Mary 
to expect one big schold. — for not writing. 

we have all been well, some of our neighbours have had the 
fever — one of our most valuable citizens died last week of it. 
Mr John Brown — & his wife is now very low with it. Gen 
Leach's daughter Mary has had the fever — a little better, we 
are over at Col's Mother's, this 3 times since Buddy has been 
born — he will soon be 6 months old — . The first time I have 
seen Sister Partha she has entirely recovered & is looking very 
well, we will soon start home. 

Give my love to my own dearest Father and to you my own 
dear Mother — and oh I shall be so glad to think I shall see my 
own dearest Parents, love to my dear Sisters and dear Preston — 
write immediately on the receipt of this — to Trinity College 

7 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. The John 
Brown referred to in this letter was probably a cousin of Colonel Leach whose mother was Nancy 
Brown. "Sister Partha" referred to was Parthenia Leach, Colonel Leach's sister. 

366 State Department of Archives and History 

and to Thomisville — so I may be sure you have received this- 
I will write again in a few days. 

Your devoted and affectionate daughter 


Katherine Mangum Davis 8 to Martha P. Mangum 

Home, Aug. 30th 1859 
My dear Cousin Pattie. 

This, I think is the third attempt I have made to write to 
you within the last 8 months, and sickness or other things 
would prevent my finishing the letters. You no doubt have 
long since despaired of ever hearing from me again & con- 
cluded that I wantonly neglected you, & my sweet Cos - I can- 
not blame you - such treatment I have never realized at your 
hands, - but I have resolved to send this letter - though it may 
be a short one- I have other draws on my time now, that I have 
a great boy to attend too, but I suppose you have long since 
heard it. He is nine months old - very sprightly. I named him 
for my father - "Walter Mangum" the noblest man on earth to 
me. Mr. Davis and I have just returned from a visit to the 
family in La. — We remained there five weeks, found them all 
very well except Sister Bettie who had been very ill, and had 
not entirely recovered. While we were there she gave birth 
to a fine little girl - since which time she has had very good 
health. She and Mr. Imboden had named it, had it been a boy; 
for our dear uncle - Your noble Father, - consequently they 
were much disappointed. I do not know what they have 
named her- Sister Bettie is I think happily married - her hus- 
band is truly a gentleman his pursuits are rather of a literary 
character. We all love him as a brother his little children are 
very interesting - and kind and affectionate to their Ma. Pa & 
Mother were in fine health. They were looking better than I 
have seen them for years. They live in a very healthy country 
no doubt besides a country of rich lands. Lucy was attacked, 
very severely while we were visiting them, though she soon re- 
covered & her sickness could not be attributed to the climate she 

8 The daughter of Walter Alvis Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 367 

has two very sweet children - remarkably sprightly Mr Bacon 
is pleased with the country & will remain there, he is farm- 
ing and doing well — My other sisters & brothers are growing 
very rapidly - but their bodies are developing much faster than 
their minds- As the facilities for education are very limited in 
that country - though it is improving 

We have been very anxious to hear from you since our ar- 
rival home as we heard while traveling that Uncle Willie was 
quite ill some time ago, perhaps was not expected to live. I 
only hope it will be as before a false circulation through the 
papers. Pa was very anxious concerning Uncle's health - and 
express much desire to hear from you. 

While coming up the river we landed at Old Town landing - 
at which place a gentleman and Lady got on board, shortly after 
I sought an interview for the purpose if possible of hearing 
from Cousin Rebecca, who lives near that place- She told me 
Cousin R had been very ill indeed had not for some days ex- 
pected her to recover - but was that morning some little better- 
She had given birth to a still born infant the third time such 
a thing has occured with her. How much I feel for her - dear 
creature - among strangers - and so much suffering to pass 
through. I also ascertained after we had passed Helena that 
Cousin Len had established himself at that place in the prac- 
tice of Law - and promised to do well. I truly hope he will — 
As I have heard he is very worthy - he seems possessed of much 
energy of character or rather force of character - And I hope & 
wish that will establish a name and character worthy of the 
family- My dear cousin I have written this letter in a very hur- 
ried manner and have been called away several times since I 
began My babe is also fretful today - and I must beg your lenien- 
cy, My dear Cousin - Also - I must close, urging you to write 
soon. Your letters I dearly love to read also we wish to hear 
from the family. My kind husband wishes to be kindly remem- 
bered to you, and family, also the children unite with me in 
warmest to love to Uncle Aunt and cousins do not forget to re- 
member me to Cousin Sally - and her dear little ones - begging 
Heaven to bless you My dear cousin I close your truly affec- 


368 State Department of Archives and History 


Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach to Charity A. Mangum 1 

At Home. Jan 4 th 1860 
My own dearest Mother. 

I cant tell you My dear Mother with what joy I received my 
dear Sister's letter of the 29 th after Christmass — . for I am al- 
ways uneasy — and I so gratefully receive any little word from 
my dear home. — . If my dearest Father is only well and my 
Mother what more can I ask. That my own dearest Father is 
more comfortable is a source of great rejoycing with us — for 
none can be more deeply thankful than I am. . . . 2 Col will 
have a Rockaway in about a week, its been long time a com- 
ing I suppose we will appreciate it more highly when we do get 
it. Mr Kendal has made it — lives near hear. Col has gone over to 
see his Mother & Mrs Alford— Sister Partha has the Rheumatism 
very badly in her shoulders & arms — Mrs. A is not well & Col is 
uneasy about them. All are very much pleased with Mr Robbin's 
wife — she had 2500 hundred dollars — the Randolph fashion 
of estimating the quality of wifes — . not by any quality of their 
own — but by Dollars & cents, but all like her. They have just 
returned from setling up the estate of her first husband. Mr 
Julius Robbins was in a short time — looks well. Mr Frank Rob- 
bins is teaching school in Danville Va — gets a thousand & 50 
dollars — Fayette Teaches in Ala for twelve hundred — They 
were in Preston's Class. — I so much regret it when I think 
with exerting himself he might have been so much smarter than 
any of the Robbin's. . . . 3 Dr Alford goes to Guilford this year. 
But I scarcely ever heard through him of our family. I have 
not been to Mrs Leaches but 3 times the past year I never hap- 
pened their when the Dr was their, his son is going to Chapel 
Hill. Aunt Polly has raised us the last year so many chickens 
about 3 or 4 hundred — I never had as many as I wanted in my 
life before — . about a hundred and 25 young pullets at Christ- 
mass, hundred & 50 chickens in all & ate them all the year all 
the time, you must give me some large tomatoe Seed this year — 

^The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

twenty-two lines on the health of members of the family and the activities of her small 
daughter are omitted. 

twelve lines on her daughter's cleverness are omitted. The Robbinses referred to in this 
letter were Julius Alexander Robbins, Franklin Childs Robbins, and James Lafayette Robbins who 
were students at the state university with William Preston Mangum. Grant, Alumni Hist, of 
U. N. C, 526-527. The "Granny" mentioned in the letter was a Negro cook. 

The Mangum Papers 369 

I had not a large one last year. & save Luttice if have any — I 
do so kindly thank my dear Sister for her nice kind letter — 
and she has so little time she can call her own — I never have 
enjoyed anything more. Oh it was such a rich treat, all of us 
are perfectly well — Aunt Polly very well & sends love to all. 
I want to see all very much, warmest love to my own dearest 
Father and take all the care of him my dearest Mother, and my 
Mother do take care of your self. May God bless you Mother, 
love to my dearest Brother I was so elated to hear that dear 
Preston was given pleasure to our dear Father — a thousand 
thanks to Granny & (love to the old woman) for the news, love 
to my dearest Sisters tell Mary to not use her eyes — & to Sister 
Martha to not sit up at night. 
God bless you Mother. 

Your devoted and affectionate daughter. 

Willie P. Mangum's deed for two slaves to his daughter* 

[16 March,] 1860 

I Willie P. Mangum of Orange County North Carolina, a 
few years ago put in the possession of Col. M. W. Leach two 
negro slaves designed as an advancement to my daughter Sallie, 5 
who had inter married with said Leach, one named Catherine, 
commonly called Kitty, now the rise of thirteen years of age, 
and Erasmus, a boy, now the rise of eleven years of age, with 
the intent of making little for the same. I by these presents for 
an in consideration of one dollar lawful money to me in hand 
paid, and divers other considerations me hereunto moving, have 
given, granted, bargained and sold, and transfered the aforesaid 
negrow slaves Kitty and Erasmus to said Col. M. W. Leach his 
heirs and assigns forever for the considerations above named. 

I said Willie P. Mangum do warrant and difend the right and 
title of said negrow slaves against the claim or claims of all and 
every person whomsoever claiming the same by, through, or 
under me. 

4 The original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
6 The two slaves were given to Sally Mangum at the time of her marriage in 1851. This 
letter is in Martha Mangum's handwriting. 

370 State Department of Archives and History 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
affixed my seal, this the 16th day of March 1860. 

Signed, sealed ) 


Willie P. Mangum seal 
& delivered in) 

presence of ) 
Wm. Preston Mangum. 

Charity A. Mangum to Sally A. (Mangum) Leach 6 

Orange Cot, N. C. 
Apr. 4th. '60 
My Dear Daughter. 

I have waited and looked for a letter from you untill I can 
no longer rest. I do not sleep at night, and find no rest by 
day for my uneasiness about you Why have you not written? 
We are so anxious to hear how your dear little boy is. and 
the other Childr[en] are, but above all we desire to hear from 
you. You cannot feel more tenderness for your little sick boy, 
than I do for you my Child. You must try to be a christian. 
An humble trust in God is the only thing that will sustain us 
in life. Your Father is more feeble than he was when you left 
us. Yet he walks about. The rest of the family as well as usual. 
I am better since I commenced taking the sarsaparilla the Col. 
got for me. With warmest love for you and yours from us all, 
I must close, as I cannot remain longer from your Father. Give 
our love to Miss Polly. And always think of me as your tenderly 

Devoted Mother. 
C. A. Mangum 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Harrisbugh Ark. April 8th /60 
My Dear Cousin- 

. . . J I am now in Harrisburgh the county seat of Poinsett 
County - some hundred and twenty five miles above Helena. 

6 The origtinal is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
7 A paragraph explaining his failure to write earlier is omitted. 

The Mangum Papers 371 

I have been absent from Helena on the circuit four weeks - the 
lawyers in the first Judicial circuit of this State have quite a 
hard time, I can assure you. I reached this miserable little 
'burg' some two days ago. I came down by myself, having left 
the other Lawyer up in Green County. I had to get here a few 
days before Court in order to take some depositions, and I have 
had an awful dull time of it- We have eight counties in our cir- 
cuit, all with the exception of Phillips & St. Francis are real 
rough back-woods counties- 

In order that you may form some idea of how we fare — I 
will give you a short description of some of our County Seats — 
At Clarendon in Monroe County is held our first Court - that 
town consists of one dry goods store, five dram shops, one tavern 
and a court House— the latter is an edifice one story high, with 
two rooms, eighteen by twenty, with very smooth and sub- 
stantial dirt floors - one room is used for holding Court in, the 
other is both Clerks and Sheriff's office, the respective Juries 
meet under two large and by the by very beautiful white oak 
trees - but I must say in justice to Clarendon that it has a very 
good and well kept Hotel- The next Court is held at Gaines- 
ville in Green County bordering on the State Missouri. Gaines- 
ville is in many respect superior to Clarendon - it has as many 
as two dry goods stores, eight well patronize dram shops, and 
has a model of a Hotel, with a large dineing Hall, with an un- 
dulating and well swept dirt floore, The Land Lady is quite 
economical and makes her provisions go very far by mixing in 
a goodly proportion of dirt, which I presume she has found to be 
very saving - her beds are extra fine- the most exquisite indi- 
vidual could not complain, unless it was on account of too many 
sleepless occupants; but they will sometimes be in the best 
regulated Houses, though probably not in as great numbers or 
so ravenus in their nature as they are at the Gainesville Eagl 

Crittenden, Mississippi and this County are about like Green, 
probably not so good- In St. Francis and Phillips we fare like 
gentlemen — Still with all of our hardships, we have some very 
amusing scenes and enjoy many a harty laugh — It will be three 
weeks yet before I return to Helena. 

Political excitement in this State is running high, there is a 
bitter and uncompromising war now being waged between the 
"harmonious Democracy of Arkansas" — There are two divisions 

372 State Department of Archives and History 

or wings of Democrats in this State, Hindman & Johnson Demo- 
crats - it is mostly of a personal nature, and consequently very 

Hindman is congressman from this District and in many re- 
spects a very remarkable man - a fine stump-speaker, and by 
far the most talented man in the State. R. W. Johnson is the 
leader of the Johnson faction, he is one of our U.S.S. nephew 
of Richard M. Johnson of Ky. the man who is said to have killed 
the Indian Chief Tecumseh, which feat made him Vice-President 
of the U. S. The Johnson family in this state is extensive and 
very wealthy and they have monopolized every office of profit 
and honor since Arkansas has become a State - they are men of 
ordinary ability but have many powerful friends in the State 
and it will be almost impossible to overpower them, still there 
will be a mighty effort, made this year to that effect, if the at- 
tempt succeeds and Hindman is returned to Congress it will be 
the most brilliant political victory ever achieved in Ark- 
ansas. . . . 8 

Your affectionate cousin 
L. H. Mangum. 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

May 14th. 1860 

Cous. Pattie will inform her Father that news reached Hills- 
borough last Saturday that John Bell of Tennessee has been 
nominated at Baltimore for President, & Edward Everett for 
Vice President. A good and conservative ticket 


Addison Mangum 

8 A paragraph about the weather and the health of his relatives is omitted. 

The Mangum Papers 373 


C. F. Dowd and others to Willie P. Mangum 9 


Dialectic Hall, University of North Carolina, 

May 21, 1860. 
Dear Sir: 

You are doubtless aware that the rapid increase for the last 
few years of this Institution has led to the necessity of construct- 
ing new Halls for the two rival sister Societies. These have 
been completed and the members of the Dialectic Society are 
contemplating their removal from the old Hall. The funds of the 
Society are utterly insufficient to furnish the Hall properly and 
to make such accessions to the Library as are necessary; con- 
sequently (as the objects proposed concern equally the absent 
and present members,) we, in behalf of our Society, have been 
directed to appeal to you for aid. It would be presumption in 
us to urge considerations upon you who know so well the noble 
purpose for which assistance is asked, and who can appreciate 
and sympathize with our youthful efforts. 

Should this meet your approbation, we would respectfully 
request an answer before the beginning of next Session. 

To prevent mistakes all communications should be directed 
to "Dialectic Society, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill." 

We have the honor to be your obedient servants, 

C. F. Dowd, ) 

J . M. Hobson, ) COMMITTEE 

A. C. Stewart,) 


Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

May 22nd. '60 

Cous. Pattie can again inform her Father that the Black republi- 
cans have nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for President 
& some man in New Hampshire, for Vice President. You will 
get particulars tomorrow. 


A. Mangum 

^This is a printed circular letter. 

374 State Department of Archives and History 

J. Hendebert 10 to Willie P. Mangum 

Jackson Miss. July 29/60. 

Honored & Distinguished sir. 

Sir my return from Lyons, France, to this city, one or Two 
months after, I took pleasure in renewing you my respects and 
thanks of Gratitude, with my prayers and best wishes, for your 
health and happiness, but I am a fraid that the address, was not 
well directed, it was in the springs of 1856! if you received this 
letter, sir, please to accept the same Good prayers, and best 
wishes, for your precious health, & happiness. I have not heard 
a word, about your respected Name! Since my return Janry 

During this last session of congress, I sent a memorial well 
recommended to the Hon. Jeff Davis, who presented it in march 
last to the U. S. Senate, which was referred to the Committee 
on Claims! 

I claimed a remuneration of my services, in Lyons, as a U. S. 
Consul. During 3 years without any salary at all. it is Generally 
believed that congress will allow me the same that my successors 
Receive. 1000 Dollars per annum! for 3 years! I intend to wait 
on congress, some time in february, and see the Lucky candidate, 
that will be inauguarated on the 4th of March, John Bell, or 
Douglas! which I regard as the two stronger Candidate. My im- 
pression is, that Bell or Everett, will be the men! 

I would like to get your advice and oppinion about it. I see 
that old Friend Clingman is for Stephen A. Douglas, who is gain- 
ing every day. here is some Douglas Betts, viz. 

(From the Louisville Democrat.) 
$5,000 to Give away! 

We are authorised to offered a bet of 5,000, that Douglas, will 
beat Breckinridge 50,000 votes in indiana, if Breckinridge is 
such a National, Candidate this will readily be taken. 

2000 more to Give away! 

that New York will Give Douglas 100,000 more votes, than 

10 James Hendebert was consul at Lyons in 1849-1851. American Almanac, 1850, p. 128; 
1852, p. 135. 

The Mangum Papers 375 

1,000 more to give away! 

that Douglas received 75,000 more votes in Illinois than 

1,000 more to throw away! 

that Douglas received 100,000 more votes in Pennsylvania 
than Breckenridge. 

Still 1,000 more to Give away! 

that Douglas will beat Breckenridge in ohio — 75,000 votes. 
100 Dollars that Breckenridge will be Beaten in Maryland, in 
Virginia, in Tennessee, in North Carolina, the same in Georgia, 
in alabama, Louisiana, arkansas, Texas, florida. 

100 Dollars, on Every one, &c. &c. &c. &c. which are to numer- 
ous to mention. With hope that My letter will meet you in Good 
health, I remain your most Devoted and obedt. servt. and well 

For Ever, yours, 

J. Hendebert: 

Hon. Willie P. Mangum 
at Home. 

Leonard H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Helena Ark. Sep. 15th. 1860 
My Dear Cousin — 

It has indeed been a long time since I wrote to you; I scarcely 
know what excuse to frame for not writing sooner - shall I 
attribute my negligence to laziness? No! that will never do — 
that confession would be to candid — the plea of laziness would 
be disgracefull, for it, as well as idleness, is the parent of vice — 
What then shall I say caused my long silence? Politics! yes 
great political excitement in Arkansas! I have heard of nothing, 
thought of nothing, but politics for the last two months, and 
since the great excitement has somewhat abated — and the old 
Lion Democracy has come out of Our State elections triumphant 
— with the gallant Hindman at their head — and the Johnson & 
Sebastian party completely overthrown — I have quietly settled 

376 State Department of Archives and History 

down in my office again to attend to business — the first thing 
I think of is that my cousin Pattie's last letter remains unanswer- 
ed — So you must excuse me, as the first duty I performed after 
peaceably settling down in my domicile was to write to you. 

There is but little exitement felt here respecting the Presi- 
dential election Arkansas is certain to go for Breckenridge & 
Lane, without a doubt — I was at Memphis when Yancey, the 
great Southern Orator made his powerful speech in defence of 
himself and the cause of Breckenridge & Lane — Mr Yancey is 
beyond a doubt the greatest orator I ever listened to — his 
effort upon the occasion I have alluded to can not be surpassed 
it was indeed a masterly effort his points are so good, his illus- 
trations so beautiful, his logic so perfect, his eloquence so revivi- 
fying and soul-stirring, that with pleasure we listen & learn — 
Yancey is a great man though he is the subject of the most bitter 
and malign abuse, that his enemies can sum up, from their long 
catalogue of unkind denunciations — which all great politicians 
fall heir too — especially if they are independent and dare act 
and think for themselves — but he gallantly refutes the charges 
of treason and Dis-Union, that his foes prefer against him, and 
arises nobly above all their low and petty abuses — 

I saw a few days since in the Memphis papers that Uncle 
Willie's health was much better, which was very gratifying to 
me — I truly hope that the papers were correct — Who will Uncle 
vote for for President? I received a letter a short time ago from 
Sister Beck, at Paris, Ky, they were all well, and had enjoyed 
very good health since they had been in Ky. The health of this 
country during the year has been very good — I have not been 
sick a day — Crops are remarkably fine in this county — but in 
other potions of the state they has suffered very much on account 
of the drought — 

I received a letter yesterday from a Mr- Imbodin on business, 
in which he stated that he was a son in law of Uncle Walter's 
which was something I never knew before. I suppose he mar- 
ried lately — he said that he married E. B. Mangum — all of 
Uncle Walters family were well — 

Give my kindest love to all and accept much for yourself — 
Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain very truly — 

your affectionate cousin— 
L. H. Mangum 

The Mangum Papers 377 

William D. Lunsford 11 to Martha P. Mangum. 

Nov. 6th 1860 

Miss Martha, will inform her Father, that I left the election be- 
fore, the votes were counted, but have heard which I suppose 
is a correct statement which statement I will send below have 
not heard from any other precinct, but very much desire to hear. 

With Respect 

Wm. D. Lunsford. 

Bell 132 

Breck 22 

Douglas 9. 

Martha P. Mangum to Sally Alston (Mangum) Leach 

Orange Co. N. C. 
Nov. 9th 1860. 

My dearest Sister: 

I send your Ladies Book. We received this morning Adam 
Bede, and "The Mill on the Floss. ["] I hope to have the pleasure 
of reading one of them with you and Ella — perhaps both, as 
Father has one already, and this bookworm brother of mine has 
just left my side with the other. And it is well for I shall easily 
find quite enough to occupy my time. 

Father has been rather better I think much of the time since 
you left. Mother as usual — She keeps me busy when it is rain- 
ing trying to keep her out of the rain. 

You perhaps have more election news than we. However I 
will give you what we have from a dispatch from Raleigh. 
Lincoln has carried all of the northern states heard from, enough 
to make his election. Bell has carried gallant old Virginia & 
Kentucky. That is a victory at all events over which I rejoice. 
Will not Mr. Ridgeway glory over it? and in great part his 

n William D. Lunsford married Sarah Mangum, daughter of E. G. Mangum. Hillsborough 
Recorder, December 18, 1850. 

378 State Department of Archives and History 

work too. Breckenridge has Maryland, Delaware, & Louisiana. 

— This is all. Father went down of course to the election. . . . 12 

Your affectionate Sister 
M. P. Mangum. 

P.S. Please to ask Aunt Mary to send this letter to Mr. Neals to 
[illegible] by the first opportunity. 

M. P. M. 

Horner's Oxford Classical and Mathematical School. 13 

[23 November, 1860] 

This school has been under the charge of the present Prin- 
cipal for the last nine years, and has now attained that position 
which he has long desired it to occupy. In its character, it is 
strictly a Classical and Mathematical School, and none are ad- 
mitted but those wishing to pursue a regular Classical course of 
studies. The number of pupils is limited; and but one assistant 
instructor is employed whose business it is to hear a few recita- 
tions alternately with the principal and to assist the lower classes 
in the preparation of their lessons. Thorough Scholarship is the 
object chiefly aimed at, and no pupil will be retained longer 
than one session, who, from indolence or any other cause, can 
not be made a respectable Scholar. The Principal will strive, 
by training his pupils to habits of method and application, and 
by inculcating moral rectitude as the basis of character, with- 
out which good Scholarship is of little avail, to form in them 
those qualities which constitute a well regulated mind. 

The course of studies adopted and the method of instruction 
pursued, are designed not only to qualify boys to take a high 
stand at College, but they are also, it is believed, best calculated 
to impart sound and thorough scholarship to those who may 
not desire or expect to go to College. Latin and Greek are 
taught, not because they are prerequisites to admission into 
College, but because they are best adapted to accomplish the 
end of education. The Principal is satisfied, from his former 

^^Two paragraphs about garden seed and a local preacher are omitted. 
13 This is a printed circular about the famous Horner School. See above. 

The Mangum Papers 379 

experience in teaching, that, as a general rule, it is worse than 
a waste of time and money to send a boy to a boarding School 
to pursue an exclusively English course of studies. The ordinary 
and most useful branches of an English education are taught in 
his School, in connection with Latin and Greek. The more ad- 
vanced English branches can not be profitably taken up until 
the mind has become partially matured by age and disciplined 
to some extent by the study of Latin and Greek. 

Students will not be permitted to choose their boarding 
houses, but they must apply to the Principal, who will place 
such as he can not accommodate with board at suitable houses. 

The former success of the Principal in making Scholars, not- 
withstanding many disadvantages, justifies the expectation that, 
with his ample arrangements and the excellent system of text 
books now used in the School, he will be able to qualify all his 
pupils that can be induced to apply themselves, to compete for 
the highest honors in any institution. 

All the students are required to attend religious services in 
one of the Churches on Sunday. They are forbidden to visit the 
town without special permission, and on no occasion except to 
attend Church, will they be allowed to be absent from their 
rooms at night. They are expected to extinguish their lights at 
the appointed hour, and to be up and dressed in the morning, 
at sunrise. The use of tobacco in any form, is strictly prohibited, 
and no store account is to be made without the knowledge and 
consent of the Principal. A student will not be retained who 
frequently violates any of the above rules, is addicted to profane 
swearing or any other species of immorality, nor if he indulges 
at all in intoxicating drinks. 

Parents and guardians will be advised of the deportment 
and progress of their sons or wards regularly at the middle and 
close of each term — oftener, if circumstances may seem to 
require it. 

The building is commodious and handsomely furnished with 
chairs and desks. It stands upon an eminence beyond the 
corporate limits of the town and near the residence of the Prin- 
cipal. Two of the rooms are set apart for the use of the Literary 
Society connected with the School. The Society already has in 
its Library a considerable number of well selected books, and 
holds its sessions on Friday afternoon of each week. 

380 State Department of Archives and History 

The Scholastic year is composed of two terms of twenty 
weeks each. The Spring Term opens on the first Monday in 
January, and the Fall Term, the second Monday in July of each 
year. The entire charge for board and tuition, is ninety-five 
dollars a term. Payment by cash or bond, will be invariably 
required in advance. 

Applications for admission should be made before the open- 
ing of each Term, accompanied with a statement of the age 
and proficiency of the applicant. And it is earnestly hoped that 
no student will apply for admission who does not expect to 
comply cheerfully with all the regulations of the School, and 
to discharge every duty faithfully. 

J. H. Horner, A. M., Principal. 

Oxford, N. C, November 23, 1860. 

fig!? 3 For the satisfaction of those who may not be acquainted 
with the reputation of the School, the Principal is kindly per- 
mitted to make the following references: 

The President and Faculty of the University of N .C. 

Mr. W. J. Bingham, Oaks, Rev. Alex. Wilson, 

Orange, N. C. Melville, N. C. 

Hon. W. A. Graham, LL.D., Rt. Rev. Thomas Atkinson, 

Hillsboro, N. C. Bishop of N. C. 

Hon. E. G. Reade, Hon. Asa Biggs, 

Roxboro', N. C. Martin, N. C. 

Paul C. Cameron, Esq., Rev. Charles F. Deems, D.D., 

Orange, N. C. Wilson, N. C. 

Hon. R. B. Gilliam, Hon. A. W. Venable, 

Oxford, N. C. Granville, N. C. 

Hon. Sam J. Person, Rt. Rev. Wm. M. Green, D.D., 

Wilmington, N. C. Bishop of Miss. 

Gen. James W. Armstrong, Macon, Georgia. 
Oxford Classical and Mathematical School. 

Oxford, N. C, ) 

November 23, 1860.) 

Since Master 

has been absent from school times, tardy times, 

The Mangum Papers 


and has received demerits.* He has slept too 

late times. 

His realtive standing in scholarship is as follows, the number 
7 representing the highest grade, viz: 

In Latin, : 

Greek, : 

Mathematics, : 

English Grammar and Analysis, : 

Ancient and Modern Geography, : 

Ancient and Modern History, : 

Grecian and Roman Antiquities, : 

Composition, : 

Penmanship, : 

Spelling and Defining, : 

1 Reading and Declamation, : 

* One hundred Demerits are equivalent : 
to dismission. 


An Agreement of O. N. Allen with William Preston Mangum 

[1 January, 1861] 

I agree to pay to Wm. Preston Mangum at the rate of seventy 
five Dollars a year for the services of Edmund (servt) for the 
next four months commencing the 1st day of January 1861 At 
the expiration of said time I will hire his services to any one 
who will give more, or at the ruling rates at that time — pro- 
vided those rates are higher than $75. — Failing in this I will 
agree to keep him (Edmund) the balance of the year at Sixty 
Dollars, commencing the 1st day of Jany 1861 — or return him 
to his master on the 1st day of May 1861 

O. N. Allen 

382 State Department of Archives and History 

A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Salisbury, N. C. 
Jany 29th, 1861. 

My dear Cousin Pattie, 

So great was my haste on leaving home that I was forced to 
forego not only ceremony but even the pleasant adieu to many 
of my most intimate friends. And since I arrived here I have 
been so wonderfully busy that I have had little time to devote 
to the agreeable task of writing to my friends. You cannot 
easily conceive the difficulty of establishing one's self as the 
pastor of a new charge. So many acquaintances to form — so 
many homes of every variety to visit — so many caprices to 
nurse — so many suspicions to avoid or allay — -so much curiosity 
to encounter — so much expectation to gratify — &C — &C — is 
enough to make the old heart (not to say the young) quiver 
with dread & shrink with unwillingness. But I have passed the 
worst of this now, I think. I have formed the acquaintance of a 
very large number & expect soon to be through with that. I 
hope I have made a safe impression on the congregation. I am 
pleased with my charge & hope for a prosperous year. The 
political excitement is at a lower standard here, I think, than in 
Orange. All dread the future — but have hopes that there will 
be a settlement. 

We have in town at present the Bunyan Tableaux — a moving 
panorama of about 60 scenes in Pilgrim's Progress. I found on 
my table yesterday a complimentary season Ticket to "Rev. Mr. 
Mangum & family." Did you ever? — I expect to see them all 
tonight — but last night saw only a few of the closing scenes. 
It is truly wonderful. I sat entranced — perfectly entranced. Oh 
that you could see them! I hope you will write me very soon. 
Give my best love to all the family. 

Very truly 

A. W. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 383 

Willie P. Mangum, Jr., to Willie P. Mangum 1 

Washington D. C. Feb 17 th , 1861 

My Dear Uncle, 

Since my return to Washington my time has been so much 
occupied, and I have been so much perplexed by the deranged 
condition of my affairs incident to long absence and disappoint- 
ment in business matters, that I have again been led into that 
fault of mine, of delaying to write letters that ought not to be 
neglected a day, but having considerable faith in the classical 
maxim non qui bene coepit sed qui bene finit laudem meretur, I 
venture at this late day to do what I fear you have been vexed 
with me for not doing sooner. 

On my arrival here I found every thing in regard to the 
office arranged to my satisfaction, and was immediately matricu- 
lated, and entered at once upon the discharge of its duties, but 
a subbordinate position never being to my liking, and never 
thought of but as a matter of convenience to be stepped from 
the first opportunity, I have been laying my plans this winter to 
make a change for the better, which I will now tell you, trusting 
that they will meet with your approbation, and that I may rely 
upon your cooperation to bring them to a successful issue, for 
this I am confident that this is all that is needed for me to accom- 
plish my purpose. It is unnecessary to enter into the details of 
the miserably contemptible and narrow minded conduct of the 
democratic members of Congress from N. Carolina towards me 
two years ago, when I applied for an office here, for this is 
known to you, but there is one circumstance that I do not recol- 
lect to have mentioned. Burton Craig, who is a red mouthed, 
bitter, illiberal loco foco, was applied to by some of my friends 
in my behalf, and he declined to have anything to do with the 
matter; About that time the Consulship at the island of St. 
Thomas in the West Indies became vacant by the death of the 
incumbent, and I was thinking about making an attempt to 
secure the place, when Craig stepped in and obtained it for one 
of his loco foco constituents, by the name of Waring, 2 from 
Charlotte. Here is where I intend to strike, will triumph over 
that man if possible, and show to the narrowminded and illiberal 

^he original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
3 Robert P. Waring, a lawyer of Charlotte was appointed. American Almanac, 1860, p. 119; 
Livingston, U. S. Law Register, 1860, p. 719. 

384 State Department of Archives and History 

democrats of N. C. that the influence of my family name is still 
powerful in the land. 

The salary of this consulship is four thousand dollars per 
annum, half of which if not more I can save, and at the end of 
four years would have from eight to ten thousand dollars which 
with judicous management — and I think I have learned some 
wisdom by past experience — will make me independent for life. 
It will be of Infinite service to me to secure this place, and it is 
worth striving for, and prefer to obtain it through your influence 
and that of your old political friends and contemporaries. I 
think it impolitic to apply to the conservative members from 
N. C. now here, for if I mention it to one it will be discussed 
among all, and Gen Leach, 3 I was told today by a friend, wants 
something from the next administration, and he might try to 
throw some impediments in my way, it is best to run no risk 
there. A single letter from you to Gov Seward requesting the 
place for me, and one to Gen Scott who will be all powerful with 
the incoming administration, in consequence of the noble stand 
he has taken in the present national crisis, will beyond a doubt 
obtain it for me. 

Your relations with Gov Seward have always been of a 
most friendly character, and I know they are still so on his part 
towards you, for this I have been told very lately by a mutual 
friend of ours, and there is no doubt that it would give Gen Scott 
great pleasure to comply with any request you would make 
him. The next administration will unquestionably be conducted 
on the old whig principles of Henry Clay, and from the bottom 
of my heart I am rejoiced that the hypprocritical democratic 
party is broken and scattered and trampled under foot, and in 
spite of the reckless madness of its selfish and ambitious leaders 
and would be founders of States, that there is still conservatism 
enough in county to put them down and preserve the Govern- 
ment. I hope dear Uncle, my request will meet with your appro- 
bation, and that you will get Cousin Pat to write the letters 
immediately, and enclose them to me that I may deliver them 
in person. Dispatch, in these matters you know, is every thing. 
I trust that I will receive your letters by the latter part of next 
week, so that every thing may be arranged before the fourth of 
March, and if not inconvenient please put your own signature 
to them. 

8 James M. Leach was in Congress at rhis time. 

The Mangum Papers 385 

Fannie's health is much stronger and better than it has been 
for years, enclosed is a letter to Cousin Pat from her. Our friend 
Mr Goodloe is looking better and younger than I ever saw him. 
He requested me to remember him to you most kindly. All of 
your old friends are well, and whenever I meet any of them 
they make the kindest inquiries after you. My best love to Aunt 
Charity and Cousins. Hoping that your health continues com- 
fortable, and that all have been well since I left, I remain ever 

Most affectionately yr nephew 
W. P. Mangum Jr, 

L. H. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Helena, Ark. Feb. 19th, 1861 

My Dear Cousin — 

I have just returned from Little Rock. I went there with 
our Company for the purpose of assisting in taking the United 
States Arsinal — When I left for Little Rock I was quite well of 
my old Rheumatism that I had suffered with so much last Fall 
and first of the Winter, but camping out and undergoing other 
exposures has brought it back on me again, though this attack 
is not so serious as the last one — it was very imprudent for 
me going to Little Rock, but circumstances were such that I 
could not avoid it — our company being called out by the Gov- 
ernor — and I being a commissioned officer, and also expecting 
that we would come in contack with the U. S. troops under such 
circumstances no true Southerner could doubt his duty — and 
knowing would faile to performe it. The Arsinal (which by the 
bye is the richest in the South) was surrendered without blood- 
shed — Arkansas held her election yesterday for deligates to a 
State Convention. I am afraid Arkansas will not seceed. I am 
a Strong Separate State actionist and bitterly opposed to recon- 
struction. I heard from John and his family yesterday - — they 
were all very well. It makes me truly sad when I think of Uncles 
bad health — and I really trust that it will improve as the 
Spring approaches — Give my kindest love to all — and accept 
much for yourself. You must excuse this short and disconnected 

386 State Department of Archives and History 

letter, for there is a crowd of gentlemen in my office talking 
politics and receiving returns from the election from different 
potions of this county — I send you by todays mail my ambro- 
type — it is said to be a good one — my shoulders are a little 
cramped, from rheumatism — Hoping to hear from you soon 
I remaine. 

Your affectionate Cousin — 
L. H. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum Jr. to Martha P. Mangum. 

Washington April 1st, 1861 
My Dear Cousin Pat. 

I have but a moment to write you this morning, to say that 
I will run down to N. Carolina to see you all before I start for 
the "Celestial Empire" 4 of the pig tailed gentry. I can not think 
of leaving the Country on so long a voyage without seeing the 
"old folks at home" before I set out. Fannie of course will accom- 
pany me. With best love to all in which she joins me believe me 
as ever 

Most affectionately Yours 
W. P. Mangum, Jr. 

P.S. It will be several weeks before Fannie and myself can get 
ready to leave the country, and consequently I can't say exactly 
at what time I shall be with you 

W. P. M. 

E. S. White 5 to Martha P. Mangum 

Smithfield Johnston Cty 
May 29th 61. 
My Dear Pattie; 

I must again ask your forgiveness. When I received your 
kind letter I thought to answer soon. But procrastination is the 

4 On March 27.. 1861, Willie P. Mangum, Jr., was commissioned as United States Consul to 
Ningpo, China. He arrived in the midst of a revolution. In 1864, because of ill health, he 
returned to America. After recovering his health, he returned to China and then to Japan, 
where he served with distinction. Weeks, "Willie Person Mangum, Jr.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, 
V, 259-260. 

6 A relative of the Mangums. 

The Mangum Papers 387 

thief of time. I am anxious to know what you think of this 
unholy war? What will become of us, if the South can be con- 
quered. I don't think it can. Heaven keep us, from our ennimies. 
Enoch Wadsworth 6 has volunteered for the War. I feel so badly 
about him. He is just on the verge of manhood, and a more noble 
man never lived. I love him, as I would my own brother. Can 
I give him up to be taken away from us, in this unchristian strife. 
He is willing & anxious to fight, an ugly word dear Patt. How- 
ever it expressed my meaning just now. The War is on every 
one's lips. My Friends up here have all volunteered, and some 

My Cousin made us the visit, and we came up last friday. Her 
brothers look very handsome, in military costume. Captain 
Snead, bid us good bye a few days ago. He is a Cousin of mine. 
His Company was in Goldsboro' drilling, but was order off by 
the Gov. When I came up from N. Mrs. Lincoln's brother 7 was 
in the cars, and sat in front of me. He is a young man, hardly 
grown. He had on military costume, for the South, and looks 
like he would shoot in a minute, even his brother in law. Every 
third person was a soldier. You know the news better than I 
can tell you. I get the news though, every day, what little there 
is. Give my love, to all & answer me by next mail, and direct 
to Smithfield Johnston Cty. Excuse all defects dear Patt, and 
be certain to write me a few lines. 

Yours truly E. S. White 

C. F. Fisher to Captain Burton Craige 8 

Salisbury June 2d 61 
Dear Sir- 

You had better give your men special instruction - very 
clearly - to bring — 

6 Probably son of Edward Wadsworth who graduated at Randolph-Macon College in 1841 
and later became President of Southern University in Alabama. Richard Irby, History of Randolph- 
Macon College, Virginia. The Oldest Incorporated Methodist College in America, Richmond, 
n.d., 90; Wilbur D. Perry, A History of Birmingham-Southern College, 1856-1931, Nashville, 
1931, PP. 26-27. 

JMary Todd Lincoln's eldest brother, Levi Todd, and his half sister, Margaret Kellogg, 
remained loyal to the Union. Her youngest brother, George Todd, and three of her half 
brothers, Samuel, David, and Alexander, and the husbands of the three of her half sisters joined 
the Confederate Army. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, 1939, I. 270; II, 
199. 256. 

8 Colonel C. F. Fisher commanded the Confederate regiment in which Mangum's son was a 

388 State Department of Archives and History 

Two shirts — 
Two pr pantaloons 
Two pr. socks — 
Two handkerchiefs — 
One flannel shirt 
One coat — 
Each man to have his blankets washed & carefully dried — 

To Report in Salisbury by 8 Oclk on Wednesday morning 
next — 

Yours Truly 

C. F. Fisher 

Capt. Craige — 

You ought to send out carefully to notify all absent men of 
the order for rendezvous — & also urge them for the credit of 
the County to get more recruits. 

William Preston Mangum 9 to Martha P. Mangum 

[June, 1861] 
My Dear Sister 

I write in haste and like General Cass amid great noise 
and confusion. Orders were countermanded. We are to remain 
at Durhams perhaps two or three weeks, time uncertain. More 
troops in Raleigh now than they can well accommodate. We oc- 
cupy an academy about a quarter of a mile from Durham. With 
my overcoat and blanket I have managed to get along very well 
sleeping on the floor. My provisions gave out Saturday, but my 
mess were plentifully supplied with provisions packed up in 
boxes I believe mostly supplied by contribution, sugar coffee 
butter and other little things they brought from home them- 
selves. There is one very good cook in the mess accustomed 
to wagoning so we get on very well. There are no negroes with 
the exception of one of William Parrishes a boy a free negro 
with Mr. Webb and one with another mess. Andersons services 
were very acceptable, but as much as he is needed at home 1 

9 Although Mangum was opposed to secession, he supported the Confederacy after war started. 
He advised his only son, William Preston Mangum, to join the army. The son volunteered in 
Company B, Sixth North Carolina Regiment. Wounded at the First Battle of Manassas, he died 
July 28, 1861. Weeks. "W. P. M.," Biog. Hist, of N. C, V, 256. 

The Mangum Papers 389 

think we could get along very well without him. William was 
getting to be very serviceable. I think we could manage very 
well without Anderson I am afraid they will delay and leave 
out a good deal of corn land that ought to be planted as they do 
every year. We had a dinner here Saturday, Nash & Cameron 
spoke. Lincoln called for 40,000 more troops for five years, 
ports blockaded, they drew a very gloomy picture of our fu- 
ture that is that we were at the beginning of a long and pro- 
tracted civil war. They were nominated as candidates for the 
convention by a committee. I was very glad to get the comfort 
you sent. I have not had time to examine the trunk and see 
what else you did send. Mr. Cameron has sent meat and meal 
and by contributions and the State we will be supplied with flour 
meat sugar and coffee I suppose whatever we need. When any- 
one is passing with a wagon I wish you would send me a mat- 
tress and perhaps some coffee would be serviceable as it is un- 
certain when we will get our supply. The mattress can be rolled 
up buckled together and carried with me. We are drilling con- 
stantly, all in good spirits. I enclose a note 10 from Mr. Thomas 
Webb. I have the check, with a note and let me know if father 
does not think that I had best go to Raleigh friday and get the 
money. I write in great haste, but you can gather some idea 
of how we are getting on. I am glad you have your courage 
up to the sticking point, and are making such a shot but I am 
afraid you will not be able to beat me I fear we shall all have 
need of all our courage. Write soon by some one passing. 

Your affectionate Brother 
Wm. Preston Mangum 

P.S. I saw Mr. Patterson Saturday, he said he thought mat- 
ters would be settled peaceably. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

June 12th, [1861]. 
My Dear Sister, 

We are as I suppose you have heard at present stationed at 
the workshops. We will not probably remain here longer than 

10 Not in Mangum Papers. 

390 State Department of Archives and History 

two weeks at what time we leave is uncertain. Captain Webb 11 
has given me permission to go home on thursday morning the 
13th. I will be at Durhams at 2 oclock. Please send Anderson or 
Mr. Parrish with the carriage. If they are using all the horses 
you can send to Mr. Hamptons and get one as Liet. Hampton is 
coming with me. The carriagge may be sent on as early as pos- 
sible as we may perhaps get off by the express early in the 
morning. Whatever there is of interest, I can let you know 
easier viva voce than by writing when I reach home. 

[William Preston Mangum] 

Wm. Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

[June, 1861] 

My dear Sister, 

We reached Durhams about a half an hour too late for the 
express. The train leaves at 2 oclock and the only train to- 
morrow is the express due at Hillsboro about 5 oclock. I am 
very sorry that I cannot see you and tell you all good bye once 
more. But I think it would be better to attend to my business 
at Raleigh as I may not have another opportunity. You had 
best send my carpet bag this evening or very early in the morn- 
ing and let William carry them to Hillsborough and get my 
uniform there, and If he can see him inquire at Lynchs for 
Capt. Freelands watch. Please be sure to put up all my clothes 
and the moulds If you can find them. We will probably leave 
Monday. No news of any importance. Please send me a few 
eggs or anything else you can. I am very sorry that I cant tell 
Father and all Goodbye, but I will write as soon as we reach 
our destination. 

Your affectionate Brother 
Wm. Preston Mangum. 

[Endorsed : ] 

Wm. Preston Mangum 
To Miss M. P Mangum. 

"Captain Robert F. Webb, who married the daughter of E. G. Mangum, was the commander 
of William Preston Mangum's company. Hillsborough Recorder, January 24, 1849. See also 
below, Robert F. Webb to Martha P. Mangum, June 30. July 22, 1861. 

The Mangum Papers 391 

Robt. F. Webb to Martha P. Mangum 12 

Camp Alamance Cos. Shop 
June 30, 1861. 
Miss Martha. 

I have concluded that a few lines would be interesting from 
me this afternoon, from the fact that I heard a most excellent 
Sermon this morning from Pro. Philip and have eaten a good 
dinner, the camp being perfectly quiet and feelings prety gen- 
erally in a good humor and also to tell you some good news 
now, the question comes up wether to tell you the news first or 
go on with somthing that will not have one particle of sense 
in it. Now it is a secret and you must appreciate my telling you 
one that is you may tell your Father Mother and Sisters or any 
body else but please dont have my name connected with it. I 
have after considerable effort suceded in getting your Brother 
Preston an appointment in this Regiment as 2nd Lieutenant. 
I know it will gladden your fathers heart, "as it is an honorable 
position for a young man" hundreds of young men in the State 
of the best families desired it, but when we asked for it in the 
name of one of North Carolinas greatest Statesmen the appeal 
was irrisistible and we suceeded. I cannot stop this yarn with- 
out saying that Preston has been one of the best Soldiers in our 
company never shrinking from any duty and always at his post 
and if you don't find a new man after I am done with Lieut 
Mangum than I am mistaken that all/ 

I have concluded like Artemus Ward that writing letters is 
not my fort. I make a most miserable out at it, so dont make 
fun at me. I have too much to do to devote anytime to writing 
letters and not withstanding I commenced in a perfect good 
humour I am afraid that I cannot hold out until I finish this. I 
am Senier Captain consequently forth in command, as we have 
no staff officers here today I am in command, where are eight 
hundred men to manage, officers harder to manage than the men, 
every pass has to be endorsed, every order must come from head 
quarters, it is captain this captain that, until I am sick of the 
name. I believe I had started to say something but had to stop 
to sign a pass I am worked very hard here drilling nearly seven 

^See above. William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum, June 12, 1861. The North 
Carolina Railroad shops in Alamance County were located at what is today Burlington. Walter 
Clark, North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865 I, 338. 

392 State Department of Archives and History 

hours every day and having others heavy duties to perform this 
is certainly one of the finest Regiments I ever saw — we are 
regulars and keep up a strict military discipline, in another 
months the New York 7. would not come up with us in the 
drill and in material we are their superior and could whip two 
such regs. now our company now ranks letter to the first posi- 
tion in the regiment we are making every effort to get away and 
will probably leave in about three days where we are going I 
dont know but you may rely upon an invasion of the North we 
are prity generally healthy only thirteen reported on the sick 
list this morning and not one from my company. 

I wish you would see Amanda 13 for me and try and console 
her. I know she must be in trouble on my account, try and get 
her to write to me. I bear this life very well but I don't dare 
to think of home and little ones it is terible to be torn from Home 
and family but more terible will our vengeance be upon those 
who have caused it give my best regards to your Father. My 
respects to your Mother and Mary. 

Please write to me and give me the news — and if any thing 
takes place of importance I will write you again 

Truly your Friend 

Robt. F. Webb. 

Wharton J. Green H to Willie P. Mangum. 

Warrenton N. C. July 1st, 1861. 
Hon. Willie P. Mangum 

My Dear Sir, 

Your esteemed favor of the 29th ult. was this day reed, 
and I hasten to reply by return of mail. Your conjecture as to 
my identity is correct, and I will also add that when a boy I had 
the honor of Senator Mangum's acquaintance. 

I am happy to see that so distinguished a man as yourself 
should set so high an estimate upon the command to which I 

"Daughter of E. G. Mangum and wife of Captain Webb. 

14 Son of General T. J. Green, Wharton J. Green, 1831-1910, was practicing law with 
Robert J. Walker when war commenced. After North Carolina seceded, he organized the 
Warren Guards. He was captured at Roanoke Island, released, and again captured at Gettysburg. 
In 1882 he was elected to Congress. Ashe. Biog. Hist, of N. C, II, 120-125; Biog Dir. of Cong., 

The Mangum Papers 393 

have the honor to be attached and so just an appreciation of the 
character of the man whom I'm proud to style our leader. Rela- 
tive to the favor which you request for your Son I fear however 
that it is out of my power to speak with certainty, as I under- 
stand that all regimental appointments, staff inclusive, are re- 
served by our General to himself. Should such prove to be the 
case I doubt not that a line from yourself would secure him a 
place in our regt. and rest assured my dear Sir that if I possess 
any influence in that quarter it shall not be wanting to advance 
the interest of the son of one of my Father's most valued friends. 
If I'm entitled to an aide I promise him that position in advance 
if it be acceptable to him. More anon — 

A part of my regt. will leave day after tomorrow for Rich- 
mond to be mustered into the service of the Confederate States 
and be moved thence into camp at Lewisburg, Gen. Wise's 
present headquarters. Although I have had two to one more 
companies tendered than one regiment to make up my command, 
it is nevertheless not yet full owing to the difficulty of moving 
volunteers as soon as I desire. Should you know of a fine volun- 
teer co. in your part of the State, I am sanguine that your 
influence and personal popularity could secure your son a Lieu- 
tenant's commission therein and the Co. to our " legion." Since 
commencing this orders have arrived from Gen. J. Lucius Davis, 
Adjutant Genl. of Wise's legion, requiring corn's attached to 
my command to report to the office in Richmond in order to be 
mustered in and thence moved into camp of Instruction at Lewis- 
burg Greenbrier county. 

My Father joins me in the best wishes for you and your's. 

In haste your friend & obt. Sevt. 

Wharton J. Green 

Col. Comdg. N. C. regt. 
Wise's Legion. 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

Company Shops July 2nd. 1861. 
My Dear Sister 

I have intended writing several times but have been so much 
occupied and there has been so much uncertainty regarding our 

394 State Department of Archives and History 

movements that I thought I would defer it until I could give you 
some certain information. We are commanded to remain here 
until further orders but when we will leave is still uncertain. I 
hope we will remain long enough for me to get an opportunity 
to see you all once more. I hope that whenever or wherever we 
go that we shall perform our duty like men and give no reason 
for our friends at home to be ashamed of us. No one knows how 
much they think of home and those at home until time and 
absence and the uncertainty of life reveals it to them. The Capt 
and officers have recommended me to Col. Fisher and he prom- 
ised me the office of 3rd Lieutenant. He does not desire to speak 
of it at present. I suppose on account of the number of disap- 
pointed applicants. Among whom were Alex. Kirkland and 
others I mentioned to you. You had better not speak of it at 
present. Even if I could get another appointment. I suppose 
it would be preferable to remain in my own company under the 
circumstances. The Capt has acted very kindly in this matter. 
We have received arms and are drilling constantly. A great 
many ladies are visiting the camp every day. A great many 
were up from Hillsboro the other day to see the review. Write 
soon tell me how everything is getting on and give me any late 
news you have and whether Father thinks there is any prospect 
of peace. We get many flying reports but very little reliable 
information, here. Love to Mother Sister Mary and all 

Your affectionate Brother. 
Wm. Preston Mangum. 

P.S. I think it would be better for Mr. Umstead to thrash grind 
our wheat and sell the flour. I spoke to him about it and he said 
he would attend to it but I had best write to you about it. I 
would at least have it thrashed and made into flour as soon as 
possible and let him sell it, and try to meet the payment the 
3rd of August. 

W. P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 395 


Willie P. Mangum to Col. Wharton J. Green 15 

Orange Co. N. C. 
July 16 th . 1861. 

To Col. Green. 

My dear Sir. 

Your prompt and very kind response to my request was 
most gratifying to me. and will be I know to my son whose 
regiment Col Fishers however, had left before the reception of 
your letter — thogh it ws suppsed tat it wold reman hee fr sme 
weks. owing to its detention on the routes — and orders for the 
departure of the Reg — earlier than anticipated — indeed — it was 
supposed probably that they would be here some weeks longer. 
On the eve of their departure very unexpectedly to my son and 
unsolicited by him — . his officers asked and obtained a commis- 
sion for him for Lieut. The whole thing was so handsomely done, 
and was so honorable to him the same office having been much 
sought after by other young men of Character & position that he 
would feel con [s] trained to remain with them now. — Yet, I 
should greatly prefer his having a similar appointment in your 
Reg. for the reasons before given to you. — but circumstances 
have otherwise determined. But I am none the less obliged to 
you my dear Sir, for your kind assurances of assistance, especial- 
ly the flattering offer for so young a man of making him your 
aid if that place should be at your disposal. Be assured that we 
truly appreciate and will remember with pleasure your kindly 
interest. All of our organized Companies have left. There are 
3 or 4 Companies organizing in Orange, but it will be long before 
they are ready for service. 

Present my esteem and respects most respectfully to Mrs. 
Green — your Mother — and your excellent wife — & Accept for 
your Father and yourself my most affectionate regards. I should 
be glad to hear from you at any time when your leisure and 
inclination would allow. 

Yours most truly 
Willie P. Mangum. 

"Apparently this is a draft of a letter which may have been sent. The draft is in the pos- 
session of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. In the fourth line of the letter the phrase 
'though it was supposed it would remain here for some weeks" has been marked through. 

396 State Department of Archives and History 

William Preston Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Winchester Wednesday July 17th 61 
My Dear Sister. 

We left Raleigh last thursday and reached Petersburg that 
night — after breakfast we left next morning for Richmond, and 
left late Saturday evening travelled all night and passed man- 
assas junction where General Beauregard is encamped and 
strongly fortified Sunday about eleven oclock we remained there 
until early monday morning and stayed at Strasburg eighteen 
miles from, Monday night and marched by turnpike next day 
to Winchester, we all suffered much from fatigue and want of 
food and the bad weather. But soldiers must become accustomed 
to privations, we expected an attack as the Yankees were said 
to be advancing. But today we hear that they have left their 
camp and retreated. We may have a fight any day, there are 
from 25 to thirty thousand men here, all in good spirits: several 
acquaintances of mine. I write in great haste as I want a mem- 
ber of the Sal. Band to leave this at Durhams. Direct your letter 
to Co. B. 6th inf. N.C. State troops. Fishers regiment. 

Your affectionate Brother 
W. P. Mangum 

P.S. Please send me $15 or $20 by mail I am entirely out 
as I had to Buy a sword and other things at high prices. 

Robert F. Webb to Willie P. Mangum. 16 

Mannassa July 22, 1861. 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

Dear Sir 

The great Battle of Southern independence has been 
fought We are victorious but at a heavy cost. Our regiment has 
nobly done its duty being in the thickest of the fight and sub- 
staining a heavy loss. It is my sad duty to inform you that Pres- 

16 This note was written in pencil. For Avery's account of William Preston Mangum's death 
see Clark, North Carolina Regts., 1861-1865, I, 345-346. 

The Mangum Papers 397 

ton was badly wounded but not dangerous - he owes his life to 
a Bible he had in his bosom the ball did not enter, the Surgeons 
assure me he will get well- I can testify to his galantry, he was 
one of few who charged Shermans Battery, and took it he was 
standing by me at the time at the Gun when he was shot I can- 
not tell how many men we have lost. Our Coin, was kild so was 
Gen. Bee of our Brigade- Jim Carington was wounded in the 
hip. David Roberts in the thigh badly, Van Oakey was kild 
Several in the old Flat River Guards were slightly wounded. 
Thank God, I was not hit, every thing here is in a glorious con- 
fusion. We have taken forty pieces Artillery - they were com- 
pletely routed sustaining a frightful loss I was the only field 
officer not hit - we are in a bad plight the Battle lasted from 
early dawn until Sunset and was terible throughout. Give my 
love to every body 

Yours Truly 

the guns captured by our men are not sertain to be Shermans, 
but we took the guns. 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

July 24th 1861 

We are all excitement about the war news. I give cous. 
Pattie the news as we get it. 

A battle was fought at Manassas Junction last Thursday 
between our forces commanded by Gen. Beauregard & the 
Yankees under old Scott, we repulsed them with small loss on 
our side & heavy loss on theirs. The battle was renewed on 
Friday & report says we were partially repulsed, or we fell 
back for the want of ammunition. 

On Sunday morning the Yankees asked for a truce in order 
to burry the dead, but it was ascertained they secretly com- 
menced fortifying themselves. As soon as our Generals ascer- 
tained this, they attacked them at 10 Oclock with forty thou- 
sand men & drove them back to Alexandria. Scott had One 
hundred thousand men & we Forty thousand, our loss in killed 
& wounded, five thousand, & theirs Fifteen thousand. 

398 State Department of Archives and History 

General Lee, Beauregard, & President Davis were all on 
the field during the battle & what makes us most uneasy is, it 
is certain that Col. Fishers Reg. was in the battle. This Reg. and 
other troops were brought from Winchester as soon as it was 
ascertained that they were concentrating against Beauregard. 
The battle lasted till 7 oclock at in the evening. Several dis- 
tinguished S. Carolinian field officers reported killed. 

As soon as we learn for certain that our Reg. was in the 
battle, we are going to send one or two on to see who are hurt 
& killed. We got this news from Raleigh & from Durhams & 
is believed to be true. 

Very respectfully 
Addison Mangum. 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum 

[July, 1861] 
Cous. Pattie. 

Our victory is complete, we took all the enemy's guns & bat- 
tery. Mr. McM. 17 writes that our Reg. captured the famous 
Sherman Battery, killing all the gunners 

The Elsworth Zouave Reg. lost 900 of their Regiments several 
N. York Regs, almost annihilated. 

Preston, Andrew Roberts & Simmy Carrington are our 

Mr. McM. writes that Preston is in Richmond well cared 
for. He saw the bible, it is half cut to pieces the ball entered 
his side near the heart but did not penetrate far & has been ex- 
tracted & he is entirely out of danger. The enemy lost 7 to our 
one in killed & wounded. Our killed is put down at 500. 

News that we have taken Alexandria. Also a Revolution 
against the gov. in Washington 

Myself, Wm Lunsford & Wesley Mangum are starting for 
Richmond. Nannie sends Preston a bottle of wine 

In regard to groceries, we can furnish you with whatever 
you need either for barter, or on time. We have a good supply 
of sugar. 

17 He probably refers to the Reverend John A. McMannin, a Methodist minister of Orange 
County, who went to the battlefield soon after the battle was over. 

The Mangum Papers 399 

Excuse haste as we are starting & Nannie wants to see you 
concerning the meeting, thinks you must make the speech. We 
ought to return in about 4 days. 

A. Mangum 

Addison Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

July 25th, 1861. 

We suppose Cous. Pattie & all are unhappy under the news 
from the seat of war. 

Mrs William Harris has received a letter from Mr. Harris 
who is with the army, in which he gives the death of Col. Fisher. 
We understand he does not name the wounding or the death of 
any other member of our Reg. or Company. It seems he could 
have known who got hurt immediately after the battle, as we 
remained in possession of the field. 

We therefore hope that the alarming rumour as to the fate 
of our Company is a mistake. Mr. McManin & others have al- 
ready gone on to Manassas to bring home our wounded if any. 
Mr. Umstead spoke yesterday of going on today & I tell Ander- 
son to go over & see him. 

We are all in an unhappy state of suspense. If we receive 
any news of importance today I will let you hear from me. 

Yours &c 
A. Mangum. 

Martha P. Mangum to William Preston Mangum 

Home Orange Co. N. C. 
July 25th. 1861. 
My dear Brother. 

I received your letter last evening and send the money as 
you request. 

With the intelligence of our great victory - comes that of the 
death of our Col.- and the rumor that our Company is cut to 

400 State Department of Archives and History 

pieces. I cannot express the intensity of our anxiety in regard 
to you - Yet, another day or two must relieve it or confirm our 
worst fears. Tis a glorious cause in which to die! - but may 
we not trust that our only one will be spared to us? — Let us hear 
from you soon — With our tenderest love for you my dear 
Brother, I am, 

Your most affectionate 

M. P. Mangum. 

P.S. Father and Mother you know- must be affected by 
this afflicting news - and dreadful suspense. — But their health 
not so much affected as we at first feared. — Rest well. 

M. P. M. 

[Simeon Carrington] to Martha P. Mangum 

Louisa C. H. Va. July 25th 1861 

I write you a few lines for Preston to let you know where 
he is and how he is getting on at present we are at Louisa C. H. 
about seventy miles from Manassas where we fought that vic- 
torious battle. It is on the road to Richmond Preston is badly 
wounded but the Doctors think he will recover and I think so. 
we are comfortably situated and well managed. I am wounded 
myself and as soon as he gets able [to] travel we will try to come 
home. Preston wants to [know] whether you received his letter 
he wrote from Winchester or not he said he wrote from there. 18 

P.S. 19 I am badly wounded with a grapeshot in the left 
breast My small pocket bible was torn about half in two and 
the shot glanced and tore off the flesh for a space as large as my 
hand, but I have been well attended to and am much better. I 
saw Col. Leach at Manassas and he sent his surgeon to dress the 
wound. He said I could stay in his tent and be well cared for but 
I wanted to get a little nearer home. The battle was a very hard 
fought one — but the yankees were whipped and pursued several 

18 This was probably written by Sim Carrington, Mangum's cousin, who was also wounded 
in the battle. 

10 This part is in William Preston Mangum's handwriting. 

The Mangum Papers 401 

miles broke down the bridge over to potomac deserted Alex- 
andria and have taken possession of Arlington heights and are 
said to be fighting among themselves. Only one of our company 
was killed named Okey. Col Fisher was killed. Cou. Simeon 
Carrington was shot through the thigh with a large hole but has 
had it cut out and is in fine spirits. Dave Roberts was wounded 
slightly in the leg. We are all at Mr Waggners. Please write 
immediately and direct it to Louisa courthouse care of Mr. 
Waggner. Send me some money If you can I am entirely out I 
was told to apply to Col. Fisher before we left Winchester but I 
did not like to trouble him while he was so much harassed with 
business, we have had a series of hard marches since we left 
the state and only reached Manassus fatigued and hungry in 
time to get to the battlefield. I hope I shall see you all once more. 

Your affectionate Brother, 
W. Preston Mangum 

William D. Lunsford 20 to Martha P. Mangum. 

July 25th 1861. 

Miss Pattie 

I wish to inform you that I went over to hear from a letter 
to Mrs. W. K. Parrish, but learned it was written before the 
Battle, but have heard from a very reliable source about three 
of Col. Fishers Regiment was badly cut up. Ours was one of 
them, and Lieut Mcmannen was killed and Lieut Col Lightfoot 
was badly wounded, but not mortally Nothing from the remain- 
der of our Comp but that they fough[t] with a desperation such 
as the world never saw, it is said some of them after having one 
arm shot off tried to rais ther guns, and said they wanted to shoot 
another Yankee, nothing more. I expect to leave this evening 
for Manassas to assist in bringing home the wounded. 

Very Respectfully 
Wm. D. Lunsford. 

^See above, 377. Colonel Charles E. Lightfoot mentioned in the letter was a Virginian who 
enlisted at Hillsboro where he was teaching when the war came. His conduct in the battle was 
criticized. Clark, North Carolina Regis., 1861-1863, I, 344; V, 582-583, 641. 

402 State Department of Archives and History 

J. P. Moore to Willie P. Mangum. 

Mt. Tirzah July 26th 61 
Hon. W. P. Mangum 

My dear Sir. 

I am just from Manassas, was present at the battles of 
18th & 23d inst, and as your son was in the battle of 23d [sic] 
and was wounded, I hasten to give you the particulars. He was 
in Col. Fishers Regiment and was in the charge on the Sherman 
Battery. He was wounded in the left brest, but, not dangerously. 
I visited him twice and found him comfortable and doing well. 
His Bible, which I send with this, saved his life. It was struck 
by a minnie ball the force of which was broken & also turned 
in its direction. The wound is severe, but, by no means danger- 
ous. He was directed to be sent to Richmond and is doubtless 
there before this. As I came through I mad arrangements for 
him at the house of Mr. Johnston who kindly proposed to take 
care of him at his private residence. I had Mr. Johnstons card 
with directions, to guide to his house but lost it by having my 
pocket picked. You will find no difficulty in finding his house if 
you will apply to the Superintendent of arrangements, for the 
wounded. Mr. Johnston is somewher on Markett Street. 

In haste, 
Yours truly 
J. P. Moore. 

A. W Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

Louisa C. H. Va 
July 27th, 1861. 

Cousin Pattie 

I'm just here where William, Sim Carrington & David Rob- 
erts are receiving kind attention from the good family of Rev. 
Mr. Waggoner. Williams is better today. Simeon Carrington & 
David Roberts are both wounded in the thigh but are up & doing 

The Mangum Papers 403 

very well. You must come to see William as he will be confined 
some time at best. Bring him a shirt or two & some drawers. 
Allen Tilley & Guilford Laws shot some in the hand — Guilford 
Laws slight wound in the leg — Sam Turrentine is a little bruis- 
ed. No others wounded in our Company. "Van Oakey" of the 
F. R. [Flat River] Guards killed. Don't be uneasy about William 
as everything is done for him. But you should come to see him. 
You will have to stop in Richmond at the Exchange Hotel where 
you will find Mr. Venable who will get you a passport. However 
as it is only to go to Louisa Court House you may not need any 

Dr. James Cain was here today & is only gone up to Manass- 
as — will be back soon. 

Very truly 

A. W. Mangum. 

Simeon & David are not very seriously wounded. 

Josiah Turner Jr. 21 to Willie P. Mangum. 

Sunday Night 
July 28th, 1861 

My dear Sir: 

I am upon the great Battle ground of the continent. 

I saw your son at Louisa Court house badly wounded. I had 
only time to embrace and kiss him for his Mother and his Sisters. 
He spoke as if he was certain of geting well. 

Official reports will represent him as behaveing gallantly 
because he was wounded. I can assure you of the gallant part 
he bore — because I have it from the men who followed him 
right to the mouth of Rickets Batery where William fell, order- 
ing his men to charge upon the enemy. 

His wound was painful yet the humblest men speak admir- 
ingly of the patient and heroic manner he bore his suffering. 

How any man of his or Capt. Freelands Company escaped 
I cannot see 

21 See above, 350. The Captain Freeland referred to in the letter was Captain W. G. Free- 
land, Company C, 6th North Carolina Regiment, of Orange County. 

404 State Department of Archives and History 

Say what you will the old Guard and no other guard ever 
made such a charge — 

It is two days since I saw William, I trust he may soon re- 
cover and soon return to receive the blessings of dear ones at 

With good wishes and Gods blessing on your son, I subscribe 
myself as you know I am 

Yours very truly 
Josiah Turner Jr 

Martha Person Mangum to William Preston Mangum 22 

Home. N. C. 
July. 29 th . 1861 
My Dearest Brother: 

I know not until this moment that William Carrington was 
going on — and as he leaves at once I have time but for a line. 
I wish we had have known sooner, so that we might have sent 
you a basket of figs. — I know they would be grateful to you 
from home. — 

We should like of all things to have you write us — if it 
would be as well for you, and would not be inconsistant with the 
regulations and wishes of the authorities. 

I fear you are suffering more than our friends permitted 
us to believe at first. 

We long for mail day to come, as Mr. Musted and Dr. Holt — 
who have just returned from Richmond — & would have gone 
on to see you could they have had permission — promise us more 
special and minute information in regard to you from Adolphus 
Mangum — and we hear too, that Cousin James Cain has gone 
on to see you — from whom we hope to hear also. 

Father and Mother not so well as usual — yet not sick. All 
unite in warmest love to you my dearest Brother. 

Your tenderly affectionate Sister 
M. P. Mangum 

P. S. I enclosed $20 to you to Manassas junction last week. Mr. 
Parrish desired me to give kindly messages to you from him. 

2a The orginal is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

Pocket Bible of Lieutenant William Preston Mangum, C. S. A., given him by his sister, Pattie. 

He had it on his person at the First Manassas where it was pierced by the bullet which caused 

his mortal wound. From the original in the possession of Miss Sallie Preston Weeks. 

Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 405 

Mr. Wilkins is here now to hear from you. All our friends have 
evinced the kindliest interest in you. We were glad to hear 
from your Major that he could testify to your gallantry — but 
we expected no less. Again 

Yours with tendest affection 
M. P. Mangum 

A. W. Mangum to Martha and Mary Mangum. 

Louisa C. H. Va. 
July 30th, 1861. 

Cousin Pattie & Mary, 

In the fearful bereavement which bleeds your hearts, I 
know that it will relieve you to hear of the pious resignation 
with which your brother met his early fate. I hurried to this 
place on last Saturday morning, since which time I was with 
him a great deal until his death. I talked to him about his religi- 
ous feelings & prospects — And he told me that he trusted in God 
— & I asked him if he did not feel that he was accepted & he an- 
swered "I hope so." After that, I told him of another who was ter- 
ribly wounded who had told me that he believed God had par- 
doned him since he was wounded &c. & then Preston said to me 
"The mercy of God has blessed me by embracing me among those 
who shall enjoy eternal life. I believe his mercy is supreme 
as far as miserable sinners — ." Here his breath was so short 
that he stopped. On yesterday he said to us — "I love God — I 
love Christ." Asked if his trust was in God, he said "O, Yes! 
O, yes." On yesterday he also said to his servant in the presence 
of Cousin Marcus "There is a place where the wicked cease 
to trouble & the weary are forever at rest." In his last few 
hours he delivered a splendid and beautiful eulogium on the 
Bible. He spoke of its history — its poetry, &c. He spoke of 
Joseph's history and of the poetry of the Psalms. He spoke of 
the sufficiency of the Scriptures in trial &c — consoling in 
every trouble. At one time he became so excited in his remarks 
that he stretched out his hand in earnest gesticulation. Other 
things will be mentioned to you by Dr. Cain & Brother. I 
expect to come home in a short time. I received a note from 

406 State Department of Archives and History 

Mr. Webb yesterday to come to Manassas by all means before 
I return. I will there endeavor to get Preston's hat, pistol, & 
any thing else he had there. Deeply do I sympathize & keenly 
do I feel his early fall. But it could not be averted. Since I 
have been here he has reed, most excellent attention. Besides 
fine resident physicians I brought down Dr. Johnson of Raleigh, 
our Surgeon General — & Dr. Skinner of Warrenton both of 
whom are extraordinary men. 

The Campaign cost him his life but it saved his soul. God 
grant that it may be farther sanctified by saving those of his 
friends who were nearest to his heart. When writing to Sister 
Mandy yesterday, I asked him if he had any message to send 
you all & he said "tell them I would like to see them all again 
but don't know whether I shall" or some such words. He told 
me that if he recovered he was resolved to live rightly till he 

You have the assurance that he acted nobly, — he was a 
true hero and patriot — he proved it in that bloody field — he 
told me that though he did not shoot, he rallied his men, taught 
them how to load, &c. He remarked that if ever he entered 
another field he would take a musket. He criticized Col. 
Fisher's course on that day &c. He is saved by that Bible of 
which you remarked "Bibles have turned balls & may do so 
again." How fortunate I did not get that little Testament! He 
might have been killed instantly. 

I will come to see you as soon as I reach home. With the 
tenderest sympathy 

Yours most sincerely 
A. W. Mangum 

Paul C. Cameron to Martha P. Mangum. 

Hillsboro, Wed. 12 O'clock 
[31 July 1861] 
My Dear Miss Patty — 

The enclosed Message was handed me at the Raleigh Station 
as I passed this morning. I send a Servant to take it to you — 
haveing learnt that you had been in Hillsboro I left to come to 

The Mangum Papers 407 

your stricken parents the painful intelligence of the death of 
their only son — 

I should mention that I left instructions by way of suggestion 
at the Durham Station that the remains should be brought on 
to Hillsboro in the Express Train — that I would have the Town 
Herse at the Station to meet them, and make all the arrange- 
ments for removal home — Hope that my suggestions will be 
taken as it is every way the best as to distance, time and 
attendance — 

The sympathy of friends in a time like this can do but little 
to sustain you all in your affliction — I can only tell you that I do 
sorrow with you all most sincerely — and deeply deplore the 
death of your brother — 

With sincere sympathy for you all — faithfully 

Your friend — 
Paul C. Cameron 

Telegram of John Jarratt & Brother to B. F. Moore 

[31 July, 1861] 

Received at Raleigh, July 31, 1861, at 8 o'clock, 25 minutes. By 
Telegraph from Petersburg To B. F. Moore. 

The remains of Lieut W P Mangum will reach home this 
evening — Mr. Moore or some friend of Hon W. P. Mangum 
will send this Message to Durhams Depot by the Mail train 
that leaves this morning so as to inform Mr. Mangum of the 
arrival of his son's remains. 

John Jarratt & Bro. 

P. C. Cameron to Martha P. Mangum. 

[31 July, 1861] 

Hillsboro, Vz after 6. 

o'clock - Wed Eve — 
My Dear Miss Pattie. 

I deem it proper to inform you that the Express train is 
up & without the remains of your brother — "No connexion" 

408 State Department of Archives and History 

made this afternoon at 4 o'clock at Raleigh between the N. C. 
R.R & the R. & Gaston R R — from what cause we know not — 

We expect now to receive the remains at this place — on 
tomorrow at 11 o'clock, by Mail Train if so will arrive at Home 
at home [sic] at 4 or 5 o'clock tomorrow afternoon — 

Here this afternoon under the expectation that the remains 
would be delivered to us a large part of the population of the 
place assembled at the Depot to receive them — They will no 
doubt be attended from here on tomorrow by an escort of our 
citizens — 

I will send this as far as Mr 8 . Whites with a request that 
one of her Servants may take it to your fathers as my boy is 
ignorant of the way. 

Your friend 
P. C. Cameron- 

M. E. Wadsworth 25 to Martha P. Mangum 

July 31st, 1861. 

My Dear Pattie 

I received your most welcome letter with unfeigned pleasure, 
& thought at the time, & felt too, that I would write to you 
immediately, but alas! procrastination has kept me stolen away 
from my writing desk until the present moment. 

I feel like I want to say a world of things & dont know 
how to begin to put down the first. But in the first place, I am 
so much grattified that you wrote to me for Mother; I write 
to her time after time, & sister writes also, & we rarely ever 
know whether she receives our letters or not the oftenest we 
know is through you; I wish she could write, but her rheuma- 
tism & want of habit, in writing, I suppose prevents her from 
doing so. I feel so sorry that she will live alone so much, she 
seems to be fond of company, & I wish she could have it 
oftener, I should certainly visit her every three or four months 
if we lived nearer each other, or even if she lived in Hillsboro 
I would go oftener. And in fact I would go oftener any way if 

^See above, 387n. The Captain Brookfield referred to in the letter was Captain Jacob 
Brookfield, Company D, 5 th North Carolina Regiment. The Colonel McKee mentioned was 
Colonel Duncan K. McKee. 

The Mangum Papers 409 

it did not take such little fortunes to get about on the Rail Road 
with, & money don't grow on trees in this part of the country. 

As the war is the topic of the day I cant write longer without 
bringing it in, & yet what can I say, but deplore the fact of 
its being so, that we are in a state of war, & at the same time 
rejoice that we have as yet, so gloriously, but so dearly gained 
the victory over those heartless & incorigable Yankies, who 
are so recklessly endeabouring to lay waste, desolate, & forlorn, 
our peaceful & happy homes & firesides. — God will be avenged 
of such injustice, to his people, (for thank God we are his, as 
well as they) & I trust that his strong arm, & watchful eye 
will ever be in the midst of our army, (& our rulers that are 
not there,) & grant us the high priviledge, & never dying glory 
& honor of gaining the victory, until, even the foot print of 
every Yanky & Lincolnite is blotted out, from off our Southern 

Did not Gen. Johnson so nicely defeat Gen. Scott in his 
last plan? Poor old man. I reckon he begins to feel almost worn 
out. You see that rumor afloat, that our side got his carriage, 
horses, epauletts & sword. I'm awfully affraid it is not so. I 
wish we had one hundred thousand more men than we have; 
but victory will be ours yet. Our Privatiers are taking prizes 
off our coast, every week or two they get one. I have heard 
to day, of one just taken, loaded with lemons, oranges, &c & 
another carried into Beaufort which had a lady on board, who 
was in a desperate rage at being taken, & used very coarse 
language, some of which was, to curse the southern soil, saying 
she did not want to put her foot upon it. 

One of our Newbern ladies, who is a widow, had a son (the 
pride & prop of herself & only sister) who was engaged in the 
great Manassa battle; & when she heard of the battle, she 
mourned for her son as being among the dead, her wailes & 
lamentations were heard all around her neighbourhood & her 
distress became so great, that her brother started last Saturday 
morning to Virginia, in search of him, & that night, a letter 
came from the son to his Mother, written on his knee with a 
lead pencil, while in camp, on Monday, after the battle Sunday. 
So her grief was turned into joy, that God had preserved her 
child. Tis said, that nearly every body in town read the letter 
& it was read aloud in Sunday school for the benefit of all who 
might be there, who had not heard of it, or read it. 

410 State Department of Archives and History 

And by the way, this young man is engaged to be married 
to a pretty young lady in our town, which you know, added 
much interest, both to the grief & joy. It was Capt. Brookfield 
Company D. McKays Regiment 

I see by the papers, that Preston, ows the preservation of 
his life to a bible, given to him by his sister, which was in his 
left coat pocket, he is called Willie Mangum Jun. but I was 
certain it was Preston. — I am under the impression that Willie 
is consul to China. 

I have filled this sheet, & haven't told you about any of us. 
Sister is in Johnston Cty. & is well & enjoying herself, but I 
presume has written to you. Enoch Wadsworth, was very 
anxious to go to Virginia, but his Pa thought he was too young 
& did not let him go, he belongs to a Heavy Artillery Company, 
now stationed at Fort Macon. How soon they may be called off 
we do not know, if they are called off Enoch will have to go, for 
he was sworn in for the War. Kate is not very well though 
she is up all the time she has the tooth ache a good deal. 
Albert is well & full of mischief. Eddie is the Brigadier General 
over the land, and that reminds me of poor Col. Fisher many 
hearts have felt sorrow & regret, that he was so soon cut down 
by the blood hounds of Yankiedom. Mr. Wadsworth desires 
his kind regards to Uncle Willie & family. Does Mother take 
the Church Intelligencer? if she does not do beg her to sub- 
scribe for it immediately. Please send her this letter by the first 
opportunity. And now my dear Pattie let me beg that you 
will write me very soon, if for nothing else but to let me hear 
where & how Preston is. Give my best love to all. How does 
Uncle Willie stand all these troublesome times? Adieu, but 
for a season, for I shall soon expect a letter, do tell me some- 
thing about Sallie. 

M. E. Wadsworth. 

The Battle of Manassas. 21 * 

[2 August, 1861] 

The North Carolina Standard (extra) has a letter from an 
officer of the late Col. Fisher's Regiment giving an account of 

24 This is a newspaper clipping taken from the Richmond Semi-Weekly Examiner, August 2, 

Marker of the spot where Lieutenant William Preston Mangum fell. 

Courtesy of National Park Service 

View of First Manassas Battlefield. To the right of Stonewall Jackson's statue Senator Mangum's 

only son, Lieutenant William Preston Mangum, Sixth North Carolina Regiment, C. S. A., was 

mortally wounded on July 21, 1861. He died July 28, 1861. 

The Mangum Papers 411 

the participation of the Sixth North Carolina Regiment in the 
battle, and relating some interesting incidents of the engage- 
ment. He says: 

The battle commenced in the morning, with heavy cannon- 
ading on the right and centre, both sides maintaining their 
positions. The dull booming of the cannon was distinctly 
heard by us as we were disembarking from the cars; and, as 
soon as that was done, our Regiment was formed and moved 
off in quick time, notwithstanding our weary march from 
Winchester, and, though tired and apparently exhausted, yet, 
the terrible cannonading in the centre and on the right nerved 
every arm, brightened every eye and quickened every step. 
On we went through the dust that rose in clouds, until we 
reached a point when we filed to the left to a spring, where 
our canteens were filled with fresh water by companies; and, 
as each company received its water, were marched to the shade, 
and allowd to lie down and rest. 

After the watering operation was finished, we proceeded, 
and were halted under cover of a hill in rear of one of our 
batteries, and ordered to load and rest, and immediately we 
loaded and laid our weary limbs upon the grass, and many fell 
into a doze, notwithstanding the battle was raging around us; 
but men who had not slept for three nights on a forced march 
could sleep anywhere. This was about seven o'clock, and the sun 
shone brightly, and cannonading became more intense, dense 
clouds of smoke rose from the opposite hills, the earth shook 
with the awful thunder, and continued to wax hotter and 
hotter, when almost instantaneously, the men cried out: " Colonel 
Fisher, we're ready." He replied: "I know that." Suddenly his 
clear voice rang out, "Attention!" when every man sprung 
with new life to his place in the ranks, shouldered his musket, 
and at the command "Forward, march," we moved briskly 
up the hill, and formed a line of battle in rear of one of our 
batteries, where we could see distinctly the columns of smoke 
rising up from the enemy's batteries on the opposite hills, 
while the balls were whistling around us. 

Suddenly we shifted position further to the left in a road 
running by a thick wood, and still the balls were whistling 
over us. A slug from a rifled cannon passed through our ranks, 
but there was no wavering, but intent on the attack, you 
could read on every brow the stern resolve to conquer or die. 

412 State Department of Archives and History 

Here we stood resting on our arms, with the wounded lying 
around us, and ever and anon some one would breathe his last; 
when again rang the clarion voice, and led by our gallant 
Colonel, we filed through the dense tangled undergrowth, and 
sped onward until we struck a ravine which led directly up to 
Sherman's Battery, and were halted with the two right flank 
companies, under Capts. Freeland and York, within forty yards 
of the guns and a Regiment of the United States army support- 
ing them, when the command of fire was given, when we 
silenced the battery at the first fire. Capts. Kirkland and Avery 
led their men around the point of woods and charged the 
battery and drove every man from the pieces. About this time 
some officer cried out to cease firing, as we were firing into 
our own men. 

Exposed to a raking fire from the enemy, and fired into by 
our friends, Colonel Fisher ordered us to retreat, which was 
done in some disorder, owing to the cry that we were firing 
into friends; and it was here that the gallant Colonel Fisher 
fell in front of the battery, leading on his men to the charge. 
He was shot through the head with a ball. May he rest in the 
soldier's Heaven; for a nobler, braver, more gallant man never 
led a column to victory. 

That portion of the Regiment rallied by the gallant Light- 
foot and Webb pitched into the hottest of the fight and joined 
in the final charge, when the enemy were put to a precipitate 
flight, and joined in the pursuit for several miles. No more 
gallant spirits strode over that field than Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lightfoot and Major Webb. The remainder of the Regiment, 
under different officers, fell in with other Regiments and fought 
to the last. No Regiment behaved with more bravery and 
gallantry than the North Carolina Sixth Infantry on that 
memorable field. Led up into the hottest of the fight, within 
a few yards of a battery that was raking our army, they 
delivered their fire with the deadliest precision. Our loss was 
about sixty killed and wounded. Among the officers, our 
gallant Colonel Fisher fell early in the attack. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lightfoot was wounded in the calf of the leg, but never 
stopped, although on foot, as were all our field-officers. Captain 
Avery was shot in the leg, but, like a brave man as he is, never 
left the field. Lieut. W. P. Mangum was severely wounded in 

The Mangum Papers 413 

the left side. The report that Major Webb was killed is untrue; 
though exposed to a most terrible fire, he escaped uninjured. 

Several Regiments claim the honour of silencing and taking 
this battery. It was taken by the 6th infantry North Carolina 
State troops. The Regiment, as I have stated, was led up within 
40 yards of it, and their fire silenced it, and Col. Lightfoot, 
Major Webb, Captains Kirkland, Avery and Lieutenants Avery 
and Mangum, marched right up to it with their men, and passed 
beyond it, and received a galling fire from the left, when they 
were ordered to cease firing and fell back. Major Webb was 
resting on one of the pieces, facing the fire, and our men re- 
treated in good order, all the while delivering their fire. 

About sunset, the enemy were charged by our army, and 
put in disorder, and ran like turkeys, pursued by our infantry, 
cavalry and artillery for several miles, until darkness stopped 
them. Our Regiment was in the charge, under Col. Lightfoot 
and Major Webb. 

"To the victors belong the spoils," and in this case they 
were enormous. Sixty-odd pieces of cannon, every piece they 
had but two, a large amount of small arms, a church full of 
knapsacks, blankets, ammunition, haversacks, &c, &c, with 
which our men are abundantly supplied. 

Some twelve or fifteen hundred prisoners were taken, and 
a large number of officers 

Our loss was considerable, though I do not know how many 
we had killed and wounded — though very considerable; for 
it could not have been otherwise, fighting from sunrise until 
dark. Though our loss is not near so great as we at first 
supposed. The loss of the enemy is enormous; for they received 
our deadly shots with a bravery worthy of a better cause. 

I visited the field after the battle, and it was indeed a 
sickening, heart-rending sight. The enemy lay piled up in 
heaps, and horses strewn all along. I counted forty horses in 
a distance of fifty yards. Around Sherman's batteries, where 
our Regiment fired, every horse and connoneer was killed, and 
lay in one indiscriminate heap. All over the battle-field were 
strewed the dead and dying. Some had placed their arms 
under their heads as they went to their last sleep. Others folded 
their arms across their breasts, some with features distorted 
and fists clenched as they wrestled in the agonies of death; 
others wore the calm, placid smile which should grace the face 

414 State Department of Archives and History 

of a soldier dying in a glorious cause. In the little clump of 
sedars, the wounded had crawled and died, and lay there in 
ghastly heaps. 

Our dead were buried with the honours due them, and our 
wounded removed to different places in the interior, where 
they will be properly attended to. 

L. H. Mangum to John 25 

Greenville Mo. Aug. 26th /61 

Dear John; 

As I have an opportunity of sending letters down to Ark. 
where they can be mailed this morning I will write you a few 
lines, as to how we are getting on &c. I have written Sister 
Beck, five or six letters since I left Helena last, but I am afraid 
she has not received them on account of the uncertainty of the 

I scarcely know what to write you as to what we will 
probably do, for every day there are a number of reports in 
circulation through the Camp what our forces are going to do, 
and what the enemy are going to do, and every day their plans 
are different — We have not as yet had a fight and there is no 
telling for a certainty when we will — We will retreat in a few 
days from here back fifteen miles to Big Black River, where 
Gen. Hardee intends making a stand — one Regiment has 
already fallen back. I dont like the idea of retreating, but 
under the circumstances I expect it is for the best. From what 
our scouts report and from what can be gathered from the citi- 
zens around Frankton, has induced Gen Hardee and staff to 
believe that the enemy has determined to attack us within the 
next three weeks — we will be compelled to act upon the 
defensive for awhile at least — they greatly out number us, 
but I feel confident the sacredness of our cause and the bravery 
of our men will more than counteract their great numbers. A 
Scouting party returned last night, that went in a mile and a 
half of the enemies Camp, twenty-eight miles from here, there 
were five thousand men in camp six or eight thousand and 

^Probably to John Williams, L. H. Mangum's brother-in-law. 

The Mangum Papers 415 

more back in Ironton, that would join them soon and then 
they will commence their line of march for Pocohontas and 
thence to Memphis, where they expect to meet the great 
Northern Fleet, that is preparing to desend the Miss. River. They 
are all to start so as to meet at Memphis about the same time, 
the above is the belief of the Commanders, not mine. Federal 
troops above us are in fine spirits and confident of whipping us, 
if we ever meet. — poor creatures they have been awfully 
deluded, for they fully believe we are afraid of them and will 
retreat upon their approach, we have retreated once already, 
which was intended principally to draw them out of their strong 
hold in Ironton — we will soon retreat from here, which will 
have a still stronger tendency to make the enemy follow us and 
will conferme their belief that we are afraid of them, and they 
will follow us to Big Black River, which will be what Hardee 
wants And they will then find out to their sorrow that they 
have reckoned without their host, and though our numbers are 
few, they will be many in battle and when we do meet them, 
we will have one consolation, that we will meet the best fighting 
men of the North. I will not say when we will probably have 
a fight. I have been disappointed so often I have almost de- 
termined never again to say when I thought we would have a 
fight. So you need not be surprised at any time of hearing of 
our having a battle. We may have one in a few days and 
probably not one in several months, — the prospects are in 
favor of the former. We place no confidence in the Missouri 
troops — they are the most infernal set of cowards I ever saw 26 
— just hallo Dutch at them and they will run like the D-l. 
Before we came up here, they would put up the pitiful excuse 
for not resisting the Federalists that they had no arms, their 
hands were bound &c. Now since we have come to their 
assistance they will not volunteer for longer than six months, 
knowing at the same time that no such volunteers will be re- 
ceived and the excuse they offer for not going in longer is that 
they cant leave home their kin &c longer. Such a Country 
with such chicken hearted set of men is not worth defending — 
but I would rather fight the enemy here than in our gallant 
little State — because we can defend her rights here as well as 
her soil — and at the same time she will escape the horrors that 

^The Missouri state forces were not well equipped. They also had little respect for Hardee. 
Daniel OTlaherty, General Jo Shelby; Undefeated Rebel, 1954, pp. 74-75. 

416 State Department of Archives and History 

attends the seat of war, and besides I never want the soil of 
Arkansas poluted with the foot of a Federal soldier. I must 
now close, my warmest love to Sister Beck & the children. I 
would like to hear from you the first opportunity you have of 
sending me a letter. Tell Sister Beck she must also write. 
Have you heard any thing from brother Willie? What he 
is doing &c. 

Yours very truly 
L. H. Mangum. 

Death of Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 27 

[18 September, 1861] 

As better than any tribute we could pay — however heart- 
felt it would be — to the memory of one of the most worthy 
and distinguished sons of North Carolina, a gentleman whom 
we knew well and sincerely loved and respected, we copy the 
following obituary notice which we find contributed to the last 
Hillsboro' Recorder: 

Death of Hon. W. P. Mangum 28 

Died, at his residence near Red Mountain, Orange county, 
on the 7th instant, the Honorable Willie P. Mangum, aged 
near seventy years. 

The demise of so eminent a citizen demands of us some brief 
memorial of a life, connected for near a third of the past century, 
with only occasional interruptions, with the public history of 
the country. Commencing his career as an advocate at the bar 
of the 4th circuit, in the period of its highest renown, he was 
thrice a member of the State Legislature, from his native 
county of Orange — at three different times appointed Judge 
of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity — twice elected to 
the House of Representatives in the Congress of the United 
States — for three full terms he representd North Carolina in 

27 This is a newspaper clipping taken from the Weekly Raleigh Register, September 18, 
1861. The article was copied from the Hillsborough Recorder, September 11, 1861. A briefer 
notice of his death, apparently written by the editor, appeared in the same issue of the Hillsborough 

as After his son's death, Willie P. Mangum lost all interest in living. He never spoke a word 
after the burial of his son. This sketch was written by William A. Graham. 

The Mangum Papers 417 

the Senate of the Union, and for the latter half of the term of 
Mr. Tyler in the Presidency, from 1842 to 1845, he was the 
President of the Senate, (succeeding upon the death of Hon. 
Samuel L. Southard of New Jersey,) and though in times of 
high party excitement, acquitted himself to the general appro- 
bation of that august assembly. — In 1836 he received the vote 
of South Carolina for the Presidency of the United States, in 
opposition to Mr. Van Buren. 

Mr. Mangum was a native of the county of Orange, and 
born, we believe, in 1792. His preparatory studies, prior to 
his entrance at the University of the State, were pursued in 
his own neighborhood, and at a later stage under the Reverend 
Doctor McPheeters, in the Raleigh Academy. He was some 
time, also, an assistant teacher in this Institution, and was 
perhaps indebted to this employment for that neat penmanship 
and exact observance of the rules of elegant composition which 
characterized all his writings. He received his first degree at 
the University in 1815, studied the Law in the office of the 
late Honorable Duncan Cameron, then a Judge of the Superior 
Courts, and a neighbor of his father. Upon his admission to 
the bar, he at once acquired a practice which gave him both 
profit and reputation, insomuch that within five years he was 
elected to the bench. This he quitted the year following, and 
resumed his practice until 1823, when he was returned to the 
House of Representatives of the United States. From this time, 
although he was twice afterwards a Judge, and for two or 
three years at the bar, his attention was mainly devoted to 
politics. His powers as a public speaker, his intimate acquaint- 
ance with the motives and habits of thought of the people, and 
an elegant person and address gave him high distinction as an 
advocate, and general acceptance as a Judge. But it was in the 
deliberative and popular assembly, the congregations of the 
masses of men, and above all, in the social intercourse, and 
conversations of public men, that his talents, his inclinations, 
his habits and tastes, eminently fitted him to shine. In the 
House of Representatives with Clay, Randolph, McLane, 
McDuffie, Storrs, Buchanan and other leading spirits, in 1823 
and 25, he took a conspicuous part in the debates, and well 
sustained the character of the State, in the public counsels. — 
After his election to the Senate which he first entered in 1830, 
he made few elaborate efforts, but partook in the running 

418 State Department of Archives and History 

debates, and was recognized as one of its distinguished mem- 
bers, when Clay, Calhoun, Webster, Wright, Forsythe, Clayton, 
Benton, Leigh, and a galaxy of Parliamentary talent, not seen 
in this country before or since, were members of that body. 
In popular eloquence, such as is addressed to the people in 
their primary assemblies, Mr. Mangum has had but few equals 
in our country, and it may well be doubted whether Clay, Crit- 
tenden, Corwin or Preston would have borne from him the 
palm in that field of oratory. His tall and commanding figure, 
always becomingly dressed, his rich and melodious voice, his 
flowing periods, his splendid imagery, often gorgeous and not 
in the best taste of the rhetorical critic, but apposite, and 
dazzling to the less acute, his sympathetic nature, and perfect 
acquaintance with all the springs and motives of human action, 
gave him an almost mesmeric sway over the multitude. 

This influence was equally well kept up in his style of 
address and conversation, not merely on the hustings, but in 
assemblages of statesmen and courtiers. His coloquial powers, 
his genial and social temper, his spirited and appropriate re- 
marks, often illustrated and adorned by tasteful literary allu- 
sion, gave a charm to his familiar discourse, and rendered him 
an admired and agreeable companion in any society. This, 
with native genius and sagacity, and a natural command over 
men, gave him weight in the consultations of his associates, and 
in the deliberations of the Senate; for his habits were far from 
studious, and as he advanced in life he seemed to avoid elabor- 
ate discussions. In the fiercest strifes of party, his generous 
bearing and fine manners preserved to him cordial relations 
with political opponents, and to Randolph or Clay, Benton or 
Preston, Webster, King, or Wright, he was alike an agreeable 
talker and listener. For several years past, Mr. Mangum had 
been prostrated by paralysis, and greatly afflicted by disease, 
which deprived him of the power of speech. He retained, 
however, his mental faculties, and took a deep interest in the 
current events of the struggle in which the country is engaged, 
until the fall of his only son, a Lieutenant in the North Carolina 
State Troops (named in honor of the cherished friend of his 
palmier days, William Preston, of South Carolina,) from a 
wound received in the gallant discharge of duty, in the tri- 
umphant battle at Manassas plains on the 21st of July. Over- 

The Mangum Papers 419 

whelmed by this distressing bereavement, he seemed to sur- 
render his hold on the things of life, and welcomed the grave. 
A widow and three daughters, whose grief is shared by all his 
neighbors, and a wide circle of friends and admirers throughout 
the country, survive him. 


The Resolutions of the North Carolina Legislature on the 
Death of Willie P. Mangum. 

State of North Carolina 
Senate Chamber Raleigh 
Sept. 1861. 

Whereas, The Senate has learned with profound emotion 
that the Hon. Willie P. Mangum departed this life at his resi- 
dence in the County of Orange on Saturday last, 

Resolved, That the said intelligence is received by the 
Representatives of the people of North Carolina whom he has 
so long, so faithfully, and so ably served, with feelings of the 
deepest sorrow. 

Resolved, That on this melancholy occasion, his great virtues 
his eminent bearing, his long continued usefulness, his devoted 
patriotism, are remembered and cherished with grateful sensi- 
bility by the whole State, whose son he was and to whose 
services his life was devoted. 

Resolved, That it is fit that on the Journals of the Senate, 
amid the memorials of our gratitude and pride, should live a 
record of the fond affection and venerated regard in which that 
illustrious man was held by his countrymen. 

Resolved, That the Speaker of the Senate be requested to 
transmit to the widow of Judge Mangum, a copy of these reso- 
lutions with an expression of our heartfelt sympathy in her 
bereavement, not only for the loss of her husband, but also 
for the loss of her only son Lieut. William Preston Mangum, 
who fell bravely fighting at the battle of Manassas. 

Resolved, That these proceedings be spread upon the Journ- 
als of the Senate. 

Henry T. Clark, 
Spr. Sen. 

420 State Department of Archives and History 

Remarks of Mr. Turner, 29 

In the Senate, on Monday last, on announcing the 

death of the late Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

Mr. Speaker: — I rise to announce to the Senate an event, 
which I trust will put an end to all strife among us, for one 
day at least; yes, for this one day at least, let us say as our first 
Mother said to our first Father: 

''While yet we live, scarce one short hour perhaps, 
Between us two let there be peace." 

I allude to the death of Hon. Willie P. Mangum. We have 
been talking and voting for Senators for more than a week, 
but one greater than them all has been taken from us. 

The Judge, the Senator, the Statesman, the Patriot, the 
Pride of North Carolina, the boast of the Old Union, ended his 
earthly career on Saturday last, at his own house, in the bosom 
of his heart-crushed family. 

We have had a Macon, a Burke, a Davie, a Davidson, a 
Moore, a Stanly, a Nash, a Gaston, and a Mangum; but we 
have none now; they have all gone to another and a better 
world; but their names and their deeds live among us — sacred 
to heroism, dear to every lover of constitutional liberty; their 
names and their fame "is of the history of the State." 

"Oh! who shall lightly say that fame 
Is nothing but an empty name, 
While in that name there is a charm, 
The nerves to brace, the heart to warm. 
When thinking on the mighty dead 
The youth shall rouse from slothful bed, 
And vow with up-lift hand and heart, 
Like them to act a noble part." 

If those patriot spirits departed retain enough of mortality 
to grieve — if it be allowed them, with Washington, Hancock and 
Adams, to look down upon the black field of Manassas, and 
the bloody waters of Bull Run, how poignant must be their 

If they could speak to us, what would they say? Alas! alas! 
for the spirit of American liberty, how it has given away for 

29 This tribute is copied from the Weekly Raleigh Register, September 18, 1861. Josiah 
Turner was a close friend of the family. 

The Mangum Papers 421 

the cruel dominion of the sword! Our children, they would 
say, have forgotten the trials and sufferings of their Fathers; 
they have forgotten our lessons touching them. 

"What makes a nation happy and keeps it so, 
What ruins kingdoms and lays cities low." 

Judge Mangum was born in 1792. He graduated at the 
University in 1815. In 1818 he was elected to the House of 
Commons. In 1819 he was elected Judge of the Superior Court. 
In 1823 he was elected to Congress. In 1826 he was elected a 
second time to the bench. In 1831 [sic] he was elected Senator 
in Congress-serving until 1837. He was again elected Senator in 
1841, [sic] and re-elected in 1848. [sic] 

In 1837, though not a candidate, he was complimented by 
receiving the electoral vote of South Carolina for the Presi- 
dency. In 1841, [sic] upon the death of President Harrison 
and the accession of Vice President Tyler, he was elected 
Speaker of the Senate. 

These are the public stations and places which he filled — 
how he filled them I need not stop to tell; for it is a part of the 
history of his country. 

The wisdom of his counsel, the charms of his eloquence, 
and the graces of his oratory, will never be effaced from the 
memory of his countrymen but the best portion of a good 
man's life is his little, nameless, unrecorded acts of kindness 
and of love; for his acts of kindness and charity and love, go 
ask the unfortunate, the humble, and the lowly, who regarded 
him as their neighbor and friend. 

I was a frequent and not unwelcome visitor at his house. 

The present troubled condition of the country gave him 
the deepest concern, and weighed heavily upon his heart. 

The last time I saw him, was Thursday before the battle of 
Manassa. Though bending under the weight of years and disease, 
I thought him as well as he had been for twenty months. 

Sunday came, and with it came the bloody battle of Manassa. 
In that battle's magnificently stern array, stood his only son, 
the prop of his house, the hope of his declining years, his only 
hope for the perpetuation of his name. 

I shall long remember the visit I made to the son, lying ill 
of his wounds at Louisa Court House; how in reply to my in- 
quiries, he expressed the "hope soon to be well and up, and at 

422 State Department of Archives and History 

them again." Nor am I ashamed here before men to confess 
that I kissed the fevered brow of the boy, not for his father's, 
but for his mother's and his sisters' sake. 

I never shall forget how his comrades in arms gave him the 
praise for his manly and heroic bearing in the fight, and how 
they pointed me to the spot, hard by Sherman's battery, where 
he stood, and fought and fell and bled. 

But another Sunday came, and with it the sad news, that 
the son had died of his wounds. It was more than age and 
exhausted nature could bear. Grief for the loss of the son on 
the father's heart — it could not beat — it had to break. 

Remarks of Col. Brown, 80 of Caswell, 
In the Senate, on the resolutions offered by Mr. Turner, of 
Orange, announcing the death of the Hon. Willie P. Mangum. 

Mr. Brown rose to express his sincere and profound sorrow 
at the melancholy event which had been announced, and to offer 
the homage of his own high regard and veneration for the 
eminent citizen and statesman, to whose virtues and distinguish- 
ed public services the resolutions proposed to pay a just and 
fitting tribute. 

Mr. B. said that it had been his fortune to be associated with 
Mr. Mangum at College, in the Legislature of the State when he 
was in the dawn of manhood, and afterwards in the Senate of 
the United States. In all these various positions and relations, 
Mr. Mangum had won for himself among his associates a high 
estimate of his qualities as a man and a warm admiration of 
his mental endowments. Largely indebted to his own exertions 
for success in life, possessing rare and varied talents, with a 
personal presence seldom equalled, he had almost at a single 
bound after entering on the theatre of life, gained position and 
eminence at the bar and in the public councils. — Himself cotem- 
porary with Mr. Mangum in the Senate of the United States 
during the administration of General Jackson, when that body 
by universal consent had reached its culmination of talent and 
its meridian of greatness, it was honor enough to say that, in 
that extraordinary body of intellectual giants, Mr. Mangum held 

"OThis tribute is copied from the Weekly Raleigh Register, September 25. 1861. Bedford Brown 
was United States Senator during Mangum's first term in the Senate. 

The Mangum Papers 423 

a conspicuous and prominent rank as an able and eloquent de- 
bater. Alas! how melancholy the reflection that the great actors 
on the theatre of public life at that day live only in their own 
great actions and in the pages of history. In recalling these 
scenes the most melancholy emotions were excited in his 
bosom. Centuries, perhaps, may roll around before so many 
individuals of unrivaled endowments and exalted character 
will again be grouped together in public consultation. 

Honorable as were the achievements of Mr. Mangum on 
this field of highest renown, there was a trait in his character, 
if not so brilliant, yet more to be honored and which stamped 
on it a still higher worth. In private life, possessed of a most 
genial disposition and a true nobility of nature, these qualities 
had often in the heat and excitement of party conflict, most 
honorably asserted their influence in favor of political oppon- 
ents. The history of the State, just to so fair a claim to honorable 
mention, could not fail to award to the distinguished lamented 
individual whose decease they now deplore, the honors of high 
private worth, great public usefulness, patriotism and talent. 
He hoped the resolutions would be unanimously adopted. 

Martha P. Mangum to Mrs. Waggoner. 31 

The Orange 
Orange Co. 
Orange Co. N. C. Sept. 25th 61. 

To Mrs. Waggoner. 

My Dear Madam. 

My Mother desires me to write as I should have done 
long since to express our appreciation of your exceeding kind- 
ness to our dear lost one, and offer you our heartfelt thanks 
but I have been detained at the side of my Father in his dying 
condition until he too has passed away. How I wish that he 
could have sent you a message of thanks — but alas, he was 

a The collections of Mangum Papers in the several libraries include papers down to 1897. 
Since this publication is primarily concerned with the papers that relate to Willie P. Mangum 
and since there is a limitation of space, I am including from the collections for the period after 
Mangum's death on September 7, 1861, only those papers which relate directly to him. I am, 
however, listing and briefly summarizing in the front of this volume all papers omitted. Some 
of the papers omitted are historically important but they do not relate directly to Willie P. Mangum. 
This letter was apparently a first draft of one sent. 

424 State Department of Archives and History 

never able to utter one [word] after his attack on the day of 
my Brother's burial. 

But while these bereavements have robbed us of all capacity 
for joy — in the compensations of a kind Providence our capa- 
cities for gratitude have been enlarged. — And deep and sweet 
indeed, is our gratitude to God for such friends, and is our grat- 
itude to them for such unsurpassed kindness, and to none, 
my dear Madam, is a larger share due than to yourself and 
your excellent husband. Your constant & unwearying atten- 
tions to every want of our dear, your tender care that we are 
assured 32 (by the friends that were with him) could not have 
been surpassed by ourselves. Brother that called forth his 
grateful expressions evinced so soothing they were to him, has 
given us a claim to love you dearly. 

Would that I could tell you with what grateful affection 
we think of you and your husband. What a large place you 
fill in the heart of my gentle Mother for supplying her place 
in his last hours, her only boy, — but language is too 
feeble to express the fulness of the heart. We can only pray 
to God to shower upon you and yours His richest blessings. 
And should suffering ever visit one of you, that he will give 
you such friends as he gave to our dear lost one. 

We would gladly know more of you my dear Madam, we 
would gladly hear from you when your duties and engagements 
would allow — And when these evil times shall pass away, 
we should so gladly welcome you to our home and show you the 
resting place of our most precious treasures. 

To Mrs. Waggoner. 

Mrs. Mangum. 


David L. Swain to Paul C. Cameron and Enclosure. 

Chapel Hill, 20 Jan. 1862. 
My dear Sir, 

Your note of the 15 found me in a sick room which I hope 
to be able to leave tomorrow. 

^^The rest of this sentence was marked through in the available draft. 

The Mangum Papers 425 

I have examined carefully, the list of Mr. Mangums books, 
and believe there is scarcely a volume in it not to be found in 
our collection. Our library of public documents, is fuller than 
the State library, is at present, or likely to be in future. Mem- 
bers of the General Assembly so frequently forget to return 
the volumes they are privileged to withdraw, that few series 
are found to be complete. 

My advice to Dr. Cain, is either to present the catalogue, or 
the books themselves, to the consideration of the Convention. 
The State Librarian, is perhaps at present authorized to pur- 
chase, such works as are not on his shelves, or such volumes, 
as are needed to complete defective sets on hand. 

Mr. Mangum was a great newspaper reader, and must 
have had at intervals copies of the Laws & Journals, reports 
and other documents greatly needed at the State Library. All 
these if they have been preserved will command better prices, 
than most of the bound volumes. Many gentlemen in the Con- 
vention, and out of it, will probable be disposed to take a set, 
or volume, as a keep sake, more especially if his autograph, 
has been placed on a face leaf. 

Very sincerely & truly 
Your friend & Sevt. 
D. L. Swain 

Paul C. Cameron Esq. 

University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill, July 31, 1861. 

The Faculty understand that in various sections of the 
Southwestern States, and in some parts of our own State, an 
impression prevails that the regular exercises of this Institution 
have been suspended. 2 No event has occurred since the entrance 
of the first student, in February, 1795, to produce such a result, 
and no such calamity is apprehended at the present time. The 
troubled state of the country, caused by the existing war, and 
the paralysis which affects every kind of business, have very 

^his is a prined circular. 

^he University of North Carolina remained open during the war but closed in Reconstruction. 

426 State Department of Archives and History 

much diminished our numbers. We trust, however, that we 
shall not suffer a permanent loss from this source; and shall 
certainly endeavor to deserve success whatever may be the 

In the midst of this depression, we have the satisfaction to 
know that the temporary diminution of our numbers is con- 
tributing very essentially to the public good. At the beginning 
of the troubles which now afflict this country we were second 
in point of numbers to but one similar Institution in what was 
then the United States. Students who were with us at the 
opening of the present year are now to be found in arms under 
the banners of every State in the Confederacy; and there is 
probably no regiment in the service in which there is not one 
or more of our students or graduates enrolled. We were very 
fully represented in the action at Bethel, and in fair proportion 
in the well-fought field of Manassas. The instruction now given 
here in Military Tactics authorizes the assurance that the young 
men who shall go forth from our halls hereafter will prove 
themselves in the hour of trial, no less efficient than their elder 
brethren. The operations of this department will be enlarged 
as opportunity offers and the interests of the public may be 
thought to require. 

The decrease in the number of our students, increases, for 
those who are here, the opportunities of improvement. Our 
corps of Instructors was never more effective. Two new edifices, 
containing forty dormitories, convenient Lecture Rooms, and 
Society Halls and Libraries very neatly embellished and richly 
furnished are now ready for occupancy. The Libraries, Cabinets, 
and Apparatus are constantly receiving additions. 

In these circumstances the friends of the University need 
not fear that the patronage so freely bestowed heretofore, is 
likely to be materially and permanently diminished. 

David L. Swain 
[Endorsed:] President. 

Dear James. 3 

I had intended to hand you your list of books with Gov. 
Swains note to me — he declines to take any of them — 


P. C. Cameron 
Jany 28th. 62. 

a James F. Cain, Charity A. Mangum's nephew. 

The Mangum Papers 427 

I have written to Pomeroy of Raleigh to try to make some 
arrangement with him as to selling them for us. 



Charity A. Mangum 3 s Tax List for 1864 - Sept. 20th. 

[20 September, 1864] 

The Dower 495 acres $ 3465 

Portion belonging to Estate 990 " 

Red Mountain Tract 995 " 1985 13900 

Anderson — 55 years of age 100 

John— 55 " " " 100 

Huldah— 54 " " " 200 

Edmond about 36 " " " 400 

Dicy about 38 or 39 " " " 400 

Letty between 70 & 80 000 

Maria about 18 years of age 1000 

Lewis " 17 " " " $ 1000 

Kinch " " " " " $ 1000 

Alfred " " " » " $ 1000 

3 horses $ 150 

8 head of cattle 65 

13 " " hogs 25 

Household furniture $500 

3 pianos 250 $ 750 

1 gold watch $ 40 

1 Silver headed cane — 

1 carriage $ 25 

1 shot gun $ 7 

1 pistol $ 10 

Farming implements & wagon $ 40 

Wheat 70 bushels - 50 lbs per bushel 

Send the value of Books maps pictures paintings &c or no of 
vols of books. 

428 State Department of Archives and History 


A. F. Moses to A. W. Mangum 1 

Moseley Hall 
Octr. 8/65 
A. W. Mangum Esq 

My Dear Friend 

Your letter of the 26 th . ult, is Just at hand. 

I have red it carefully and thoughtfully- and I regret to Say 
that I am incapable of Giving to you or any other Person, Such 
a reply as you ought to have, touching the life & character of 
Such a man, as I concieved the Hon. W. P. Mangum to be.- 

I had the Pleasur to know him in his young days- I Knew 
him as a Lawyer, in his Out Set, and in all his honourable Po- 
sitions of life, - and in the Senate chamber of Congress of the 
U S. Whare he distinguished himself as a Speaker- He was a 
man that I loved and I have reason to know that I was a favourit 
of his — I could never detect a fault in him. - If he had them my 
attachment for him was too great to detect them. I looked upon 
him as having no Superior in Point of intelect. 

I have herd H. Clay, Ky Mr. Calhoun of S. C. Speak of him 
in the highest terms as a talented Man, and what he bid for to 
be. Clay Said to me one day, that N. C. could Well Boast of 
W. P. Mangum that he was a Gifted Son of hers — I wish I 
was master of Words Sufficient to convey My Notions about him 
he was too great a man for my feeble Pen to describe- I am 
Sorry I cant. — 

Most Truly 
your friend A F Moses 

P. S. I am Sorry to Say to you that I have Sufferd in a Pe- 
cuniary Point of View. Perhaps More than any Man in the 
Confed. according to My Worth, — the Robbers have left me 
nothing but My land and Emty House, took My clothes from 
my Person left me in my Stocking feet,- Gutted my House 

x At the close of the war. A. W. Mangum began collecting material for a biography of Willie 
P. Mangum. He wrore a brief sketch, which is included in this publication. See below, 457. 

II 2 

rr , v~> 

3H c a 

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G *-" it £ 

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60 60 0^7 

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<N - ^ 60 



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The Mangum Papers 429 

from celler to Garret- drove of all my Stock of all kinds — 
Made a clean Sweep $75,000 would not reenstate me 

My Mind can never get over it — I will try to Bare it hoping 
for the Best — I shall be pleased to hear from you at any time 

I may go Back to Goldsboro If I can get a house and live on 
love and Poverty trusting in Our heavenly farther- Send a Good 
farmer down here and rent My Plantation for a term of Years- 
it is a good farm,- I am tired of Freed Negroes,- I had about 40- 
I have none now. I want to See the last one Gone. 

Most truly yours 
A. F. M. 


Jno. H. Bryan to A. W. Mangum 

Oct. 16, 65 
My dear Sir, 

I have received yours of the 4th inst: 

I was at College with Mr Mangum, but the disparity in our 
ages & his being a member of a different society prevented at 
that time an intimate association; I knew him better afterwards 
in Congress & always experienced much kindness from him; 

I should be much pleased to aid your undertaking, but noth- 
ing now occurs to me of sufficient importance to have a place 
in your contemplated work — 

Yrs respectfully &c 
Jn H Bryan 
Rev. A W Mangum 


M. E. Manly 2 to A. W. Mangum. 

Convention Hall 
oct 16 /65 
Rev A W Mangum 

Dear Sir 

Your note of the 4 inst has been forwarded to me from 

I take much interest in the work you have in hand 

2 See above. I, 15 5n. 

430 State Department of Archives and History 

The late Senator Mangum was of great national repute 
& his career is of especial interest to North Carolinians — But 
I fear I shall be able to aid you but little 

My library & papers were carried off & destroyed after the 
capture of Newbern & I have nothing therefore in the way of 
documents or speeches 

I will keep the matter in mind & if I find anything or mat- 
ter occurs to me I will communicate again with you, with great 

In the mean while I am very respectfully 

M. E. Manly. 

D. M. Barringer to A. W. Mangum. 

Raleigh Octr. 20th 1865. 
Revd. A. W. Mangum 

My dear Sir, 

I regret that I am not sufficiently able to write you at 
length, even if I had the material, on the life &c. of Judge Man- 
gum, which I am rejoiced you are about to publish. I knew him 
well, in the meridian of his fame. He was, in Congress, a great 
& universal favorite, prominent in social and political life: and 
there were but few men in the National Councils who were 
more frequently inquired for by visitors to the National Cap- 
itol. He was the friend & intimate companion of Clay - Cal- 
houn - Webster - Benton, McDuffie, Tazewell, Southard, and 
all that Class of distinguished men that so illustrated our his- 
tory in one of its most important periods. — 

As a popular Orator, in his best days, Judge Mangum had 
few equals. Born & raised among the people, he always had 
their sympathy & support — and had wonderful power in giv- 
ing direction to popular opinion. As a Judge, he commanded 
universal respect on the bench and among the people and in 
the professional circle, he was greatly admired and beloved as 
a friend & companion. — 

I write you in great haste. - As the "Yankees" turned my 
office and all my correspondence upside down, I am not able to 
send you letters of which I have several from Judge M. 

The Mangum Papers 431 

Wishing you every success in your effort to do justice to the 
memory of a very able & distinguished man, I remain 

Very truly your friend & obt. Sert. 
D. M. Barringer. 

P.S. I am gradually but slowly recovering from the effects of 
my serious accident - tho' I shall only have a very im- 
perfect use of my limb again. It is two inches shorter. 

D. M. B. 

Robert B. Gilliam to A. W. Mangum. 

Oxford Octo 30th, 1865 

My dear Sir, 

Your letter of the 26th ult. was not received until my return 
home, a few days since. 

I greatly regret, that I am wholly unable to give you any 
aid in the most laudable enterprise in which you are engaged. 
Whilst I greatly admire Judge Mangum as a statesman, and 
as a gentleman, I never had any written correspondence with 
him, 3 and my opportunities for personal intercourse with him, 
were very rare — He left the bar shortly after I came to it; and 
tho' he visited Oxford occasionally, as late as the year 1846, I 
never had the good fortune to enjoy a high degree of personal 
intimacy with him, or to see him often in the social circle. — 
During his long and eminent career in the Senate of the United 
States, I saw him in Washington but once, and that for a very 
short time in the Summer of 1840. — Hence I am unable to furn- 
ish you with any personal reminiscences, which would be use- 
ful or interesting. — 

Regretting that my answer to your letter of inquiry has been 
so long delayed, and sincerely wishing you the greatest success 
in your undertaking, I am with high regard 

Very truly yours 
Rob. B. Gilliam 
To Rev. A. W. Mangum 

8 There are several letters in the Mangum Papers from Gilliam. 

432 State Department of Archives and History 

Reverdy Johnson to A. W. Mangum. 

Balt. 6 Novr. '65 

My Dear Sir 

I have your's of the 26th ulto, & would most cheerfully, 
comply with its request, if I coud. But, I have no letters of Mr 
Mangum or know of any incidents of his life, that woud serve 
your purpose. 4 

My knowledge of him, (as was the case with all who had 
the happiness to know him) made me esteem him highly for 
the generosity of his character, his marked ability & Stirling 
patriotism. His friends were numerous, his enemies, I believe, 

With regd 
Yr obdt. Servt 
Reverdy Johnson 
Revd. A. W. Mangum 
Flat River 
N. Carolina 

E. G. Reade 5 to Martha P. Mangum. 

Roxboro Decemr 18th 1865 

My Cousin Pattie: 

At one moment I am so glad because you gave my little 
family the pleasure of a visit; &, at the next moment, I am 
quite angry because you made the visit in my absence; & at the 
next I am jealous, because, instead of making much over my 
return after so long an absence, every thing is "Cousin Pattie, 
Cousin Pattie." A ready way for you to cure me of these mal- 
adies, is to make haste & pay us another visit, when we can 
dispute as to our claims to consideration in this family. Really, 
I would like so much for you to do so. I could have so much to 
say to you, about your lamented father; who was one of the 

4 Mangum carried on an extensive correspondence with Johnson in the 1840's. See above, III, 
198, 207, 219, 222, 225. 258, 304, 309; IV, 74, 253. 

B A cousin of the Mangums, Edwin G. Reade was judge of the superior court in 1863-1865 
and judge of the supreme court of North Carolina in 1865-1878. N. C. Manual, 446, 447, 449. 

The Mangum Papers 433 

kindest friends I ever had. I must tell you a few incidents in 
our lives; leaving much to say to you when I see you. 

I never had a fight or quarrel in my life, until I was some 
nineteen years old; when a man gave me the damn - lie; & I 
was so silly as to think that I was obliged to strike him; & 
I did strike him, & broke his head. I was indicted in Granville 
Court & your father defended me. The stricken man was the 
principal witness, & exagerated the facts; - leaving out the 
provocation. The court sentenced me to three months imprison- 
ment. And I well remember your fathers touching appeal in 
favor of my youth & good character. He saved me from prison! 
It was impossible, as it would have been ungrateful, for me to 
forgit it. He became to me, therefore, an object of affectionate 
regard as long as he lived. 

But that was only the begining of his friendly considera- 
tion for me, which he exhibited as often as occasion offered. A 
few years afterwards, I was in Raleigh seeking license to prac- 
tice law. I had been examined, got the blank, & was looking up 
the Supreme Court Judges to sign it. A bevy of distinguished 
gentlemen were sitting with your father before his room door 
at Guions Hotel. Judge Daniel 6 of the Supreme Court was 
among them. Your father took as much pains in introducing 
me, & saying kind things, as if I really deserved such dis- 
tinguished consideration. And then he said: "Well, Edwin, 
have you got your license?" I told him I was there to ask 
Judge Daniel to sign them. Said he, familiarly : "Daniel, go in- 
to my room & sign this young gentleman 8 license. He can 
make a better speech than any Judge upon the Superior Court 
bench except Judge Gaston." He then said many handsome 
things, playfully, about a political campaign which I had just 
made, in which I was badly beaten, & becoming enthusiastic 
he declared that I could make a better speech than the whole 
Supreme Court put together. By this time I had got my license, 
&, blushing & bowing, I ran away. How much this had to do 
with making me a Judge of that same Supreme Court, I do not 
know. That I was very proud of it, is shown by my remember- 
ing it so long. And, I am quite sure, that the kind attentions of 
the good & great, are seldom lost upon the young. 

His interest in the young & friendless, was not confined to 
me. It was characteristic of him. Whenever he could, he made 

6 Joseph J. Daniel was justice of the state supreme court from 1832 to 1848. N. C. Manual, 

434 State Department of Archives and History 

them his companions & advised them, & praised them, &, when 
need was, defended them. On the trial of a suit in Person Court, 
he examined a poor smart boy as a witness, & the other side 
tried hard to break down his testimony. Judge Mangum 8 de- 
fense of the boy was one of the most eloquent & touching ap- 
peals I ever listened to. I well remember the effect upon the 
Jury, when, in concluding it, he raised his tall manly form to 
his greatest height, his brow expanded, his eyes flashing, his 
lips quivering, & his voice deep with emotion, he exclaimed: 
"Gentlemen of the Jury, the Bar has its priviledges & its use- 
fulness; but it has its limits also, &, I must say, that the attack 
upon this poor boy, for a simple, artless tale, is, for its severity 
without precedent, &, for its impropriety without excuse. It 
is wanton, it is cr-u-el, it is b-r-u-t-a-1." 

He was almost all his life in the public councils & no man 
of his day was esteemed wiser. But his most interesting ex- 
hibitions were before his own people as a popular orator. It 
was there that his commanding person, his rich flowing lan- 
guage, his clarion voice, his graceful gesticulation & his genial 
humor, made him almost irresistible. No one ever tired listen- 
ing to him. He never let himself down; was never afraid of 
overshooting his audience. He told me he thought that a great 
mistake in public speakers, - that most men thought they must 
get down to what they supposed was the level of popular com- 
prehension. And, hence, the people, who were more inteligent 
than was supposed, tired of their simplicity. For himself, he al- 
ways used the best language which he could command, & al- 
ways found it appreciated. 

Old men have often told me of the campaign for congress 
between your father & Rev. Mr. Crudop. 7 They were then 
young & greatly gifted as popular orators. They would often 
weep themselves, & would oftener make their audience weep 
& laugh by turns. Your father speaking of the same campaign, 
told me that Mr. Crudop was the most formidable man he ever 
met before the people. He told me he thought a shower of rain 
saved his election. Mr. Crudop would speak with him every 
day, & preach on Sunday; & made more votes by his sermons 
than by his speeches. The Sunday before the election, he was 
to preach in a populous neighbourhood, & a shower of rain pre- 
vented him. Judge Mangum's majority, I think, was only about 

7 See above, I, 193-197. 

The Mangum Papers 435 

thirty seven, & he said he was satisfied that if Mr. Crudop had 
preached that sermon he would have beaten him. 

At one time he resigned his seat in the Senate of the U. S. 
under some instructions of the Legislature. 8 And he came home 
& offered for a seat in the Legislature. I heard his first speech 
before his people, in the Court House at Hillsboro. He walked 
up on the Court-Bench, the finest looking man I ever saw. He 
was so impressed that he could scarcely articulate. The crowd 
felt all that he felt. And when he enunciated, "My F-el-1-o-w- 
C-i-t-z-e-n-s-! " every word, sylable & letter, were so emphasised 
that, if there was a dry eye in the house it was certainly not 
mine. The whole speech was a splendid display, & a matchless 
defence of his political course. 

The last speech I ever heard him make, was in the Fall of 
1852, at the Scott & Graham barbecue, at Hillsboro. It was an 
excellent speech, but, as an oratoriacl display, was not equal 
to what I had heard from him, on other occasions. He had lost 
his teeth, & his articulation was indistinct. On the same oc- 
casion, I made a little speech myself, which, with his accustomed 
kindness, he greatly praised; & he made a bargain with me, to 
take a carriage & canvass the state, & carry it for Scott & Gra- 
ham, by 20,000 majority! But we did not canvass, & Scott lost 
the State, - which, probably, would have been the result if we 
had canvassed ever so much. 

His style may be described as grand & figurative I remem- 
ber reading one of his speeches when I was a boy, in which he 
spoke of Mr. Clay as follows : 

"Sir, I had rather occupy the position of that man than to 
grasp the Sceptre & sway it over the heads of millions whether 
of slaves or free men; official station, & all the ensigns & trapp- 
ings of office, fall into utter insignificance, when compared with 
the commanding position from which the eye may range the 
future, & look into the most distant period of posterity secure 
of its approbation & applause." 

And again, when speaking of the nulification troubles he 

"Sir, if it were possible for me to coin my heart into gold, & 
it were lawful in the sight of high Heaven, I would pray God 
to give me firmness to do it, that I might give it to save my 
country from the fearful, the dreadful shock, which I verily 

8 See above, II, 474, 479-480. 

436 State Department of Archives and History 

believe impends." I have not seen these remarks in, probably, 
thirty years, & I do not know that the speeches containing 
them are preserved. But the extracts serve to show his style, 
& his devotion to his friend, & to his country. 

And now, my Cousin Pattie, the only excuse I can offer for 
this dull scrawl, is that I know the subject is always interest- 
ing to you, & it will reach you about the Christmas hollidays 
when you will be idle. If you ever allow me to write to you 
again I will be more reasonable. Indeed you must allow some- 
thing to the garulousness of age & experience. Your pleasures 
are the garden, the flowers, pleasant reading, agreeable conver- 
sation, the knitting, the sewing, the little household cares, the 
school, the church, the closet. These are enough. But we, with 
natures almost as soft as woman's, have to be vexed with the 
strife for professional emoluments & honors; & if they come, 
what are they? - Or, in the political arena, for position & praise, 
- &, if they come, what are they? Or, to battle with all the 
storms of life; & if successful, what is gained? Nothing but to 
fight the battles over again with pen or speech, to some weary 
listener, or to be remembered by some friend when we are gone. 
Thus I remember your excellent father, & offer to his affec- 
tionate daughter this imperfect tribute to his vitues 

Remember me affectionately to cousin Mary, & to her, who 
is always spoken of in our own family as the gentlest of 
women, your mother. Receive also for yourself & them, as- 
surances of the most affectionate considerations of your cousins, 
my wife & daughter. And allow me to subscribe myself most 
respectfully & affectionately 

Your friend 

E. G. Reade 

Miss Pattie P. Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 437 


Newspaper Clipping. 1 

WILEY P. MANGUM. - We copy the following from the 
Raleigh Christian Advocate. That paper says: 

"We believe the following incident which we learn from a 
friend and relation of the late distinguished Wiley P. Mangum, 
has never appeared in print. It is said that the most triumphant 
effort ever made by that honored North Carolinian, in the U. S. 
Senate, was on the last evening of a session, just before the ad- 
journment of the Senate. He was assailed by John C. Calhoun 
and when he arose to reply, it was in a speech whose power, 
burning eloquence and grandeur had never been surpassed in 
that body. The reporters were utterly incapable to follow him 
in his rapidity of thought and fiery eloquence, and the speech 
was therefore never published. The Senate adjourned, the mem- 
bers hurried to their homes and Daniel Webster, as soon as he 
arrived at home, wrote a note of congratulation to Mr. Mangum, 
in which he said "Never was man more unjustly assailed; never 
did man more triumphantly repel an assault." 2 


A. W. Mangum to Martha P. Mangum. 

University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. May 4th, 1877 

Dear Cousin Pat: 

Expecting to visit Flat River, I delayed writing. Now duty 
makes it doubtful as to my opportunity to come very soon; & 
our Commencement is near. I have told the candidates for 
graduation that you offer the Willie P. Mangum Prize for 

^his newspaper clipping was taken from the Raleigh Sentinel, March 11, 1873. 
2 See below, 452. 

438 State Department of Archives and History 

Oratory. 1 The amt. requisite will be from $5 to $10. You can 
decide on what you will give - whether a book or a badge or 
medal. Can you decide at once & have it ready? We are moving 
pleasantly here, this session. 

I suggest that you designate some personal friend of your 
honored Father, to present the prize. Judge Battle or Mr. Cam- 
eron might suit. Of books, something like "American Elo- 
quence" - or "Duyckinck's American Literature" would be ap- 
propriate. Answer immediately, so the announcement may go 
in the Catalogue. 

I have just heard from Lucie, - & feel very sad at her con- 
tinued ill health. I wish you could be so kind as to visit her 
occasionally; as your visits, however short, would be so cheer- 
ing to her. I rejoice that my Session's work is nearly over. I 
have no other recitiations & only have to work with the speeches 
& drill the speakers. 

I may yet get time to make a short visit before Commence- 

Love to Cousin Mary. We hope to see you both at Com- 
mencement. Isn't it fine to have a 3-months vacation? 

I look to you & Wm. Lunsford to see that Flat River & 
Dial's Creek are duly stocked with fish during this excitement 
on the subject. I have in mind the plan of a book on Elocution, 
to contain almost exclusively Southern Speeches & Poetry. I 
want North Carolina largely represented in it. I should want 
some extracts from Cousin Willie's speeches. May speak about 
it when I see you. 

Laura sends love. 
A. W. Mangum. 

E. G. Reade 2 to Martha & Mary Mangum. 

Raleigh, June 2d 1877 
Dear Cousin Pattie & Mary : 

In the New York Observer of 31st May - one of the best 
family papers I know of - I find an incident relating to your 

^-Photographs of the medal are reproduced in this volume. The medal was established at the 
suggestion of Dr. Kemp Battle, President of the University. It was first awarded in 1877. Battle, 
Hist, of U. N. C, II. 133 The Laura referred to at the end of the letter was A. W. Mangum's 
wife and sister of Senator Lee S. Overman. 

2 See above, 43 2 n. 

Mahogany secretary of Willie Person Mangum, with brass candlesticks, glass paper-weights, seal, 
butter mould, and Aesop in Latin. The originals are in the possession of Miss Sallie Preston 

Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

The Mangum Papers 439 

honored father, which I am sure you will appreciate. Lest you 
may not meet with it elsewhere, I enclose it to you. 3 Your 
father was a friend of my youth - as indeed he was of all youths - 
& I cherish his memory like as if I had been his child. Imagine 
those venerable gentlemen sitting each other up nearly all 
night, each supposing the other to be his obtrusive guest! I 
know how your father enjoyed it: I never knew Mr. Upham. 

Dear Cousins, I have not seen you in so long a time, & am so 
nearly a stranger, that I am almost afraid to venture on this 
familiarity; but you were always so dear to my people, & were 
so much in their thoughts & words of praise, that you have 
never seemed to be strangers. And I have often told my good 
wife, that now is, all about you. And if you had been nearer 
road, we would have called to see you. We went to Mt. Tizzah 
some weeks ago, & left Mrs. Reade there - as I jocularly tell 
her friends - on the topmost bough of a cherry tree. Sister 
Eliza told me they would send for you. I hope they will. They 
praise you so much that I told them I wanted them to measure 
& see which is the best, you or Mrs. Reade. 

With warm wishes for your happiness & welfares I am, dear 

Your sincere friend 
E. G. Reade. 


Kemp P. Battle 1 to Martha and Mary Mangum 

University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, Jan'y 12, 1884 

Misses Mangum. 

The enclosed 2 will explain our plan of finishing our Me- 
morial Hall and commemorating the great men of the University. 
Among these your distinguished father should have a place 
by the side of his colaborers, Gov. Graham, Judge Ruffin, &c. 

^his is a brief newspaper clipping relating that while Mangum was president of the Senate 
and staying in the National Hotel he went to the room of Senator Upham, of Vermont, and 
thinking it his own room awaited the departure of Upham. After he learned his mistake he left. 
The clipping is in the Mangum Papers, Duke University, Durham, N. C. 

1 The president of the University at this time. 

^he enclosure was not found. 

440 State Department of Archives and History 

Your brother, Preston, who so nobly gave his life for the 
Confederate cause, at the call of our State, should be by his 

The Hall is about two thirds finished. We estimate that 
$125 should be paid by the families of such persons selected, 
in order to complete the building and place the slab, of marble 
at least 3 ft by 2. 

If you and your sister will pay $150* I will guaranty the 
erection of both tablets, or if you prefer, both names can be 
placed on one at cost of $125. 

The money will be needed by 1st of March. 

Mr. P. C. Cameron is Chairman of the Building Committee. 
He & Mrs. Mordecai have contributed for tablets for Judge 
Cameron, Richard Bennehan & Thos. D. Bennehan. 

You can enquire for them if desired, of him or of Gov, Jarvis 
or Rev. Dr. Mangum. 

An early answer is requested. 

Very truly 

Kemp P. Battle 

*I make this special offer because your brother fell in the 


Josiah Turner to Martha P. Mangum. 

99 Oaks Near Hillsboro 
November 6th, 1894. 

My dear Miss Pattie 

I am told that Professor Wicks 1 will write the life of your 
Father and I prefer that you should do so. 

Tom Jeffersons grand daughter with assistance wrote a 
charming life of her grand Father, and there is no reason why 
with the assistance of Professor Wicks, you should not eclipse 

x He refers to Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, who married Mangum's granddaughter, Sallie (Mangum) 
Leach, and who before his death in 1893 had done much research on a life of Mangum. 

The Mangum Papers 441 

the grand daughter of Jefferson. The tendency will be to per- 
petuate the name and fame of Mangum. 

I was exceedingly anxious that you or your Sister should 
marry especially after the male issue of the family was ex- 
tinct - but I was too modest to tell you so. I will be on flat 
River soon to get your permission that I may speak to Pro- 
fessor Wicks to let him know my Preference for you to be the 
Recording angel, and that I want his assistance of which no 
body is to know except, we three- Grant employed and paid 
$10,000 for assistance - the money paid by his son after the 
death of his Father. 

It was said old Dr. Johnston of Dictionary fame, used to write 
sermons for pay, for the clergy of his day - and defended both 
the clergy and himself in this particular. 

I shall be glad at your ealiest convenience to know your 
views on the subject before I speak to professor Wicks which 
I will do in a few days. And now as Gresham the great Secre- 
tary of State kissed the hand of the Infanta, and as all Spanish 
gallants would write, I kiss your hand, and say Adieu; signing 
myself as ever Your humble Servant and Sincere friend, 

Josiah Turner. 


M. Dillard 1 to Charity Cain 2 

[1819] 3 
My dear Charity 

It is true, as Patsy observes, I promised Mrs. Sutherland to 
go to your fathers last week, which I have been prevented 
from doing by Mr cains loaning his gig to my Uncle William to 
carry him to Rockingham; and I have not been able to procure 
another mode of conveyance. However if that had been afforded 
the weather and a severe cold I still am suffering under would 
have prevented me. 

If every exertion I can make will enable me to be with 
you Tuesday or Wednesday I will certainly give myself the 

x He was postmaster of Dillardsville in Orange County in 1823. Mclver, N. C. Register, 70. 
^he original is in the possession of Miss Preston Weeks, Washington, D. C. 
apparently this letter was written just before Mangum's marriage in 1819. 

442 State Department of Archives and History 

pleasure of being with you. Should I not be present to con- 
gratulate you on the acquisition of a new happiness and I trust 
a felicity which will end or abate but with your life, receive 
now a wish as sincere as friendship can dictate that you may 
enjoy all of Happiness that has ever been bestowed on or en- 
joyed by any one of the frail daughters of Eve. 

Present me affectionately to your father, Mother 

Your Sincere friend 
M. Dillard 
[Addressed : ] 

Miss Charity Cain 
Pleasant Grove 

[C. 1823] 

Willie P. Mangum's Statement on a Controversy between 

Cameron and Royster 

Having understood in the Town of Hillsbor . that Mr. Her- 
man Royster denies the correctness of a statement of facts 
made by Duncan Cameron Esq r . in relation to a pecuniary trans- 
action that has taken place between them, and having expressed 
my surprise that Mr Royster should deny those facts in toto, 
Mr. Cameron has requested me to state what I know of the 
facts as coming from the mouth of Mr. Royster himself. — This 
I do from a love of truth and justice, and without the single 
view of interfering in the contest between Doct. Montgomery 
& Mr Cameron, which interference I disclaim — at May Court of 
Granville in the week after the first Monday of May last. Mr. 
Royster was introduced to me; & employed me to interpleas 
for him in a suit then pending in Person County Court, where- 
in Mr. Cameron was plaintiff — Mr. Royster complained of Mr. 
Cameron, and made in substance this statement, to wit. That 
Mr. Cameron held a bond on him originally made payable to 
Mr. Evans which fell due on 25th Dec r . 1822 or thereabouts — 
That he Royster went to see Mr Cameron soon after the bond 
became due & told him that he had been disappointed in the 
collection of money & had not the means of paying the debt at 
that time, and offered to Mr Cameron other bonds in lieu of 

The Mangum Papers 443 

his own. This offer Mr Cameron declined accepting, and in- 
formed Royster that he had instructions to sue him in the event 
the debt was not discharged punctually, and stated further that 
he must sue him to the next Person Court which was to be held 
in Feby. 1823. That after a good deal of conversation in which 
Mr. Royster stated his almost certain prospects of collecting 
the money. It was agreed that Mr. Cameron should not sue 
him to Feby Court of Person on the 2nd Monday of Feby, 
but that he would let the bond rest until Orange County 
Court when he Mr. Royster agreed he would either pay 
the money or confess a judgt. upon condition that he could 
at Granville obtain Judgment against his debtors — That the 
matter accordingly rested until Orange Court when as Mr. Roy- 
ster stated he came to Hillsbor . and told Mr. Cameron that 
he had been unfortunate in collecting money and in obtaining 
Judgt. & that he had not the means of complying with his en- 
gagements answerable to the expectations that Mr. Cameron 
might reasonably entertain. — 

Mr. Cameron then told him that he expected him according 
to his promise & engagement to confess a Judgt. to which he 
Royster replied that he did not understand that he was to con- 
fess a Judgt. against his debtors. That some words of warmth 
ensued, and that he Royster finally told Mr. Cameron that he 
might sue as soon as he pleased for that he was as independant 
and as able to meet his engagements as anybody. — 

Upon the whole I feel certain because I remember Mr. 
Royster's statement distinctly that there exists no material 
difference between Roysters statement to me & Camerons hand- 
bill except this to wit. Cameron insists that as he violated his 
instructions to oblige Mr. Royster . . . [torn] upon the express 
condition that Mr. Royster should either pay the money at Hills- 
boro Court, or confess a Judgt. Whereas Royster stated that he 
was to pay the money at that time or confess a Judgt upon con- 
dition he could obtain Judgt. before that time against his 
debtors — 

Mr. Royster had two or three conversations with me, & 
employed me as his lawyer — I entered his pleas at May Court 
of Person and the suit remains undetermined — 

444 State Department of Archives and History 

This statement I make at the request of Mr. Cameron, as I 
should likewise do for Doctr Montgomery under similar cir- 

Willie P. Mangum 

Willie P. Mangum to F. P. Blair 

[Before 1833] 4 

Mr. Blair 

Will you have the daily Globe sent to my lodgings at M rs . 
Arguilles & oblige 


Willie P. Mangum 
F. P. Blair Esq r 
Ed. of Globe 


to Willie P. Mangum 1 


Your Committee in pursuance of the reference made to 
them of the various resolutions affirming the expediency of a 
participation on the part of the State in such projects of intern- 
al improvement as her citizens may patronize by a subscription 
of a reasonable & suitable sum beg leave to Report. 

That they have bestowed upon this important subject such 
consideration as the very short period allowed them by the 
convention, would admit. — The general course of reflexion 
pertaining to this grave question has been familiarized to them 
& it is believed to the public mind generally throughout the 
State. — Your Committee have long entertained a thorough 

4 This note was probably written before Mangum broke with Jackson in 1833. 

5 I am unable to identify the handwriting or the date. The report, so far as I have been able 
to determine, was not published. It was probably the report of a local meeting. The internal 
evidence seems to indicate that it was made about 1834 or 1835. That is a period in which 
there was great interest in North Carolina on internal improvements. The report was sent to 
Mangum while he was Senator. He was Senator from 1830 to 1836 and from 1840 to 1853. 
Since there is no mention of railroads it probably was written in his term 1830-1836. 

The Mangum Papers 445 

conviction that any system of internal improvement commen- 
surate with the resources of the State, & honorable to the 
character of our citizens for intelligence & enterprize, can be 
effected without a general cooperation of all the parts & a 
liberal system of legislation. — They do not feel it necessary 
nor have they the time to vindicate this opinion by an elaborate 
course of seasoning. — But they deem it more useful to place 
sound headed practical men to refer to the past history of the 
State. — The close of the revolution found us a people essentially 
agricultural, in possession of a territory of great fertility, 
blessed with the finest climate & teeming with the richest fruits 
of the earth, whose broad virgin surface was but barely dotted 
by the cultivation of man; but in a state of entire destitution 
of all the facilities of transporting to market the fruits of our 
industry: & yet after the lapse of more than half a century of 
industrious & persevering toil, 6 not a solitary work of public 
utility has been constructed by individual contribution & indi- 
vidual effort. — We have seen our beloved mother land gradually 
stript of its beauty & exhausted of its fertility, scarred & de- 
formed by injudicious cultivation, & yet by a ruinous loss of 
time property & expenditure in transporting our surplus prod- 
ucts to market but little wealth has been realized from all these 
labours. While our Country was new & our choice lands were 
first opening for cultivation, many large estates under all these 
disadvantages were realized. — But the fertility of our soil 
overtaxed as it was, waned apace, & much of the wealth & 
enterprize of the State, went to swell that tide of emegration 
that for the last thirty years has set beyond the alleghanies to 
newer countries & in more favored commercial positions. 

It is to be apprehended that under the inauspicious influence 
of these causes, a production necessarily diminished by the 
gradual deterioration of our lands, is yet further diminished by 
the languor — indeed the lethargy consequent upon a long 
series of toil but partially & insufficiently rewarded. — 

Our condition for more than fifty years, has gradually be- 
come worse & worse, & mainly if not almost entirely on account 
of the want of commercial facilities — & yet no effort has been 
made by individuals, to retard this downward course either 
honorable to ourselves, or worthy of commemoration. — Your 
Committee however will refer to one case of great & obvious 

6 This is a bit of evidence that the paper was prepared after 1833. 

446 State Department of Archives and History 

interest to one of the wealthiest portions of the State — the 
charter granted to the dismal swamp canal Company. — that 
was a case of individual effort unaided by the legislative patron- 
age as will be seen by reference to the act of incorporation 
passed in the year 1790. — It commenced with flattering pros- 
pects on account of its vicinity to the flourishing borough of 
Norfolk, & the anticipated patronage of many wealthy men 
both in Virginia & this State. It is curious to contemplate with 
what ingenious care the honest symplicity of the times contrived 
to scale, upon equitable principles, an excessive & unnecessarily 
large subscription list — Some of your Comm: have reason to 
know that that act of incorporation has ever been regarded by 
some of the leading & most influential public men of the State 
as the perfect beau ideal of all the schemes of internal improve- 
ment. — But mark the result — It barely struggled on for many 
years in state of dubious existence, utterly unprofitable to the 
corporation, useless to the public and as sluggish as the dismal 
pools of its own swamp. It is within the last eight or nine years 
only that the work moved onward giving promise of public 
utility. And then only under the influence of the liberal in 
truth the spendid patronage of the general government cooper- 
ating with the efforts of individuals. Looking to this case, with 
all its accompaniments & favoring circumstances — its location 
in two states, in a position highly favorable for commerce, in 
the neighbourhood of lands unsurpassed in fertility, its forests 
presenting inexhaustible resources in lumber & naval stores, 
in the vicinity of towns, wealthy, flourishing & highly commer- 
cial, patronized as it was — & yet failing of success. It should 
lead to our sanguine anticipations of commanding success by 
unaided individual effort in less favorable positions & under 
less favorable circumstances a powerful & decisive admonition. 
— Your Committee reiterate their solemn conviction that no 
work of internal improvement in any portion of the State of 
much magnitude & public utility can be begun, prosecuted & 
Completed by the unaided individual efforts of our Citizens. — 
The feeble & debilitated & debilitating efforts that have been 
hitherto made in the State have proved abortive, damped the 
patriotic ardor of our Citizens and thrown back for many years, 
this great interesting & vital cause. — Whether this general & 
disastrous failure resulted from want of science, from want of 
concentration of means & effort upon some single work, or 

The Mangum Papers 447 

from the entrinsic difficulty or impracticability of rendering 
subservient to the purposes of commerce our southern Rivers 
may now be an enquiry both painful & unprofitable. — The 
wonderful discoveries in physicks & mechanical science achieved 
within the last thirty years have pushed very far beyond the 
ancient limits the dominion of mind over matter, & the new 
lights that are constantly bursting on the world, give a fair 
promise that at no distant day, the secrets of the riches of the 
great unconquered domain of inanimate nature may be sub- 
jected to the control & absolute dominion of human intelligence 
& phylosophy — This glorious accession of light finds us in a 
geographical position not the most favorable to homogeneous 
ness & concentration of effort, scattered, dispirited wanting in 
union, wanting in enterprize, & destitute it is to be feared, in that 
high & patriotic public spirit which is an essential element in 
effectuating any great public work worthy of our position, 
worthy of ourselves & not discreditable to the spirit of the 
times. In this State of things the appeal comes direct to our 
interests to our love of Country, to our sympathy in all that 
touches the dignity, the honor, the character of the land of our 
birth, & the home of our affections, to make one great, united 
& manly effort to bring up our Country to that high position 
of prosperity & honor & happiness which is unquestionably 
attainable. — That native son of North Carolina is unworthy 
of the [illegible] of his sires whose heart is not large enough & 
whose affections are not broad enough, sinking the consideration 
of all merely partial & selfish interests in this high & generous 
strife to reach to every square inch of his native state, and to 
feel that this kindle in this generous strife every part of it as 
"My own my native land" 

The people of North Carolina hold their own destiny in their 
own hands. — It is but for them to will it & this once lovely & 
prosperous land will again smile in its loveliness & spread its 
sunny bosom to the eyes of its children covered with abundance. 
— Stimulate the activity & industry of our Citizens by Confer- 
ing on them the legitimate rewards of industry & a renovation 
of our condition will be witnessed in every direction — It will 
be seen on the face of the country in the multiplied comforts 
of social life, in the general diffusion of education, and in the 
improvement & elevation of our intellectual & moral condition. 
— Where is the Citizen who will not make some sacrifice & 

448 State Department of Archives and History 

encounter much toil to effectuate these objects? It is believed 
there are but few — There may be laggards through inadvert- 
ence, or from want of Confidence in the practicability of a 
specific object, but it is believed there are but very few who 
would slight & voluntarily cast away the rich bounties of provi- 
dence that are spread before them. — It is for the people of the 
No. Caro. but to will it, and they may reach forth their hands 
and pluck plenty & abundance — It is for the people to excuse 
themselves from culpable apathy or indifference, to acquire the 
information within 7 

[Addressed:] Honble 
Willie P Mangum 

Senator in Congress 
Washington City 

[Postmark:] Fayetteville Dec [?] 

Henry Clay to Willie P. Mangum 8 

Mrs Dunn's 
[1834-1835] 9 
Dear Sir 

It will not be necessary for you to attend the Committee of 
Foreign Relations this morning, as there will be no meeting of 
it. I will see you on the subject at the Senate. 

Yr's faithf y 
H Clay 

Wednesday morning 

Robert C. Wetmore 10 to Willie P. Mangum. 

New York Oct. 31. [1840] n 
Dr. Sir. 

Will you allow me to send for your personal papers con- 
taining an account — a shadow — of the Whig Procession in 

7 The report is nor complete. 

sThe original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. 
"Probably this note was written in 1834 or 1835. Mangum and Clay were both members 
of the Committee on Foreign Relations in those years. 

10 He was naval agent for the port of New York under Harrison. Niles' Register, LX, 66. 
11 This was probably 1840. 

The Mangum Papers 449 

our city yesterday. — Those who saw it, almost doubted the 
evidence of their eyes, those at a distance who hear of it, can 
never appreciate or comprehend it. However full the paper 
accounts may appear, — they convey no sort of idea of what 
did take place — of the mighty mass of men who flooded the 
Street, & Housetops upon the way. 

Our city & state is one mighty political camp — armed & 
ready for the conflict. We are sure of victory 

With great respect 
Honorable Robt. C. Wetmore. 

Wilie Mangum 
&c &c 

Wm. C. Preston to Willie P. Mangum 

[1841] 12 
My dear Mangum 

I am sick P [lease] get in a hack and come down in the 
course of the day. for tho' too unwell to go out I am well 
enough to hear you talk 


Wm C. Preston 
Saturday Morning 

[Addressed:] Honble W P. Mangum 
Mrs. Clements 
Capitol Hill 

P. C. Cameron to Willie P. Mangum 

Orange Co. Friday Night. 

[1839-1841] 13 
My dear Sir. 

Mr. Bennehan is absent from Home, having gone to Raleigh 
on Sunday last — and in obedience to the instructions of your 
servant, I have opened your letter to Mr. Bennehan — 

"Mangum lived at Mrs. Clements in 1841-1842. Preston and Mangum were in Congress 
together only for the years 1833-1836 and 1841-1842. In 1833-1836 Mangum did not stay 
at Mrs. Clements. 

13 Probably the date of this was 1841. It was before 1847, because Bennehan died in that 
year. There is reference to Dr. White. This probably refers to Dr. Willie N. White, who died 
in 1841. Mangum was not in Congress from 1837 to 1841. 

450 State Department of Archives and History 

I feel great sympathy, for our neighbor Dr. White, and 
cheerfully, contribute any aid, in my power to advance his 
wishes — I have not a Hundred Dollars in cash by me — and 
the best that I can do, is to enclose a draft on Messrs. A. Kenan 
and Brother for $250 dolls, the amount you say now needed — 
For this you will please obtain a note or bond and hand it to 
me when next you see me — 

Our State Banks are not now discounting; but I have no 
doubt, that had Dr. White made known his wants in the proper 
qua[r]ter at Raleigh a discount would have been made to meet 
such a necessity. 

I shall be glad to see you when you feel disposed to visit 
us — Our friend Cain told me, a few days ago that he should 
visit you, in the week, and if "wind and weather permitted" 
he would extend his ride, to Fairntosh — what say you, to 
join him, in the jaunt — 

I have waited with some impatience for an order from the 
P: Off: Dept: requiring the contractor on the mail rout from 
Hillsboro to Oxford to deliver me the mail at my residence — 
The contractor will not deliver me the mail here: it is out of 
the question for me to attend for 2 days in the week at Stagville 
— hence we are without any mail — and must be so unless you 
have or will obtain relief for me. 

I beg your attention to this matter. 

Petersburg will be a good point for the Dr. to make his money 
arrangements — he should purchase a bill on Philadelphia or 
if he is to go as far north as New York, on that city — Virginia 
notes will pay his way to Philadelphia. 

Request the Dr. to present my letter to Messrs Kenan and 
brother before he offers his draft — he may find these gentle- 
men of service to him in his travel and money matters. 

your friend. 
P. C. Cameron 

Hon. W. P. Mangum. 
Orange Co. 

The Mangum Papers 


Call For a Whig Caucus 1 * 



The Whig Senators are requested to meet at the Vice Presi- 
dents room on Saturday next at 5 oclock P.M. to consult in 
reference to various matters. 

To Wit 

Mr. Evans 

Mr. Preston 

Smith ( Indiana ) 


W. 5. Archer to Willie P. Mangum 


[December, 1841] 
Dear Mangum 

Enquire of Mr. Clemens and let me know what I will have 
to pay for the lower Room near the street. I have a servant 
but his use as one of the waiters at the Table will be more than 
equivalent to his Board. 

"See above. Ill, 230n. 

15 Mangum was staying at Mrs. Clements in 1841. Preston and Mangum were together in 
Congress only for the years 1833-1836 and 1841-1842. 

452 State Department of Archives and History 

Preston and myself want to decide by the morning on the 
several cases which are before us for selection which is the 
reason I make the enquiry of a Sunday. 

Yrs Very Truly 
W. S. Archer. 
Mr. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Mr. Mangum 

Mr. Clemens. 
W. S. Archer 

Daniel Webster to Willie P. Mangum 

[1841] 16 
My Dear Sir 

No man could be more unjustly attacked — no man could 
repel an attack better — 
God bless you — 

Dan l Webster 

N. P. Tallmadge to Willie P. Mangum 

Sunday Morning. 
[1841 or 1842] 17 
Dear Sir. 

I beg leave to introduce to you Arthur Bronson Esqr. of 
New York — Mr. B. is one of our most respectable and intelli- 
gent citizens, and has devoted much time to financial subjects — 
He wishes to submit some views to you as to a Fiscal Agent of 

16 This probably refers to Mangum's defense against Calhoun's attack in 1844. See above, 
III, 113 and V, 437. 

17 Since the conflict over the Bank was at its height in 1841-1842, it seems reasonable to 
assume that this letter was written in this period. The Longworth's New York Directory, 1844 
p. 50, lists Arthur Bronson as having a business at 38 Wall Street. It does not indicate the 
nature of his business. 

The Mangum Papers 453 

the Government — You will be interested in his views, and, I 
doubt not, will give them due consideration — 

Very truly yours 
N. P. Tallmadge. 
Hon. Mr. Mangum. 

[Addressed : ] 

Hon. Mr. Mangum 
Mr. Bronson. 

Doggerel About Willie P. Mangum 

June 1, [1842] 18 

On reading an article in the Intelligencer of this morning 
rebuking a paltry insinuation of a calumniator 

By the name of T. Quid. 
A long drawn sigh — "Zounds! Mangum rules!" 
Come, Somnus, come, our weary eyelids close, 
And gently lull us to a sweet repose; 
Our sheet has lied — we oft have bang'd 'em 
And to reward us — we have Mangum! 
In troublous times amid our evil, 
Pray are we turned o'er to the d — 1? 

[Postmarked] Philadelphia, Jun. 1. [1842.] 

Henry Clay's Campaign Card of 1844 19 


I have wished the good opinion of the world but I defy the 
most malignant of my enemies to show that I have attempted 
to gain it by any low or graveling acts by any mean or un- 
worthy sacrifice by the violation of any of the obligations of the 
honor or by a breach of any of the duties which I owed to my 

18 This probably refers to Mangum's selection as president pro tempore of the Senate, May 
31. 1842. 

19 The original is in the possession of Mangum Turner, Winston-Salem, N. C. This card 
has a picture of Clay at the top and u